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This book discusses how to deal ethically with people with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the police, courts and correctional services. Ethical and legal issues associated with the deficits of individuals with a brain disorders such as FASD are surfacing more and more frequently in criminal proceedings. People with FASD often have not been diagnosed and rarely exhibit any visible evidence of the disorder. It has been argued that this invisible disability puts them in a disadvantaged position in the justice system, since the awareness of this condition is limited. The need to identify and to address FASD more effectively and the many ethical issues this raises within the context of the law is increasingly acknowledged within judicial and legislative branches, as well as in government departments, agencies and community programs that provide services to those with FASD and their caretakers and families. This is the first book to give to elaborate on ethical and legal issues of FASD.
This book presents the latest trends in attacks and protection methods of Critical Infrastructures. It describes original research models and applied solutions for protecting major emerging threats in Critical Infrastructures and their underlying networks. It presents a number of emerging endeavors, from newly adopted technical expertise in industrial security to efficient modeling and implementation of attacks and relevant security measures in industrial control systems; including advancements in hardware and services security, interdependency networks, risk analysis, and control systems security along with their underlying protocols. Novel attacks against Critical Infrastructures (CI) demand novel security solutions. Simply adding more of what is done already (e.g. more thorough risk assessments, more expensive Intrusion Prevention/Detection Systems, more efficient firewalls, etc.) is simply not enough against threats and attacks that seem to have evolved beyond modern analyses and protection methods. The knowledge presented here will help Critical Infrastructure authorities, security officers, Industrial Control Systems (ICS) personnel and relevant researchers to (i) get acquainted with advancements in the field, (ii) integrate security research into their industrial or research work, (iii) evolve current practices in modeling and analyzing Critical Infrastructures, and (iv) moderate potential crises and emergencies influencing or emerging from Critical Infrastructures.
The United States leads the world in incarceration, and the United Kingdom is persistently one of the European countries with the highest per capita rates of imprisonment. Yet despite its increasing visibility as a social issue, mass incarceration - and its inconsistency with core democratic ideals - rarely surfaces in contemporary Anglo-American political theory. Democratic Theory and Mass Incarceration seeks to overcome this puzzling disconnect by deepening the dialogue between democratic theory and punishment policy. This collection of original essays initiates a multi-disciplinary discussion among philosophers, political theorists, and criminologists regarding ways in which contemporary democratic theory might begin to think beyond mass incarceration. Rather than viewing punishment as a natural reaction to crime and imprisonment as a sensible outgrowth of this reaction, the volume argues that crime and punishment are institutions that reveal unmet demands for public oversight and democratic influence. Chapters explore theoretical paths towards de-carceration and alternatives to prison, suggest ways in which democratic theory can strengthen recent reform movements, and offer creative alternatives to mass incarceration. Democratic Theory and Mass Incarceration offers guideposts for critical thinking about incarceration, examining ways to rebuild crime control institutions and create a healthier, more just society.
'The young bloods did not care whether they killed criminals or civilians . . .' The Cartel is Britain's biggest drugs gang, a global corporation employing thousands of criminals and flooding Britain with cocaine and heroin. Yet the established order is under threat: street gangs are overwhelming the old-school Cartel godfathers with a campaign of violence, intimidation and mayhem, heralding a series of events that has had devastating consequences for the whole of society. In Young Blood, the explosive follow-up to The Cartel, bestselling true-crime author Graham Johnson reveals how the brutal assassination of drug baron Colin `King Cocaine' Smith in 2007 by a group of young bucks triggered the rise of the foot soldier, and exposes the bitter struggle that has spread throughout Europe as various factions battle to seize control of the most lucrative crime syndicate in British history.
2009 Association of American University Presses Award for Jacket Design
In the 1990s, improving the quality of life became a primary focus and a popular catchphrase of the governments of New York and many other American cities. Faced with high levels of homelessness and other disorders associated with a growing disenfranchised population, then mayor Rudolph Giuliani led New York's zero tolerance campaign against what was perceived to be an increase in disorder that directly threatened social and economic stability. In a traditionally liberal city, the focus had shifted dramatically from improving the lives of the needy to protecting the welfare of the middle and upper classes--a decidedly neoconservative move.
In City of Disorder, Alex S. Vitale analyzes this drive to restore moral order which resulted in an overhaul of the way New York views such social problems as prostitution, graffiti, homelessness, and panhandling. Through several fascinating case studies of New York neighborhoods and an in-depth look at the dynamics of the NYPD and of the city's administration itself, Vitale explains why Republicans have won the last four New York mayoral elections and what the long-term impact Giuliani's zero tolerance method has been on a city historically known for its liberalism.
After decades of rigorous study in the United States and across the
Western world, a great deal is known about the early risk factors
for offending. High impulsiveness, low attainment, criminal
parents, parental conflict, and growing up in a deprived,
high-crime neighborhood are among the most important factors. There
is also a growing body of high quality scientific evidence on the
effectiveness of early prevention programs designed to prevent
children from embarking on a life of crime.
By the close of the twentieth century, the United States became known for its reliance on incarceration as the chief means of social control, particularly in poor communities of color. The carceral state has been extended into the public school system in these communities in what has become known as the ""school-to-prison pipeline."" Through interviews with young people suspended from school, Weissman examines the impact of zero tolerance and other harsh disciplinary approaches that have transformed schools into penal-like institutions. In their own words, students describe their lives, the challenges they face, and their efforts to overcome those challenges. Unlike other studies, this book illuminates the students' perspectives on what happens when the educational system excludes them from regular school. Weissman draws attention to research findings that suggest punitive disciplinary policies and practices resemble criminal justice strategies of arrest, trial, sentence, and imprisonment. She demonstrates how harsh school discipline prepares young people from poor communities of color for their place in the carceral state. An invaluable resource for policy makers, Prelude to Prison presents recommendations for policy, practice, and political change that have the potential to dismantle the school-to-prison pipeline.
Essentials of Criminology: A Student-Oriented Approach to Teaching Crime Theory is an accessible, relevant overview of criminological theories and their use in understanding, explaining, and responding to crime. The text provides foundational knowledge, engages students through real-life examples and scenarios, and focuses on select theories, exploring them in depth. The principal types of theory explored throughout the text include neo-classical theories (crime as a choice), structure theories (crime as a result of social environment, values, stressors, and subculture), process theories (crime as the result of individual learning, associations, and social/self-control), conflict theories (crime as a result of the unequal distribution of power), and developmental theories (crime as a career). The relationship between drugs and crime in society is also explored. The second edition of the text features an expansion of core criminal justice concepts, updated statistical data, and additional examples, activities, and assignments, which tackle relevant social issues including police-community relations, immigration policy, sexual misconduct, mass shootings, and gun control. The Essentials of Criminology is written for one-semester courses in criminology, criminal justice, and applied crime theory, and designed so that all the material in the text can be adequately and thoughtfully covered.
"Thinking Government," second edition is fully revised and updated. It maintains the descriptive and analytical focus of the first edition while including new materials and coverage of the Martin Government, the new Conservative Party, the federal elections of 2004 and 2005, Budget 2005, the politics and administration of a minority government, and the contemporary debates regarding the public policy direction of the country. It contains a full description and analysis of the institutions of the federal government and the nature and working of the power relations between elected politicians and senior public servants, along with in-depth coverage of organizational theory, a comparison of public and private sector management, and a critical review of management decision-making.
As with the first edition, David Johnson offers a thorough introduction to the fields of Canadian public administration and public sector management. The book devotes special attention to the role of government in society, as well as how ideas and ideologies shape Canadians? thinking about the role of the state, and how parties and governments respond. As with its predecessor, this second edition clearly places Canadian government and public administration within its inherent political context. It assesses systems of financial and human resource management, including coverage of the politics of the budgetary process, employment equity policy, human resource reform, and collective bargaining in the federal public service. "Thinking Government," second edition also devotes considerable attention to contemporary issues in management reform, public sector accountability and ethics, and the dynamic of transformative leadership within the public service.
The prison is a recent invention, hardly more than two centuries old, yet it has become the universal system of punishment. How can we understand the place that the correctional system occupies in contemporary societies? What are the experiences of those who are incarcerated as well as those who work there? To answer these questions, Didier Fassin conducted a four-year-long study in a French short-stay prison, following inmates from their trial to their release. He shows how the widespread use of imprisonment has reinforced social and racial inequalities and how advances in civil rights clash with the rationales and practices used to maintain security and order. He also analyzes the concerns and compromises of the correctional staff, the hardships and resistance of the inmates, and the ways in which life on the inside intersects with life on the outside. In the end, the carceral condition appears to be irreducible to other forms of penalty both because of the chain of privations it entails and because of the experience of meaninglessness it comprises. Examined through ethnographic lenses, prison worlds are thus both a reflection of society and its mirror. At a time when many countries have begun to realize the impasse of mass incarceration and question the consequences of the punitive turn, this book will provide empirical and theoretical tools to reflect on the meaning of punishment in contemporary societies.
This book provides you with the most comprehensive and authoritative overview of youth crime and youth justice available. Keeping you abreast of contemporary debates, this fourth edition of Youth and Crime : Includes updated chapters on youth crime discourse and data, youth victimology, youth and social policy, youth justice strategies and comparative and international youth justice, providing a critical analysis of issues such as institutional abuse, child poverty, cyberbullying, child trafficking, international children's rights and transnational policy transfer. Covers numerous issues raised by the UK coalition government's law and order and austerity policies including ages of criminal responsibility, the `rehabilitation revolution', `troubled families', abolition of antisocial behaviour orders (ASBOs), initiatives in gangs, gun and knife crime, responses to the August 2011 riots, prospects for restorative justice and reductions in child imprisonment. Keeps you up to date with contemporary research into explanations of youth crime, youth and media, youth cultures, youth unemployment and training programmes, and youth justice policies and takes into account recent legislative reform. Features a new companion website, featuring links to journal articles, relevant websites, blogs and government reports. Complete with chapter outlines, summary boxes, key terms, study questions, further reading lists, web-based resources and a glossary, this is the textbook to take you through your studies in youth and crime.
Practiced worldwide, the Reid Techniquer is the leading approach to interview and interrogation practices. Since 1962, hundreds of thousands of investigators have received training in the Reid Technique through Criminal Interrogation and Confessions. The updated, abridged version of this best- seller is now available in a new edition from John E. Reid and Associates, Inc. The updated second edition of the best-selling Essentials of the Reid Technique: Criminal Interrogation and Confessions teaches readers how to identify and interpret verbal and nonverbal behaviors of both deceptive and truthful people, and how to move toward obtaining solid confessions from guilty persons using the Reid Technique. The Reid Technique is built around basic psychological principles and presents interrogation as an easily understood nine-step process. Separated into two parts, What You Need to Know About Interrogation and Employing the Reid Nine Steps of Interrogation, this book will help readers understand the effective and proper way that a suspect should be interrogated and the safeguards that should be in place to ensure the integrity of the confession.
Understanding crime and social policy explores the interface between crime and social policy, drawing upon international theoretical developments and empirical research from within Criminology and Social Policy. Written by an experienced author, it uses analysis of policy-making under the New Labour and Conservative-Liberal Democrat governments to reflect upon the multiplicity of influences which shape the formulation and delivery of crime control policies, the changing nature of government and governance in neo-liberal societies, and the enhanced role of the welfare state in 'solving' crime 'problems'. A unique feature of the book is the inclusion of policy examples including the resettlement of prisoners, problem drug use and 'troubled' families. Understanding crime and social policy encourages readers to reflect upon the close connections, and sometimes tensions, between crime reduction and social policy agendas and is aimed at least two audiences. The first is students on courses in criminology, criminal justice and social policy. The second is professionals from across the public, private and voluntary sector.
In the globalized world an extensive process of international migration has developed. The resulting conundrum of issues when examining crime and migration makes for a bitterly complex and intriguing set of debates. In this compelling account, Dario Melossi provides an authoritative take on the theory and research examining the connection of crime, migration and punishment. Through a socio-historical and criminological approach, he shows that the core questions of migrants' criminal behaviour are tightly related to the rules and practices of migrants' reception within the various countries' social and normative structures. Written for students, academics, researchers and activists with an interest in the topic, the book will appeal to individuals in a range of disciplines, from criminology and sociology to politics, international relations, ethnic studies, geography, social policy and development. Compact Criminology is an exciting series that invigorates and challenges the international field of criminology. Books in the series are short, authoritative, innovative assessments of emerging issues in criminology and criminal justice - offering critical, accessible introductions to important topics. They take a global rather than a narrowly national approach. Eminently readable and first-rate in quality, each book is written by a leading specialist. Compact Criminology provides a new type of tool for teaching, learning and research, one that is flexible and light on its feet. The series addresses fundamental needs in the growing and increasingly differentiated field of criminology.
Building upon the success of the first edition, this second - and substantially revised - edition of Youth Crime and Justice comprises a range of cutting-edge contributions from leading national and international researchers. The book: Situates youth crime and youth justice within historical and social-structural contexts; Critically examines policy and practice trends and their relation to knowledge and `evidence'; and Presents a forward looking vision of a rights compliant youth justice with integrity. An authoritative and accessible book, Youth Crime and Justice (2nd ed) provides a coherent, comprehensive and fully up-to-date analysis of contemporary developments and debates. A must for researchers, teachers, students and practitioners.
Housing is no longer about having a place to live - but about state pressures to conform, norms and policies regarding citizenship, and practices of surveillance and security. Breaking new ground in the field of urban politics and international relations, Securitization of Property Squatting in Europe examines and critiques legislative initiatives and examines governmental attempts to reframe urban property squatting as a crime and a threat to domestic security. Using examples from France, Netherlands, Denmark, and Great Britain, Mary Manjikian argues that developments within the European Union - including terrorist attacks in London and Madrid, the rise of right wing extremist parties, and the lifting of barriers to immigration and travel within the EU - have had effects on housing policy, which has become the subject of state security policy in Europe's urban areas. In Denmark, squatting has often had an ideological, anti-state character. In Paris, housing policy can be viewed as a type of identity politics with squatters as transnational actors who pose a transnational security threat. In Great Britain, the role of the press has created a drive to criminalize squatting. Events in the Netherlands present two competing notions of what housing is - a human right, or an economic good produced by the free market.
Public schools across the nation have turned to the criminal justice system as a gold standard of discipline. As public schools and offices of justice have become collaborators in punishment, rates of African American suspension and expulsion have soared, drop out rates have accelerated, and prison populations have exploded. Nowhere, perhaps, has the War on Crime been more influential in broadening racialized academic and socioeconomic disparity than in New Orleans, Louisiana, where in 2002 the criminal sheriff opened his own public school at the Orleans Parish Prison. "The Prison School," as locals called it, enrolled low-income African American boys who had been removed from regular public schools because of nonviolent disciplinary offenses, such as tardiness and insubordination. By examining this school in the local and national context, Lizbet Simmons shows how young black males are in the liminal state of losing educational affiliation while being caught in the net of correctional control. In The Prison School, she asks how schools and prisons became so intertwined. What does this mean for students, communities, and a democratic society? And how do we unravel the ties that bind the racialized realities of school failure and mass incarceration?
This innovative work builds on Huff and Killias' earlier publication (2008), but is broader and more thoroughly comparative in a number of important ways: (1) while focusing heavily on wrongful convictions, it places the subject of wrongful convictions in the broader contextual framework of miscarriages of justice and provides discussions of different types of miscarriages of justice that have not previously received much scholarly attention by criminologists; (2) it addresses, in much greater detail, the questions of how, and how often, wrongful convictions occur; (3) it provides more in-depth consideration of the role of forensic science in helping produce wrongful convictions and in helping free those who have been wrongfully convicted; (4) it offers new insights into the origins and current progress of the innocence movement, as well as the challenges that await the exonerated when they return to "free" society; (5) it assesses the impact of the use of alternatives to trials (especially plea bargains in the U.S. and summary proceedings and penal orders in Europe) in producing wrongful convictions; (6) it considers how the U.S. and Canada have responded to 9/11 and the increased threat of terrorism by enacting legislation and adopting policies that may exacerbate the problem of wrongful conviction; and (7) it provides in-depth considerations of two topics related to wrongful conviction: voluntary false confessions and convictions which, although technically not wrongful since they are based on law violations, represent another type of miscarriage of justice since they are due solely to unjust laws resulting from political repression.
From 1661 to 1664, France was mesmerized by the arrest and trial of Nicolas Fouquet, the country's superintendent of finance. Prosecuted on trumped-up charges of embezzlement, mismanagement of funds, and high treason, Fouquet managed to exonerate himself from all of the major charges over the course of three long years, in the process embarrassing and infuriating Louis XIV. The young king overturned the court's decision and sentenced Fouquet to lifelong imprisonment in a remote fortress in the Alps. A dramatic critique of absolute monarchy in pre-revolutionary France, Embezzlement and High Treason in Louis XIV's France tells the gripping tale of an overly ambitious man who rose rapidly in the state hierarchy-then overreached. Vincent J. Pitts uses the trial as a lens through which to explore the inner workings of the court of Louis XIV, who rightly feared that Fouquet would expose the tawdry financial dealings of the king's late mentor and prime minister, Cardinal Mazarin.
This book explores the relationship between the justice system and local society at a time when the Industrial Revolution was changing the characteristics of mid Wales. Crime, Courts and Community in Mid-Victorian Wales investigates the Welsh nineteenth-century experiences of both the high-born and the low within the context of law enforcement, and considers major issues affecting Welsh and wider criminal historiography: the nature of class in the Welsh countryside and small towns, the role of women, the ways in which the justice system functioned for communities at that time, the questions of how people related to the criminal courts system, and how integrated and accepting of it they were. We read the accounts of defendants, witnesses and law- enforcers through transcription of courtroom testimonies and other records, and the experiences of all sections of the public are studied. Life stories - of both offenders and prosecutors of crime - are followed, providing a unique picture of this Welsh county community, its offences and legal practices.
The most complete, step-by-step guide to the ACFS qualification The Accredited Counter Fraud Specialist Handbook is the only guide designed to support all mandatory elements of the ACFS qualification, in-depth and step-by-step. Written by recognized industry leaders, this book focuses specifically on the practitioner's role in fraud investigation in England and Wales, providing complete information about each stage in the investigative process. Readers gain access to all of the information needed to successfully complete the ACFS qualification, and to develop an awareness of the key skills required to undertake efficient, legally compliant, professional investigations. The book includes a Directory of Useful Information, featuring legislation, codes of practice, model forms, and more. As incidence of fraud continues to rise, many organisations are recruiting more Counter Fraud Specialists, and mandating Continuous Professional Development for established CFSs. The Accredited Counter Fraud Specialist (ACFS) is a recognized qualification in the field, and is mandatory for investigators in many organisations throughout the public and private sectors. The Accredited Counter Fraud Specialist Handbook is a complete guide to the qualification, both for CPD and first-time qualifiers. * Gain a deeper understanding of the legislation related to fraud and investigation * Learn the surveillance and intelligence gathering techniques that build a solid case * Review the rules of evidence and statement taking guidelines * Follow courtroom procedures and prepare a thorough prosecution file The professional qualification of ACFS, which is endorsed by the Counter Fraud Professional Accreditation Board, requires both practical and written assessments that demonstrate successful knowledge transfer and understanding of all key concepts of the investigative process. For anyone tasked with the responsibility of countering fraud, The Accredited Counter Fraud Specialist Handbook is a comprehensive guide to the investigative process.
This book offers the first in-depth study of one of the most gripping trials of inter-war Britain, that of farmer's wife Beatrice Pace for the arsenic murder of her husband. A riveting tale from the golden age of press sensationalism, the book offers insights into the era's justice system, gender debates and celebrity culture. Based on extensive research, it locates the Pace saga in the vibrant world of 1920s press reporting and illuminates a forgotten chapter in the history of civil liberties by considering the debates the case raised about police powers and the legal system.Spanning settings from the Pace's lonely cottage in the Forest of Dean to the House of Commons and using sources ranging from meticulous detective reports to heartfelt admirers' letters, The Most Remarkable Woman in England combines serious scholarship with vivid storytelling to bring to life the extraordinary lives of ordinary people between the wars.
The security governance of South Africa has faced immense challenges amid post-apartheid constitutional and political transformations. In many cases, policing and governmental organizations have failed to provide security and other services to the poorest inhabitants. Security Governance, Policing, and Local Capacity explores an experiment that took place in Zwelethemba-located in South Africa's Western Cape Province-to establish legitimate and effective nonstate security governance within poor urban settlements. There has been, and continues to be, much reticence to endorsing private forms of security governance that operate outside of state institutions within local communities. Those initiatives have often led to situations where force is used illegally and punishment is dispensed arbitrarily and brutally. This book explores the extent to which this model of mobilizing local knowledge and capacity was able to effectively achieve justice, democracy, accountability, and development in this region. Whenever possible, the book includes raw data and a thorough analysis of existing information on security governance. Examining this case and its outcome, the authors provide a theoretical analysis of the model used and present a series of design principles for future applications in local security governance. The book concludes that poor communities are a significant source of untapped resources that can, under certain conditions, be mobilized to significantly enhance safety. This volume is an important examination of experimental models and a presentation of new groundbreaking theory on engaging the local community in solving security governance problems.
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"Goulda]has produced a book that will ensure that the lessons
from these wrongful convictions are available for study and, we
hope, remembered and used to enact needed reformsa]this book is a
valuable addition to what we are learning about wrongful
"Gould's book...is a masterpiece of the genre. He combines
big-picture legal theory with details from a dozen Virginia
miscarriages of justice, including mistaken eyewitness
identification and prosecutorial misconduct."
Convicted Yet Innocent: The Legal Times Review
aA thoughtful and disturbing account of his founding in 2003 of
the Innocence Commission for Virginia (ICVA) to investigate
wrongful convictions. . . . Written for the general public, Gould's
book has important lessons for attorneys and policymakers as
aThe Innocence Commission adds to the scholarship in the area of
wrongful convictions in several important ways and with riveting
DNA testing and advances in forensic science have shaken the foundations of the U.S. criminal justice system. One of the most visible results is the exoneration of inmates who were wrongly convicted and incarcerated, many of them sentenced to death for crimes they did not commit. This has caused a quandary for many states: how can claims of innocence be properly investigated and how can innocent inmates be reliably distinguished from the guilty? In answer, some states have created ainnocence commissionsa to establish policies andprovide legal assistance to the improperly imprisoned.
The Innocence Commission describes the creation and first years of the Innocence Commission for Virginia (ICVA), the second innocence commission in the nation and the first to conduct a systematic inquiry into all cases of wrongful conviction. Written by Jon B. Gould, the Chair of the ICVA, who is a professor of justice studies and an attorney, the author focuses on twelve wrongful conviction cases to show how and why wrongful convictions occur, what steps legal and state advocates took to investigate the convictions, how these prisoners were ultimately freed, and what lessons can be learned from their experiences.
Gould recounts how a small band of attorneys and other advocates -- in Virginia and around the country -- have fought wrongful convictions in court, advanced the subject of wrongful convictions in the media, and sought to remedy the issue of wrongful convictions in the political arena. He makes a strong case for the need for Innocence Commissions in every state, showing that not only do Innocence Commissions help to identify weaknesses in the criminal justice system and offer workable improvements, but also protect society by helping to ensure that actual perpetrators are expeditiously identified, arrested, and brought to trial. Everyone has an interest in preventing wrongful convictions, from police officers and prosecutors, who seek the latest and best investigative techniques, to taxpayers, who want an efficient criminal justice system, to suspects who are erroneously pursued and sometimes convicted.
Free of legal jargon and written for a general audience, The Innocence Commission is instructive, informative, andhighly compelling reading.
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