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Modern Condensed Matter Physics brings together the most important advances in the field of recent decades. It provides instructors teaching graduate-level condensed matter courses with a comprehensive and in-depth textbook that will prepare graduate students for research or further study as well as reading more advanced and specialized books and research literature in the field. This textbook covers the basics of crystalline solids as well as analogous optical lattices and photonic crystals, while discussing cutting-edge topics such as disordered systems, mesoscopic systems, many-body systems, quantum magnetism, Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum entanglement, and superconducting quantum bits. Students are provided with the appropriate mathematical background to understand the topological concepts that have been permeating the field, together with numerous physical examples ranging from the fractional quantum Hall effect to topological insulators, the toric code, and majorana fermions. Exercises, commentary boxes, and appendices afford guidance and feedback for beginners and experts alike.
An overview of the optical effects in solids, addressing the physics of various materials and their response to electromagnetic radiation. The discussion includes metals, semiconductors, superconductors, and insulators. The book begins by introducing the dielectric function into Maxwell's macroscopic equations and finding their plane-wave solution. The physics governing the dielectric function of various materials is then covered, both classically and using basic quantum mechanics. Advanced topics covered include interacting electrons, the anomalous skin effect, anisotropy, magneto-optics, and inhomogeneous materials. Each subject begins with a connection to the basic physics of the particular solid, after which the measurable optical quantities are derived. It allows the reader to connect measurements (reflectance, optical conductivity and dielectric function) with the underlying physics of solids. Methods of analysing experimental data are addressed, making this an ideal resource for students and researchers interested in solid state physics, optics, and materials science.
One of the first engineering books to cover wavelet analysis, this
classic text describes and illustrates basic theory, with a
detailed explanation of discrete wavelet transforms. It examines
joint probability distributions, ensemble averages, and
correlation, Fourier analysis, spectral density and excitation
response relations for linear systems, more. 1993 edition.
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of solid state physics for undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, engineering, and materials science.
This accessible new text introduces the theoretical concepts and tools essential for graduate-level courses on the physics of materials in condensed matter physics, physical chemistry, materials science and engineering, and chemical engineering. Topics covered range from fundamentals such as crystal periodicity and symmetry, and derivation of single-particle equations, to modern additions including graphene, two-dimensional solids, carbon nanotubes, topological states, and Hall physics. Advanced topics such as phonon interactions with phonons, photons and electrons, and magnetism, are presented in an accessible way, and a set of appendices reviewing crucial fundamental physics and mathematical tools makes this text suitable for students from a range of backgrounds. Students will benefit from the emphasis on translating theory into practice, with worked examples explaining experimental observations, applications illustrating how theoretical concepts can be applied to real research problems, and 242 informative full color illustrations. End-of chapter exercises are included for homework and self-study, with solutions and lecture slides for instructors available online.
Ultrasonic spectroscopy is a technique widely used in solid-state physics, materials science, and geology that utilizes acoustic waves to determine fundamental physical properties of materials, such as their elasticity and mechanical energy dissipation. This book provides complete coverage of the main issues relevant to the design, analysis, and interpretation of ultrasonic experiments. Topics including elasticity, acoustic waves in solids, ultrasonic loss, and the relation of elastic constants to thermodynamic potentials are covered in depth. Modern techniques and experimental methods including resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, digital pulse-echo, and picosecond ultrasound are also introduced and reviewed. This self-contained book includes extensive background theory and is accessible to students new to the field of ultrasonic spectroscopy, as well as to graduate students and researchers in physics, engineering, materials science, and geophysics.
This fully revised, updated and reorganised third edition provides a thorough introduction to the characterisation techniques used in surface science and nanoscience today. Each chapter brings together and compares the different techniques used to address a particular research question, including how to determine the surface composition, surface structure, surface electronic structure, surface microstructure at different length scales (down to sub-molecular), and the molecular character of adsorbates and their adsorption or reaction properties. Readers will easily understand the relative strengths and limitations of the techniques available to them and, ultimately, will be able to select the most suitable techniques for their own particular research purposes. This is an essential resource for researchers and practitioners performing materials analysis, and for senior undergraduate students looking to gain a clear understanding of the underlying principles and applications of the different characterisation techniques used in the field today.
Plasmonics is an important branch of optics concerned with the interaction of metals with light. Under appropriate illumination, metal nanoparticles can exhibit enhanced light absorption, becoming nanosources of heat that can be precisely controlled. This book provides an overview of the exciting new field of thermoplasmonics and a detailed discussion of its theoretical underpinning in nanophotonics. This topic has developed rapidly in the last decade, and is now a highly-active area of research due to countless applications in nanoengineering and nanomedicine. These important applications include photothermal cancer therapy, drug and gene delivery, nanochemistry and photothermal imaging. This timely and self-contained text is suited to all researchers and graduate students working in plasmonics, nano-optics and thermal-induced processes at the nanoscale.
Understand the fundamental concepts, theoretical background, major experimental observations, and device applications of graphene photonics with this self-contained text. Systematically and rigorously developing each concept and theoretical model from the ground up, it guides readers through the major topics, from basic properties and band structure to electronic, optical, optoelectronic, and nonlinear optical properties, and plasmonics and photonic devices. The connections between theory, modeling, experiment, and device concepts are demonstrated throughout, and every optical process is analyzed through formal electromagnetic analysis. Suitable for both self-study and a one-semester or one-quarter course, this is the ideal text for graduate students and researchers in photonics, optoelectronics, nanoscience and nanotechnology, and optical and solid-state physics, who are working in this rapidly developing field.
Over the past several decades, computational approaches to studying strongly-interacting systems have become increasingly varied and sophisticated. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo techniques relevant for applications in correlated systems. Providing a clear overview of variational wave functions, and featuring a detailed presentation of stochastic samplings including Markov chains and Langevin dynamics, which are developed into a discussion of Monte Carlo methods. The variational technique is described, from foundations to a detailed description of its algorithms. Further topics discussed include optimisation techniques, real-time dynamics and projection methods, including Green's function, reptation and auxiliary-field Monte Carlo, from basic definitions to advanced algorithms for efficient codes, and the book concludes with recent developments on the continuum space. Quantum Monte Carlo Approaches for Correlated Systems provides an extensive reference for students and researchers working in condensed matter theory or those interested in advanced numerical methods for electronic simulation.
The ideal companion in condensed matter physics - now in new and
Dynamic compression is an experimental technique with interdisciplinary uses, ranging from enabling the creation of ultracondensed matter under previously impossible conditions to understanding the likely cause of unusual planetary magnetic fields. Readers can now gain an intuitive understanding of dynamic compression; clear and authoritative chapters examine its history and experimental method, as well as key topics including dynamic compression of liquid hydrogen, rare gas fluids and shock-induced opacity. Through an up-to-date history of dynamic compression research, Nellis also clearly shows how dynamic compression addresses and will continue to address major unanswered questions across the scientific disciplines. The past and future role of dynamic compression in studying and making materials at extreme conditions of pressure, density and temperature is made clear, and the means of doing so are explained in practical language perfectly suited for researchers and graduate students alike.
Research into the stability of matter has been one of the most successful chapters in mathematical physics, and is a prime example of how modern mathematics can be applied to problems in physics. A unique account of the subject, this book provides a complete, self-contained description of research on the stability of matter problem. It introduces the necessary quantum mechanics to mathematicians, and aspects of functional analysis to physicists. The topics covered include electrodynamics of classical and quantized fields, Lieb-Thirring and other inequalities in spectral theory, inequalities in electrostatics, stability of large Coulomb systems, gravitational stability of stars, basics of equilibrium statistical mechanics, and the existence of the thermodynamic limit. The book is an up-to-date account for researchers, and its pedagogical style makes it suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in mathematical physics.
Learn about the most recent advances in 2D materials with this comprehensive and accessible text. Providing all the necessary materials science and physics background, leading experts discuss the fundamental properties of a wide range of 2D materials, and their potential applications in electronic, optoelectronic and photonic devices. Several important classes of materials are covered, from more established ones such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and transition metal dichalcogenides, to new and emerging materials such as black phosphorus, silicene, and germanene. Readers will gain an in-depth understanding of the electronic structure and optical, thermal, mechanical, vibrational, spin and plasmonic properties of each material, as well as the different techniques that can be used for their synthesis. Presenting a unified perspective on 2D materials, this is an excellent resource for graduate students, researchers and practitioners working in nanotechnology, nanoelectronics, nanophotonics, condensed matter physics, and chemistry.
This textbook provides conceptual, procedural, and factual knowledge on solid state and nanostructure physics. It is designed to acquaint readers with key concepts and their connections, to stimulate intuition and curiosity, and to enable the acquisition of competences in general strategies and specific procedures for problem solving and their use in specific applications. To these ends, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted, integrating physics, chemistry, and engineering and reflecting how these disciplines are converging towards common tools and languages in the field. Each chapter discusses essential ideas before the introduction of formalisms and the stepwise addition of complications. Questions on everyday manifestations of the concepts are included, with reasoned linking of ideas from different chapters and sections and further detail in the appendices. The final section of each chapter describes experimental methods and strategies that can be used to probe the phenomena under discussion. Solid state and nanostructure physics is constantly growing as a field of study where the fascinating quantum world emerges and otherwise imaginary things can become real, engineered with increasing creativity and control: from tinier and faster technologies realizing quantum information concepts, to understanding of the fundamental laws of Physics. Elements of Solid State Physics and of Crystalline Nanostructures will offer the reader an enjoyable insight into the complex concepts of solid state physics.
This innovative and modular textbook combines classical topics in thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and many-body theory with the latest developments in condensed matter physics research. Written by internationally renowned experts and logically structured to cater for undergraduate and postgraduate students and researchers, it covers the underlying theoretical principles and includes numerous problems and worked examples to put this knowledge into practice. Three main streams provide a framework for the book; beginning with thermodynamics and classical statistical mechanics, including mean field approximation, fluctuations and the renormalization group approach to critical phenomena. The authors then examine quantum statistical mechanics, covering key topics such as normal Fermi and Luttinger liquids, superfluidity and superconductivity. Finally, they explore classical and quantum kinetics, Anderson localization and quantum interference, and disordered Fermi liquids. Unique in providing a bridge between thermodynamics and advanced topics in condensed matter, this textbook is an invaluable resource to all students of physics.
"Transport Processes in Macroscopically Disordered Media: From Mean Field Theory to Percolation" reflects on recent advances in the understanding of percolation systems to present a wide range of transport phenomena in inhomogeneous disordered systems. Further developments in the theory of macroscopically inhomogeneous media are also addressed. These developments include galvano-electric, thermoelectric, elastic properties, 1/f noise and higher current momenta, Anderson localization, and harmonic generation in composites in the vicinity of the percolation threshold.
The book describes how one can find effective characteristics, such as conductivity, dielectric permittivity, magnetic permeability, with knowledge of the distribution of different components constituting an inhomogeneous medium. Considered are a wide range of recent studies dedicated to the elucidation of physical properties of macroscopically disordered systems.
This book contains a straightforward set of useful tools which will allow the reader to derive the basic physical properties of complicated systems together with their corresponding qualitative characteristics and functional dependencies.
Providing a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to the theory and applications of slow-neutron scattering, this detailed book equips readers with the fundamental principles of neutron studies, including the background and evolving development of neutron sources, facility design, neutron scattering instrumentation and techniques, and applications in materials phenomena. Drawing on the authors' extensive experience in this field, this text explores the implications of slow-neutron research in greater depth and breadth than ever before in an accessible yet rigorous manner suitable for both students and researchers in the fields of physics, biology, and materials engineering. Through pedagogical examples and in-depth discussion, readers will be able to grasp the full scope of the field of neutron scattering, from theoretical background through to practical, scientific applications.
High-temperature superconductivity has transformed the landscape of solid state science, leading to the discovery of new classes of materials, states of matter, and concepts. However, despite being over a quarter of a century since its discovery, there is still no single accepted theory to explain its origin. This book presents one approach, the strong-coupling or bipolaron theory, which proposes that high-temperature superconductivity originates from competing Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions. The author provides a thorough overview of the theory, describing numerous experimental observations, and giving detailed mathematical derivations of key theoretical findings at an accessible level. Applications of the theory to existing high-temperature superconductors are discussed, as well as possibilities of liquid superconductors and higher critical temperatures. Alternative theories are also examined to provide a balanced and informative perspective. This monograph will appeal to advanced researchers and academics in the fields of condensed matter physics and quantum-field theories.
This first volume in the series on nanocarbons for advanced applications presents the latest achievements in the design, synthesis, characterization, and applications of these materials for electrochemical energy storage. The highly renowned series and volume editor, Xinliang Feng, has put together an internationally acclaimed expert team who covers nanocarbons such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphenes, and porous carbons. The first two parts focus on nanocarbon-based anode and cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, while the third part deals with carbon material-based supercapacitors with various applications in power electronics, automotive engineering and as energy storage elements in portable electric devices. This book will be indispensable for materials scientists, electrochemists, physical chemists, solid state physicists, and those working in the electrotechnical industry.
Applications of microscale and nanoscale thermal and fluid transport phenomena involved in traditional industries and highly specialised fields such as bioengineering, micro-fabricated fluidic systems, microelectronics, aerospace technology, micro heat pipes, chips cooling etc. have been becoming especially important since the late 20th century. However, microscale and nanoscale thermal and fluid transport phenomena are quite different from those of conventional scale or macroscale. Quite a few studies have been conducted to understand the very complex phenomena involved at microscale and nanoscale. New methods have been applied to measure the basic physical parameters at microscale and are continuously under development. New prediction methods have also been developed to cover both macroscale and microscale channels and are being continuously under investigation. New theories and mechanisms are also urgently needed for the fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena at microscale and nanoscale. There are many issues to be clarified from both theoretical and applied aspects in the microscale and nanoscale thermal and fluid transport phenomena. Furthermore, Interdisciplinary research areas are also rapidly under development. For example, as a new research frontier of nanotechnology, the research of nanofluid two-phase flow and thermal physics is rapidly growing, however, it has also posed new challenges as there are quite contradictory results in the available research.
Pattern formation is a fascinating and challenging aspect in polymer science. This book describes a number of unconventional approaches developed to control the morphology of polymer surfaces and materials, from random or simple patterns to complex structures. Specialists provide an up-to-date and complete overview of each technique in their respective field.
Meeting the need for a work that brings together quantum theory and spectroscopy to convey excitation processes to advanced students and specialists wishing to conduct research and understand the entire field rather than just single aspects. Written by an experienced author and recognized authority in the field, this text covers numerous applications and offers examples taken from different disciplines. As a result, spectroscopists, molecular physicists, physical chemists, and biophysicists will all find this a must-have for their research. Also suitable as supplementary reading in graduate level courses.
A one-stop, concise guide on determining and measuring thin film thickness by optical methods.
This practical book covers the laws of electromagnetic radiation and interaction of light with matter, as well as the theory and practice of thickness measurement, and modern applications. In so doing, it shows the capabilities and opportunities of optical thickness determination and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of measurement devices along with their evaluation methods.
Following an introduction to the topic, Chapter 2 presents the basics of the propagation of light and other electromagnetic radiation in space and matter. The main topic of this book, the determination of the thickness of a layer in a layer stack by measuring the spectral reflectance or transmittance, is treated in the following three chapters. The color of thin layers is discussed in chapter 6. Finally, in chapter 7, the author discusses several industrial applications of the layer thickness measurement, including high-reflection and anti-reflection coatings, photolithographic structuring of semiconductors, silicon on insulator, transparent conductive films, oxides and polymers, thin film photovoltaics, and heavily doped silicon.
Aimed at industrial and academic researchers, engineers, developers and manufacturers involved in all areas of optical layer and thin optical film measurement and metrology, process control, real-time monitoring, and applications.
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