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Credit is essential in the modern world and creates wealth, provided it is used wisely. The Global Credit Crisis during 2008/2009 has shown that sound understanding of underlying credit risk is crucial. If credit freezes, almost every activity in the economy is affected. The best way to utilize credit and get results is to understand credit risk. Advanced Credit Risk Analysis and Management helps the reader to understand the various nuances of credit risk. It discusses various techniques to measure, analyze and manage credit risk for both lenders and borrowers. The book begins by defining what credit is and its advantages and disadvantages, the causes of credit risk, a brief historical overview of credit risk analysis and the strategic importance of credit risk in institutions that rely on claims or debtors. The book then details various techniques to study the entity level credit risks, including portfolio level credit risks. Authored by a credit expert with two decades of experience in corporate finance and corporate credit risk, the book discusses the macroeconomic, industry and financial analysis for the study of credit risk. It covers credit risk grading and explains concepts including PD, EAD and LGD. It also highlights the distinction with equity risks and touches on credit risk pricing and the importance of credit risk in Basel Accords I, II and III. The two most common credit risks, project finance credit risk and working capital credit risk, are covered in detail with illustrations. The role of diversification and credit derivatives in credit portfolio management is considered. It also reflects on how the credit crisis develops in an economy by referring to the bubble formation. The book links with the 2008/2009 credit crisis and carries out an interesting discussion on how the credit crisis may have been avoided by following the fundamentals or principles of credit risk analysis and management. The book is essential for both lenders and borrowers. Containing case studies adapted from real life examples and exercises, this important text is practical, topical and challenging. It is useful for a wide spectrum of academics and practitioners in credit risk and anyone interested in commercial and corporate credit and related products.
Securities lending master agreements are vital for covering securities loans between contracting parties. They also offer legal and credit protection and a close-out netting procedure if a party defaults or goes bankrupt. These agreements are widely used by banks, securities houses, pension funds, hedge funds and insurance companies. ""
"Mastering Securities Lending Documentation" is a practical guide to understanding the negotiation of these master agreements used in the United Kingdom, United States and Europe. It is an essential handbook for anyone involved in negotiating these agreements and includes: An introduction to the history and operations of the market A clear, user-friendly explanation of all paragraphs of the master agreements An easy-to use split page format with the original text and commentary Examples of commonly negotiated additions and amendments and their implications Answers to legal, risk and operational questions
Published by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association, the 1992 and 2002 ISDA(R) Master Agreements are the main contracts used in the over the counter global derivatives market. "Mastering the ISDA Master Agreements" provides a practical, clear and useful guide to help understand and negotiate these Master Agreements.
This revised and updated edition is an essential handbook for anyone involved in negotiating agreements, from financial institutions through to fund managers, law firms, credit officers, regulators and business students. The new edition includes:
The ISDA Mater Agreements are complex documents and it can take up to two years to become proficient in negotiating and understanding their key elements. "Mastering the ISDA Master Agreements" provides a detailed overview of the legal, credit and operational issues inherent in the ISDA Master Agreements.
The book includes:
Small businesses are the backbone of the U.S. economy. They are the biggest job creators and offer a path to the American Dream. But for many, it is difficult to get the capital they need to operate and succeed. In the Great Recession, access to capital for small businesses froze, and in the aftermath, many community banks shuttered their doors and other lenders that had weathered the storm turned to more profitable avenues. For years after the financial crisis, the outlook for many small businesses was bleak. But then a new dawn of financial technology, or "fintech," emerged. Beginning in 2010, new fintech entrepreneurs recognized the gaps in the small business lending market and revolutionized the customer experience for small business owners. Instead of Xeroxing a pile of paperwork and waiting weeks for an answer, small businesses filled out applications online and heard back within hours, sometimes even minutes. Banks scrambled to catch up. Technology companies like Amazon, PayPal, and Square entered the market, and new possibilities for even more transformative products and services began to appear. In Fintech, Small Business & the American Dream, former U.S. Small Business Administrator and Senior Fellow at Harvard Business School, Karen G. Mills, focuses on the needs of small businesses for capital and how technology will transform the small business lending market. This is a market that has been plagued by frictions: it is hard for a lender to figure out which small businesses are creditworthy, and borrowers often don't know how much money or what kind of loan they need. New streams of data have the power to illuminate the opaque nature of a small business's finances, making it easier for them to weather bumpy cash flows and providing more transparency to potential lenders. Mills charts how fintech has changed and will continue to change small business lending, and how financial innovation and wise regulation can restore a path to the American Dream. An ambitious book grappling with the broad significance of small business to the economy, the historical role of credit markets, the dynamics of innovation cycles, and the policy implications for regulation, Fintech, Small Business & the American Dream is relevant to bankers, fintech investors, and regulators; in fact, to anyone who is interested in the future of small business in America.
This title focuses on the supervisor of the credit management function of an organisation and teaches the learner how to plan, organise, lead and control the routine activities in the department, and how to set, measure and achieve performance standards. The supervisor and the learner are also taught how to detect irregularities in the handling of debtors' accounts and cash receipts, and how to initiate and apply corrective action. All aspects of the National Credit Act (Act 34 of 2006) have been incorporated in the principles of this title.
Businesses take on many forms ranging from sole proprietorships, partnerships, and close corporations to companies. The ability of these forms of business ownership to obtain and service credit depends not only on their financial circumstances, but also the knowledge and ability of the credit provider to assess the business' creditworthiness. For a business to be successful it must make a profit. The profit on a sale is not earned unless the money for the sale is in the bank on due date. It is also true that the longer it takes to collect the money from a debtor, the more difficult it becomes. Applied credit management teaches the learner all aspects of the credit management function of an organisation, from the evaluation of the new application, the investigation of the creditworthiness of the customer, the final approval or rejection to the collection and ultimate litigation of an account. All aspects of the National Credit Act (Act 34 of 2006) have been incorporated in the principles of this book.
Adair Turner became chairman of Britain's Financial Services Authority just as the global financial crisis struck in 2008, and he played a leading role in redesigning global financial regulation. In this eye-opening book, he sets the record straight about what really caused the crisis. It didn't happen because banks are too big to fail--our addiction to private debt is to blame. Between Debt and the Devil challenges the belief that we need credit growth to fuel economic growth, and that rising debt is okay as long as inflation remains low. In fact, most credit is not needed for economic growth--but it drives real estate booms and busts and leads to financial crisis and depression. Turner explains why public policy needs to manage the growth and allocation of credit creation, and why debt needs to be taxed as a form of economic pollution. Banks need far more capital, real estate lending must be restricted, and we need to tackle inequality and mitigate the relentless rise of real estate prices. Turner also debunks the big myth about fiat money--the erroneous notion that printing money will lead to harmful inflation. To escape the mess created by past policy errors, we sometimes need to monetize government debt and finance fiscal deficits with central-bank money. Between Debt and the Devil shows why we need to reject the assumptions that private credit is essential to growth and fiat money is inevitably dangerous. Each has its advantages, and each creates risks that public policy must consciously balance.
Since the late 1980s the law affecting consumers has undergone fundamental change. There is now a significant body of new law designed to protect consumers.;This publication covers all aspects of that law and examines the issues which have become pertinent to modern society. It begins with an overview of consumers and consumerism and goes on to deal with important aspects of consumer law. Contentious issues such as consumer credit, debt-collection procedures and practices, and consumer protection bodies and mechanisms are discussed. In each instance, the theory of the law is explained and its practical application illustrated.;This book should be of interest to lawyers, legal advisors, as well as those in industry and commerce.
We live in a culture of credit. As wages have stagnated, we've seen a dramatic surge in private borrowing across the western world; increasing numbers of households are sucked into a hopeless vortex of spiralling debt, fuelled by exploitative lending. In this book Johnna Montgomerie argues that the situation is chronically dysfunctional, both individually and collectively. She shows that abolishing household debts can put an end to austerity and to the unsustainable forward march of debt-dependent growth. She combines astute economic analysis with the elements of an accessible guide to practical policy solutions such as extending unconventional monetary policy to the household sector, providing pragmatic and affordable refinancing options, and writing off the most pernicious elements of household debt. This framework, she contends, can help us to make our economy fairer and to tackle both the housing crisis and accelerating inequality.
This title deals with the three important branches of the law relating to security. Within a small compass it analyses in critical detail the governing rules. In particular, it is a practical guide to current practice.
Modelling credit risk accurately is central to the practice of mathematical finance. The majority of available texts are aimed at an advanced level, and are more suitable for PhD students and researchers. This volume of the Mastering Mathematical Finance series addresses the need for a course intended for master's students, final-year undergraduates, and practitioners. The book focuses on the two mainstream modelling approaches to credit risk, namely structural models and reduced-form models, and on pricing selected credit risk derivatives. Balancing rigorous theory with examples, it takes readers through a natural development of mathematical ideas and financial intuition.
Make your money make a difference and enjoy attractive returns Small Money, Big Impact explores and explains the globally growing importance of impact investing. Today, the investor's perspective has become as important as the actual social impact. Based on their experience with over 25 million micro borrowers, the authors delve into the mechanics, considerations, data and strategies that make microloans and impact investing an attractive asset class. From the World Bank to the individual investor, impact investing is attracting more and more attention. Impact investing is a global megatrend and is reshaping the way people invest as pension funds, insurance companies, foundations, family offices and private investors jump on board. This book explains for the first time how it works, why it works and what you should know if you're ready to help change the world. Impact investing has proven over the last 20 years as the first-line offense against crushing poverty. Over two billion people still lack access to basic financial services, which are essential for improving their livelihood. Investors have experienced not only social and environmental impact, but have received attractive, stable and uncorrelated returns for over 15 years. This guide provides the latest insights and methodologies that help you reap the rewards of investing in humanity. * Explore the global impact investing phenomenon * Learn how microloans work, and how they make a difference * Discover why investors are increasingly leaning into impact investing * Consider the factors that inform impact investing decisions Part social movement and part financial strategy, impact investing offers the unique opportunity for investors to power tremendous change with a small amount of money expanding their portfolios as they expand their own global impact. Microfinance allows investors at any level to step in where banks refuse to tread, offering opportunity to those who need it most. Small Money, Big Impact provides the expert guidance you need to optimize the impact on your portfolio and the world.
Only our limited idea of money is keeping us poor. David Boyle introduces us to alternative cash and people who can conjure money - that is, spending power - out of nothing. Until recently, the growth of alternative cash had been the province of big business: phone cards, stamps, air miles and Tesco's clubcard points all have purchasing power, yet are not cash as we know it. Now, locally created money systems like `time dollars', `Womanshare' and `Ithaca hours' are being invented by communities for communities. With clarity and great humour, Boyle tells the story of this extraordinary revolution: he travels to the USA to visit the people behind local money systems; relates their vision of the future; and describes how to set up your own currency. This is no dry theoretical tome: Boyle writes about his subject in a way that is concrete, illuminating, often very funny and always highly readable. This paperback edition includes a new epilogue with an update on the latest alternative currency ideas: `You just have to cast doubt on the real existence of the money markets and they could just shrivel away. Anything could happen.' A revolution is underway now: this book tells the story of its leaders and the ideas that inspired them.
This is a succinct guide to the application and modelling of dependence models or copulas in the financial markets. First applied to credit risk modelling, copulas are now widely used across a range of derivatives transactions, asset pricing techniques and risk models and are a core part of the financial engineer's toolkit.
Financial institutions, private and public companies and governments can lose vast amounts of money from even minor changes in interest rates. Because of this, complex financial instruments have been developed to mitigate these exposures. But what happens when organisations hedge themselves to ill-advised and ill-formulated financial management strategies? Based on a proven analytical method, Mastering Interest Rate Risk Strategy explains, step-by-step, how to set up and run a sound interest rate risk strategy. Influenced by the author's work with leading companies and tested with banks, the book will help readers bring risk under control, raise profits and ensure healthy cash flows. Mastering Interest Rate Risk Strategy: Shows you how to mitigate interest rate risk using the most advanced risk management techniques Provides you with an analytical method that is proven both academically and in practice Uses examples and real life cases to support the transfer of knowledge and skills Interest rate changes will affect most firms because they will have interest bearing assets or liabilities. As a result, interest rate movements have an unfavourable impact and managing interest rate risk can be highly beneficial for the firm. But high-profile derivative blunders show that this is no easy task. In Mastering Interest Rate Risk Strategy, Victor Macrae shows you how to avoid the mis-selling of derivatives and derivatives blunders and how to set up an optimal interest rate risk strategy. Mastering Interest Rate Risk Strategy includes: Past derivatives blunders and how you can learn from them A proven analytical method for strategy formulation Hedging theory Bank financing for non-financial firms How movements in the financial markets may affect the firm Financial statement impact of interest rate risk The working and risks of using swaps, FRA's, caps, floors, collars and swaptions 'This is a wonderful and easy to read tour of interest rate risk and its management, and mismanagement. Anyone who wants to better understand why and how non-financial firms should be dealing with interest rate risk should read this book.' Gordon M. Bodnar, Professor on International Finance, Johns Hopkins University 'Macrae's guide is an excellent cookbook for financial managers. With many cases and examples, this book offers guidance in robust risk management techniques.' Abe de Jong, Professor of Corporate Finance and Corporate Governance at Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University
Utilizing research from the U.S., Italy, and the Netherlands, Place, Exclusion and Mortgage Markets presents an in depth examination of the practice of redlining and the broader implications of contemporary urban exclusion processes. * Covers exclusion in mortgage markets in three different countries - the U.S., Italy, and the Netherlands * Presents an interdisciplinary perspective to the practice of redlining * Connects the literature on social exclusion and financial exclusion
Congressional interest in residential mortgage markets has increased following the collapse of the housing bubble, government financial support to the mortgage market, and housing's perceived importance to the broader economic recovery. Since 2008, the residential mortgage market has experienced some of the highest default and foreclosure rates since the Great Depression. This book provides an overview of the changing residential mortgage market, focusing on trends in housing prices, home-ownership, mortgage characteristics, and financing. It also examines legislation and regulations designed to promote the efficient functioning of the mortgage market.
How a vast network of shadow credit financed European growth long before the advent of banking Prevailing wisdom dictates that, without banks, countries would be mired in poverty. Yet somehow much of Europe managed to grow rich long before the diffusion of banks. Dark Matter Credit draws on centuries of cleverly collected loan data from France to reveal how credit abounded well before banks opened their doors. This incisive book shows how a vast system of shadow credit enabled nearly a third of French families to borrow in 1740, and by 1840 funded as much mortgage debt as the American banking system of the 1950s. Dark Matter Credit traces how this extensive private network outcompeted banks and thrived prior to World War I-not just in France but in Britain, Germany, and the United States-until killed off by government intervention after 1918. Overturning common assumptions about banks and economic growth, the book paints a revealing picture of an until-now hidden market of thousands of peer-to-peer loans made possible by a network of brokers who matched lenders with borrowers and certified the borrowers' creditworthiness. A major work of scholarship, Dark Matter Credit challenges widespread misperceptions about French economic history, such as the notion that banks proliferated slowly, and the idea that financial innovation was hobbled by French law. By documenting how intermediaries in the shadow credit market devised effective financial instruments, this compelling book provides new insights into how countries can develop and thrive today.
The U.S. government uses federal credit (direct loans and loan guarantees) to allocate capital to a range of areas including home ownership, student loans, small business, agriculture, and energy. A direct loan is "a disbursement of funds by the government to a non-federal borrower under a contract that requires the repayment of such funds with or without interest." A loan guarantee is "a pledge with respect to the payment of all or part of the principal or interest on any debt obligation of a non-federal borrower to a non-federal lender." At the end of FY2011, outstanding federal direct loans totalled $838 billion and outstanding guaranteed loans totalled $2,017 billion. This book describes the concepts, budgetary treatment and reform proposals of federal credit.
This text provides an in-depth look at the impact of stochastic volatility on the pricing and hedging of options. It also examines how trees and lattices provide an alternative to the more complicated implicit finite difference method when valuing derivative instruments.
American households, businesses, and governments have always used intensive amounts of credit. The Engine of Enterprise traces the story of credit from colonial times to the present, highlighting its productive role in building national prosperity. Rowena Olegario probes enduring questions that have divided Americans: Who should have access to credit? How should creditors assess borrowers' creditworthiness? How can people accommodate to, rather than just eliminate, the risks of a credit-dependent economy? In the 1790s Alexander Hamilton saw credit as "the invigorating principle" that would spur the growth of America's young economy. His great rival, Thomas Jefferson, deemed it a grave risk, inviting burdens of debt that would amount to national self-enslavement. Even today, credit lies at the heart of longstanding debates about opportunity, democracy, individual responsibility, and government's reach. Olegario goes beyond these timeless debates to explain how the institutions and legal frameworks of borrowing and lending evolved and how attitudes about credit both reflected and drove those changes. Properly managed, credit promised to be a powerful tool. Mismanaged, it augured disaster. The Engine of Enterprise demonstrates how this tension led to the creation of bankruptcy laws, credit-reporting agencies, and insurance regimes to harness the power of credit while minimizing its destabilizing effects.
This book presents an analysis of the role of UK building societies, their strengths and weaknesses, and their contribution to the industry, at a time where public confidence in banking is low. Chapters present the results of an empirical analysis of the comparative performance of UK building societies, since the large-scale demutualisation process ended in the year 2000. The authors highlight the substantial impact of the financial crisis on the sector, with 2008 and 2009 being particularly difficult years. The book discusses banks and building societies in the context of the improving economy and show that both groups have recovered some profitability, although not at the pre-crisis level. The reader will discover that building societies in particular have recovered well from the financial turmoil and they appear less risky than banks on a variety of measures.
As the credit bubble fallout plagues the institutional finance sector--and will continue to do so in coming years--a strategic approach to credit portfolio management has never been more critical. "The Handbook of Credit Portfolio Management" provides all the information you'll need to successfully rebalance and manage your credit portfolios. . .
Together with co-author Christian Hoppe and a team of thirty-five international contributors, Greg N. Gregoriou provides strategies for calculating risk-weighted assets, reevaluating hedging strategies, and implementing Basel II standards. Providing a thoroughly global perspective of the subject, this comprehensive guide includes input from Moorad Choudhry (Group Head of Treasury at Europe Arab Bank plc, London); Christophe Godlewski (Universit Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg, France); Roland Fuss (University of Freiburg, Germany); and Valerio Pot (Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland), who shed light on such key topics as: . . Investment opportunities of hedge funds. Basis arbitrage trading strategies. Issues regarding securitization of a sector basket . Cost-saving aspects of portfolio hedging with credit futures. .
"The Handbook of Credit Portfolio Management" covers the latest developments and most current portfolio management techniques to help you implement strategies that best suit your institution's needs.
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