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This accessible new text introduces the theoretical concepts and tools essential for graduate-level courses on the physics of materials in condensed matter physics, physical chemistry, materials science and engineering, and chemical engineering. Topics covered range from fundamentals such as crystal periodicity and symmetry, and derivation of single-particle equations, to modern additions including graphene, two-dimensional solids, carbon nanotubes, topological states, and Hall physics. Advanced topics such as phonon interactions with phonons, photons and electrons, and magnetism, are presented in an accessible way, and a set of appendices reviewing crucial fundamental physics and mathematical tools makes this text suitable for students from a range of backgrounds. Students will benefit from the emphasis on translating theory into practice, with worked examples explaining experimental observations, applications illustrating how theoretical concepts can be applied to real research problems, and 242 informative full color illustrations. End-of chapter exercises are included for homework and self-study, with solutions and lecture slides for instructors available online.
Modern Condensed Matter Physics brings together the most important advances in the field of recent decades. It provides instructors teaching graduate-level condensed matter courses with a comprehensive and in-depth textbook that will prepare graduate students for research or further study as well as reading more advanced and specialized books and research literature in the field. This textbook covers the basics of crystalline solids as well as analogous optical lattices and photonic crystals, while discussing cutting-edge topics such as disordered systems, mesoscopic systems, many-body systems, quantum magnetism, Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum entanglement, and superconducting quantum bits. Students are provided with the appropriate mathematical background to understand the topological concepts that have been permeating the field, together with numerous physical examples ranging from the fractional quantum Hall effect to topological insulators, the toric code, and majorana fermions. Exercises, commentary boxes, and appendices afford guidance and feedback for beginners and experts alike.
An overview of the optical effects in solids, addressing the physics of various materials and their response to electromagnetic radiation. The discussion includes metals, semiconductors, superconductors, and insulators. The book begins by introducing the dielectric function into Maxwell's macroscopic equations and finding their plane-wave solution. The physics governing the dielectric function of various materials is then covered, both classically and using basic quantum mechanics. Advanced topics covered include interacting electrons, the anomalous skin effect, anisotropy, magneto-optics, and inhomogeneous materials. Each subject begins with a connection to the basic physics of the particular solid, after which the measurable optical quantities are derived. It allows the reader to connect measurements (reflectance, optical conductivity and dielectric function) with the underlying physics of solids. Methods of analysing experimental data are addressed, making this an ideal resource for students and researchers interested in solid state physics, optics, and materials science.
Understand the fundamental concepts, theoretical background, major experimental observations, and device applications of graphene photonics with this self-contained text. Systematically and rigorously developing each concept and theoretical model from the ground up, it guides readers through the major topics, from basic properties and band structure to electronic, optical, optoelectronic, and nonlinear optical properties, and plasmonics and photonic devices. The connections between theory, modeling, experiment, and device concepts are demonstrated throughout, and every optical process is analyzed through formal electromagnetic analysis. Suitable for both self-study and a one-semester or one-quarter course, this is the ideal text for graduate students and researchers in photonics, optoelectronics, nanoscience and nanotechnology, and optical and solid-state physics, who are working in this rapidly developing field.
This book is aimed at advanced undergraduates, graduate students and other researchers who possess an introductory background in materials physics and/or chemistry, and an interest in the physical and chemical properties of novel materials, especially transition metal oxides. New materials often exhibit novel phenomena of great fundamental and technological importance. Contributing authors review the structural, physical and chemical properties of notable 4d- and 5d-transition metal oxides discovered over the last 10 years. These materials exhibit extraordinary physical properties that differ significantly from those of the heavily studied 3d-transition metal oxides, mainly due to the relatively strong influence of the spin- orbit interaction and orbital order in 4d- and 5d materials. The immense growth in publications addressing the physical properties of these novel materials underlines the need to document recent advances and the current state of this field. This book includes overviews of the current experimental situation concerning these materials.
The ideal companion in condensed matter physics - now in new and
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of solid state physics for undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, engineering, and materials science.
Research into the stability of matter has been one of the most successful chapters in mathematical physics, and is a prime example of how modern mathematics can be applied to problems in physics. A unique account of the subject, this book provides a complete, self-contained description of research on the stability of matter problem. It introduces the necessary quantum mechanics to mathematicians, and aspects of functional analysis to physicists. The topics covered include electrodynamics of classical and quantized fields, Lieb-Thirring and other inequalities in spectral theory, inequalities in electrostatics, stability of large Coulomb systems, gravitational stability of stars, basics of equilibrium statistical mechanics, and the existence of the thermodynamic limit. The book is an up-to-date account for researchers, and its pedagogical style makes it suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in mathematical physics.
This textbook provides conceptual, procedural, and factual knowledge on solid state and nanostructure physics. It is designed to acquaint readers with key concepts and their connections, to stimulate intuition and curiosity, and to enable the acquisition of competences in general strategies and specific procedures for problem solving and their use in specific applications. To these ends, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted, integrating physics, chemistry, and engineering and reflecting how these disciplines are converging towards common tools and languages in the field. Each chapter discusses essential ideas before the introduction of formalisms and the stepwise addition of complications. Questions on everyday manifestations of the concepts are included, with reasoned linking of ideas from different chapters and sections and further detail in the appendices. The final section of each chapter describes experimental methods and strategies that can be used to probe the phenomena under discussion. Solid state and nanostructure physics is constantly growing as a field of study where the fascinating quantum world emerges and otherwise imaginary things can become real, engineered with increasing creativity and control: from tinier and faster technologies realizing quantum information concepts, to understanding of the fundamental laws of Physics. Elements of Solid State Physics and of Crystalline Nanostructures will offer the reader an enjoyable insight into the complex concepts of solid state physics.
Covering basic physical concepts, experimental methods, and applications, this book is an indispensable text on the fascinating science of magnetism, and an invaluable source of practical reference data. Accessible, authoritative, and assuming undergraduate familiarity with vectors, electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, this textbook is well suited to graduate courses. Emphasis is placed on practical calculations and numerical magnitudes - from nanoscale to astronomical scale - focussing on modern applications, including permanent magnet structures and spin electronic devices. Each self-contained chapter begins with a summary, and ends with exercises and further reading. The book is thoroughly illustrated with over 600 figures to help convey concepts and explain ideas clearly. Easily digestible tables and data sheets provide a wealth of useful information on magnetic properties. The thirty-eight principal magnetic materials, and many more related compounds, are treated in detail.
Long awaited, this textbook fills the gap for convincing concepts to describe amorphous solids. Adopting a unique approach, the author develops a framework that lays the foundations for a theory of amorphousness. He unravels the scientific mysteries surrounding the topic, replacing rather vague notions of amorphous materials as disordered crystalline solids with the well-founded concept of ideal amorphous solids. A classification of amorphous materials into inorganic glasses, organic glasses, glassy metallic alloys, and thin films sets the scene for the development of the model of ideal amorphous solids, based on topology- and statistics-governed rules of three-dimensional sphere packing, which leads to structures with no short, mid or long-range order. This general model is then concretized to the description of specific compounds in the four fundamental classes of amorphous solids, as well as amorphous polyethylene and poly(methyl)methacrylate, emphasizing its versatility and descriptive power. Finally, he includes example applications to indicate the abundance of amorphous materials in modern-day technology, thus illustrating the importance of a better understanding of their structure and properties. Equally ideal as supplementary reading in courses on crystallography, mineralogy, solid state physics, and materials science where amorphous materials have played only a minor role until now.
Providing a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to the theory and applications of slow-neutron scattering, this detailed book equips readers with the fundamental principles of neutron studies, including the background and evolving development of neutron sources, facility design, neutron scattering instrumentation and techniques, and applications in materials phenomena. Drawing on the authors' extensive experience in this field, this text explores the implications of slow-neutron research in greater depth and breadth than ever before in an accessible yet rigorous manner suitable for both students and researchers in the fields of physics, biology, and materials engineering. Through pedagogical examples and in-depth discussion, readers will be able to grasp the full scope of the field of neutron scattering, from theoretical background through to practical, scientific applications.
** THE PERFECT STOCKING FILLER FOR ANY SCIENCE LOVER/SCIENCE NERD/ASPIRING SCIENTIST. ** Part of the new Ladybird Expert series, Bubbles is a clear, surprising and entertaining introduction to the science of bubbles. Bubbles are beautiful, ephemeral, fun, fragile, jolly and slightly unpredictable. We're all familiar with them, but we don't often ask what they actually are. The great scientists of the Western world - Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, Lord Rayleigh and more - studied bubbles seriously. They recognised that they had a lot to say about the nature of the physical world, and they poked, prodded and listened to find out what it was. In the years since, we've learned that this bulbous arrangement of liquid and gas does things that neither the gas or the liquid could do by itself. Written by the celebrated physicist and oceanographer Helen Czerski, Bubbles explores how everything from the way drinks taste to the Earth's temperature are influenced by bubbles. This book has a message: never underestimate a bubble! Written by the leading lights and most outstanding communicators in their fields, the Ladybird Expert books provide clear, accessible and authoritative introductions to subjects drawn from science, history and culture. For an adult readership, the Ladybird Expert series is produced in the same iconic small hardback format pioneered by the original Ladybirds. Each beautifully illustrated book features the first new illustrations produced in the original Ladybird style for nearly forty years.
We have lost one of the giants of the twentieth century physics when Yoichiro Nambu passed away in July, 2015, at the age of 94.Today's Standard Model, though still incomplete in many respects, is the culmination of the most successful theory of the Universe to date, and it is built upon foundations provided by discoveries made by Nambu in the 1960s: the mechanism of spontaneously broken symmetry in Nature (with G Jona-Lasinio) and the hidden new SU(3) symmetry of quarks and gluons (with M-Y Han).In this volume honoring Nambu's memory, World Scientific Publishing presents a unique collection of papers written by his former colleagues, collaborating researchers and former students and associates, not only citing Nambu's great contributions in physics but also many personal and private reminiscences, some never told before. This volume also contains the very last scientific writing by Professor Nambu himself, discussing the development of particle physics.This book is a volume for all who benefited not only from Nambu's contributions toward understanding the Universe but also his warm and kind persona. It is a great addition to the history of contemporary physics.
High-temperature superconductivity has transformed the landscape of solid state science, leading to the discovery of new classes of materials, states of matter, and concepts. However, despite being over a quarter of a century since its discovery, there is still no single accepted theory to explain its origin. This book presents one approach, the strong-coupling or bipolaron theory, which proposes that high-temperature superconductivity originates from competing Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions. The author provides a thorough overview of the theory, describing numerous experimental observations, and giving detailed mathematical derivations of key theoretical findings at an accessible level. Applications of the theory to existing high-temperature superconductors are discussed, as well as possibilities of liquid superconductors and higher critical temperatures. Alternative theories are also examined to provide a balanced and informative perspective. This monograph will appeal to advanced researchers and academics in the fields of condensed matter physics and quantum-field theories.
This first volume in the series on nanocarbons for advanced applications presents the latest achievements in the design, synthesis, characterization, and applications of these materials for electrochemical energy storage. The highly renowned series and volume editor, Xinliang Feng, has put together an internationally acclaimed expert team who covers nanocarbons such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphenes, and porous carbons. The first two parts focus on nanocarbon-based anode and cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, while the third part deals with carbon material-based supercapacitors with various applications in power electronics, automotive engineering and as energy storage elements in portable electric devices. This book will be indispensable for materials scientists, electrochemists, physical chemists, solid state physicists, and those working in the electrotechnical industry.
Filling the gap for comprehensive coverage of the realistic
fundamentals and approaches needed to perform cutting-edge research
on mesoscopic systems, this textbook allows advanced students to
acquire and use the skills at a highly technical,
Pattern formation is a fascinating and challenging aspect in polymer science. This book describes a number of unconventional approaches developed to control the morphology of polymer surfaces and materials, from random or simple patterns to complex structures. Specialists provide an up-to-date and complete overview of each technique in their respective field.
The discovery of a duality between Anti-de Sitter spaces (AdS) and Conformal Field Theories (CFT) has led to major advances in our understanding of quantum field theory and quantum gravity. String theory methods and AdS/CFT correspondence maps provide new ways to think about difficult condensed matter problems. String theory methods based on the AdS/CFT correspondence allow us to transform problems so they have weak interactions and can be solved more easily. They can also help map problems to different descriptions, for instance mapping the description of a fluid using the Navier-Stokes equations to the description of an event horizon of a black hole using Einstein's equations. This textbook covers the applications of string theory methods and the mathematics of AdS/CFT to areas of condensed matter physics. Bridging the gap between string theory and condensed matter, this is a valuable textbook for students and researchers in both fields.
Over the past twenty-five years, mathematical concepts associated with geometric phases have come to occupy a central place in our modern understanding of the physics of electrons in solids. These 'Berry phases' describe the global phase acquired by a quantum state as the Hamiltonian is changed. Beginning at an elementary level, this book provides a pedagogical introduction to the important role of Berry phases and curvatures, and outlines their great influence upon many key properties of electrons in solids, including electric polarization, anomalous Hall conductivity, and the nature of the topological insulating state. It focuses on drawing connections between physical concepts and provides a solid framework for their integration, enabling researchers and students to explore and develop links to related fields. Computational examples and exercises throughout provide an added dimension to the book, giving readers the opportunity to explore the central concepts in a practical and engaging way.
Meeting the need for a work that brings together quantum theory and spectroscopy to convey excitation processes to advanced students and specialists wishing to conduct research and understand the entire field rather than just single aspects. Written by an experienced author and recognized authority in the field, this text covers numerous applications and offers examples taken from different disciplines. As a result, spectroscopists, molecular physicists, physical chemists, and biophysicists will all find this a must-have for their research. Also suitable as supplementary reading in graduate level courses.
A one-stop, concise guide on determining and measuring thin film thickness by optical methods.
This practical book covers the laws of electromagnetic radiation and interaction of light with matter, as well as the theory and practice of thickness measurement, and modern applications. In so doing, it shows the capabilities and opportunities of optical thickness determination and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of measurement devices along with their evaluation methods.
Following an introduction to the topic, Chapter 2 presents the basics of the propagation of light and other electromagnetic radiation in space and matter. The main topic of this book, the determination of the thickness of a layer in a layer stack by measuring the spectral reflectance or transmittance, is treated in the following three chapters. The color of thin layers is discussed in chapter 6. Finally, in chapter 7, the author discusses several industrial applications of the layer thickness measurement, including high-reflection and anti-reflection coatings, photolithographic structuring of semiconductors, silicon on insulator, transparent conductive films, oxides and polymers, thin film photovoltaics, and heavily doped silicon.
Aimed at industrial and academic researchers, engineers, developers and manufacturers involved in all areas of optical layer and thin optical film measurement and metrology, process control, real-time monitoring, and applications.
This fully revised, updated and reorganised third edition provides a thorough introduction to the characterisation techniques used in surface science and nanoscience today. Each chapter brings together and compares the different techniques used to address a particular research question, including how to determine the surface composition, surface structure, surface electronic structure, surface microstructure at different length scales (down to sub-molecular), and the molecular character of adsorbates and their adsorption or reaction properties. Readers will easily understand the relative strengths and limitations of the techniques available to them and, ultimately, will be able to select the most suitable techniques for their own particular research purposes. This is an essential resource for researchers and practitioners performing materials analysis, and for senior undergraduate students looking to gain a clear understanding of the underlying principles and applications of the different characterisation techniques used in the field today.
The first broad and in-depth overview of current research in
attosecond nanophysics, covering the field of active plasmonics via
attosecond science in metals and dielectrics to novel imaging
techniques with the highest spatial and temporal resolution.
This innovative and modular textbook combines classical topics in thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and many-body theory with the latest developments in condensed matter physics research. Written by internationally renowned experts and logically structured to cater for undergraduate and postgraduate students and researchers, it covers the underlying theoretical principles and includes numerous problems and worked examples to put this knowledge into practice. Three main streams provide a framework for the book; beginning with thermodynamics and classical statistical mechanics, including mean field approximation, fluctuations and the renormalization group approach to critical phenomena. The authors then examine quantum statistical mechanics, covering key topics such as normal Fermi and Luttinger liquids, superfluidity and superconductivity. Finally, they explore classical and quantum kinetics, Anderson localization and quantum interference, and disordered Fermi liquids. Unique in providing a bridge between thermodynamics and advanced topics in condensed matter, this textbook is an invaluable resource to all students of physics.
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