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This innovative work builds on Huff and Killias' earlier publication (2008), but is broader and more thoroughly comparative in a number of important ways: (1) while focusing heavily on wrongful convictions, it places the subject of wrongful convictions in the broader contextual framework of miscarriages of justice and provides discussions of different types of miscarriages of justice that have not previously received much scholarly attention by criminologists; (2) it addresses, in much greater detail, the questions of how, and how often, wrongful convictions occur; (3) it provides more in-depth consideration of the role of forensic science in helping produce wrongful convictions and in helping free those who have been wrongfully convicted; (4) it offers new insights into the origins and current progress of the innocence movement, as well as the challenges that await the exonerated when they return to "free" society; (5) it assesses the impact of the use of alternatives to trials (especially plea bargains in the U.S. and summary proceedings and penal orders in Europe) in producing wrongful convictions; (6) it considers how the U.S. and Canada have responded to 9/11 and the increased threat of terrorism by enacting legislation and adopting policies that may exacerbate the problem of wrongful conviction; and (7) it provides in-depth considerations of two topics related to wrongful conviction: voluntary false confessions and convictions which, although technically not wrongful since they are based on law violations, represent another type of miscarriage of justice since they are due solely to unjust laws resulting from political repression.
From 1661 to 1664, France was mesmerized by the arrest and trial of Nicolas Fouquet, the country's superintendent of finance. Prosecuted on trumped-up charges of embezzlement, mismanagement of funds, and high treason, Fouquet managed to exonerate himself from all of the major charges over the course of three long years, in the process embarrassing and infuriating Louis XIV. The young king overturned the court's decision and sentenced Fouquet to lifelong imprisonment in a remote fortress in the Alps. A dramatic critique of absolute monarchy in pre-revolutionary France, Embezzlement and High Treason in Louis XIV's France tells the gripping tale of an overly ambitious man who rose rapidly in the state hierarchy-then overreached. Vincent J. Pitts uses the trial as a lens through which to explore the inner workings of the court of Louis XIV, who rightly feared that Fouquet would expose the tawdry financial dealings of the king's late mentor and prime minister, Cardinal Mazarin.
This book explores the relationship between the justice system and local society at a time when the Industrial Revolution was changing the characteristics of mid Wales. Crime, Courts and Community in Mid-Victorian Wales investigates the Welsh nineteenth-century experiences of both the high-born and the low within the context of law enforcement, and considers major issues affecting Welsh and wider criminal historiography: the nature of class in the Welsh countryside and small towns, the role of women, the ways in which the justice system functioned for communities at that time, the questions of how people related to the criminal courts system, and how integrated and accepting of it they were. We read the accounts of defendants, witnesses and law- enforcers through transcription of courtroom testimonies and other records, and the experiences of all sections of the public are studied. Life stories - of both offenders and prosecutors of crime - are followed, providing a unique picture of this Welsh county community, its offences and legal practices.
The most complete, step-by-step guide to the ACFS qualification The Accredited Counter Fraud Specialist Handbook is the only guide designed to support all mandatory elements of the ACFS qualification, in-depth and step-by-step. Written by recognized industry leaders, this book focuses specifically on the practitioner's role in fraud investigation in England and Wales, providing complete information about each stage in the investigative process. Readers gain access to all of the information needed to successfully complete the ACFS qualification, and to develop an awareness of the key skills required to undertake efficient, legally compliant, professional investigations. The book includes a Directory of Useful Information, featuring legislation, codes of practice, model forms, and more. As incidence of fraud continues to rise, many organisations are recruiting more Counter Fraud Specialists, and mandating Continuous Professional Development for established CFSs. The Accredited Counter Fraud Specialist (ACFS) is a recognized qualification in the field, and is mandatory for investigators in many organisations throughout the public and private sectors. The Accredited Counter Fraud Specialist Handbook is a complete guide to the qualification, both for CPD and first-time qualifiers. * Gain a deeper understanding of the legislation related to fraud and investigation * Learn the surveillance and intelligence gathering techniques that build a solid case * Review the rules of evidence and statement taking guidelines * Follow courtroom procedures and prepare a thorough prosecution file The professional qualification of ACFS, which is endorsed by the Counter Fraud Professional Accreditation Board, requires both practical and written assessments that demonstrate successful knowledge transfer and understanding of all key concepts of the investigative process. For anyone tasked with the responsibility of countering fraud, The Accredited Counter Fraud Specialist Handbook is a comprehensive guide to the investigative process.
This book offers the first in-depth study of one of the most gripping trials of inter-war Britain, that of farmer's wife Beatrice Pace for the arsenic murder of her husband. A riveting tale from the golden age of press sensationalism, the book offers insights into the era's justice system, gender debates and celebrity culture. Based on extensive research, it locates the Pace saga in the vibrant world of 1920s press reporting and illuminates a forgotten chapter in the history of civil liberties by considering the debates the case raised about police powers and the legal system.Spanning settings from the Pace's lonely cottage in the Forest of Dean to the House of Commons and using sources ranging from meticulous detective reports to heartfelt admirers' letters, The Most Remarkable Woman in England combines serious scholarship with vivid storytelling to bring to life the extraordinary lives of ordinary people between the wars.
The security governance of South Africa has faced immense challenges amid post-apartheid constitutional and political transformations. In many cases, policing and governmental organizations have failed to provide security and other services to the poorest inhabitants. Security Governance, Policing, and Local Capacity explores an experiment that took place in Zwelethemba-located in South Africa's Western Cape Province-to establish legitimate and effective nonstate security governance within poor urban settlements. There has been, and continues to be, much reticence to endorsing private forms of security governance that operate outside of state institutions within local communities. Those initiatives have often led to situations where force is used illegally and punishment is dispensed arbitrarily and brutally. This book explores the extent to which this model of mobilizing local knowledge and capacity was able to effectively achieve justice, democracy, accountability, and development in this region. Whenever possible, the book includes raw data and a thorough analysis of existing information on security governance. Examining this case and its outcome, the authors provide a theoretical analysis of the model used and present a series of design principles for future applications in local security governance. The book concludes that poor communities are a significant source of untapped resources that can, under certain conditions, be mobilized to significantly enhance safety. This volume is an important examination of experimental models and a presentation of new groundbreaking theory on engaging the local community in solving security governance problems.
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"Goulda]has produced a book that will ensure that the lessons
from these wrongful convictions are available for study and, we
hope, remembered and used to enact needed reformsa]this book is a
valuable addition to what we are learning about wrongful
"Gould's book...is a masterpiece of the genre. He combines
big-picture legal theory with details from a dozen Virginia
miscarriages of justice, including mistaken eyewitness
identification and prosecutorial misconduct."
Convicted Yet Innocent: The Legal Times Review
aA thoughtful and disturbing account of his founding in 2003 of
the Innocence Commission for Virginia (ICVA) to investigate
wrongful convictions. . . . Written for the general public, Gould's
book has important lessons for attorneys and policymakers as
aThe Innocence Commission adds to the scholarship in the area of
wrongful convictions in several important ways and with riveting
DNA testing and advances in forensic science have shaken the foundations of the U.S. criminal justice system. One of the most visible results is the exoneration of inmates who were wrongly convicted and incarcerated, many of them sentenced to death for crimes they did not commit. This has caused a quandary for many states: how can claims of innocence be properly investigated and how can innocent inmates be reliably distinguished from the guilty? In answer, some states have created ainnocence commissionsa to establish policies andprovide legal assistance to the improperly imprisoned.
The Innocence Commission describes the creation and first years of the Innocence Commission for Virginia (ICVA), the second innocence commission in the nation and the first to conduct a systematic inquiry into all cases of wrongful conviction. Written by Jon B. Gould, the Chair of the ICVA, who is a professor of justice studies and an attorney, the author focuses on twelve wrongful conviction cases to show how and why wrongful convictions occur, what steps legal and state advocates took to investigate the convictions, how these prisoners were ultimately freed, and what lessons can be learned from their experiences.
Gould recounts how a small band of attorneys and other advocates -- in Virginia and around the country -- have fought wrongful convictions in court, advanced the subject of wrongful convictions in the media, and sought to remedy the issue of wrongful convictions in the political arena. He makes a strong case for the need for Innocence Commissions in every state, showing that not only do Innocence Commissions help to identify weaknesses in the criminal justice system and offer workable improvements, but also protect society by helping to ensure that actual perpetrators are expeditiously identified, arrested, and brought to trial. Everyone has an interest in preventing wrongful convictions, from police officers and prosecutors, who seek the latest and best investigative techniques, to taxpayers, who want an efficient criminal justice system, to suspects who are erroneously pursued and sometimes convicted.
Free of legal jargon and written for a general audience, The Innocence Commission is instructive, informative, andhighly compelling reading.
Spanning almost a century of penal policy and practice in England and Wales, this book is a study of the long arc of the rehabilitative ideal, beginning in 1895, the year of the Gladstone Committee on Prisons, and ending in 1970, when the policy of treating and training criminals was very much on the defensive. Drawing on a plethora of source material, such as the official papers of mandarins, ministers, and magistrates, measures of public opinion, prisoner memoirs, publications of penal reform groups and prison officers, the reports of Royal Commissions and Departmental Committees, political opinion in both Houses of Parliament and the research of the first cadre of criminologists, this book comprehensively examines a number of aspects of the British penal system, including judicial sentencing, law-making, and the administration of legal penalties. In doing so, Victor Bailey expertly weaves a complex and nuanced picture of punishment in twentieth-century England and Wales, one that incorporates the enduring influence of the death penalty, and will force historians to revise their interpretation of twentieth-century social and penal policy. This detailed and ground-breaking account of the rise and fall of the rehabilitative ideal will be essential reading for scholars and students of the history of crime and justice and historical criminology, as well as those interested in social and legal history.
Banks accused of rate-fixing. Members of Parliament cooking the books. Major defence contractors investigated over suspect arms deals. Police accused of being paid off by tabloids. The headlines are unrelenting these days. Perhaps it's high time we ask: just exactly how corrupt is Britain? David Whyte brings together a wide range of leading commentators and campaigners, offering a series of troubling answers. Unflinchingly facing the corruption in British public life, they show that it is no longer tenable to assume that corruption is something that happens elsewhere; corrupt practices are revealed across a wide range of venerated institutions, from local government to big business. These powerful exposes shine a light on the corruption fundamentally embedded in UK politics, police and finance.
A savvy examination of where people and value meet, creating the opportunity for fraud
An essential reference for all business professionals, "Detecting Fraud in Organizations: Techniques, Tools, and Resources" explains the process of how people commit fraud, as well as how to prevent and stop fraud from occurring in your organization. Organized by business processes which succinctly describe how fraud manifests itself on a daily basis, the authors explain ways in which everyone can help guard against fraud by familiarizing themselves with its building blocks and methods used to perpetrate and conceal it. Filled with situational examples the book is accompanied by a website featuring fraud simulations, business process maps, and other useful tools for combating fraud.Focuses on the people who perpetrate fraud and those who are tasked with preventing and detecting itUniquely organized by business processes for more relevance and easier understanding by those people working within organizationsShows how subtle factors play a large role in identifying and ferreting out fraud in addition to the traditional knowledge of fraud schemes giving people and organizations the edge they need to be successful in prevention and deterrenceCompanion website includes additional fraud simulations, business process maps, and useful tools
The price of fraud can be devastating to your business. "Detecting Fraud in Organizations: Techniques, Tools, and Resources" equips you and others in your organization with essential information and tools necessary to proactively catch fraud, reduce losses, improve efficiencies and develop actionable controls.
A comprehensive resource for practitioners working with sexual offenders. Discusses assessments and interventions, as well as providing a comprehensive literature review There are around 10,000 convictions or cautions for sexual offences in the UK each year; early evidence suggests that treatment programmes can halve re-conviction rates Edited by a University of Birmingham team who are world leaders in researching this area; the subject is of interest worldwide, with strong markets in Canada and New Zealand Includes material on managing offenders with developmental disabilities and those with Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder
Over the last quarter of a century a new system of global criminal justice has emerged; national judges have become bolder in prosecuting crimes committed abroad, special tribunals have been able to target national leaders as well as their henchmen, and a permanent International Criminal Court has been established. But how successful have these ambitious transformations been? Have they ushered in a new era of cosmopolitan justice or are the old principles of victors justice still in play? In this book, Daniele Archibugi and Alice Pease offer a vibrant and thoughtful analysis of the successes and shortcomings of the global justice system from 1945 to the present day. Part I traces the evolution of this system and the cosmopolitan vision enshrined within it. Part II looks at how it has worked in practice - focusing on the trials of some of the world s most notorious war criminals, including Augusto Pinochet, Slobodan Milo evi , Radovan Karad i , Saddam Hussein and Omar al-Bashir, to assess the efficacy of the new dynamics of international punishment and the extent to which they can operate independently, without the interference of powerful governments and their representatives. Looking to the future, Part III asks how the system s failings can be addressed. What actions are required for cosmopolitan values to become increasingly embedded in the global justice system in years to come?
Hailed as a means to transform cultural norms and change lives, violence prevention programs signal a slow-rolling policy revolution that has reached nearly two-thirds of young people in the United States today. Max A. Greenberg takes us inside the booming market for programming and onto the asphalt campuses of Los Angeles where these programs are implemented, many just one hour a week for 12 weeks. He spotlights how these ephemeral programs, built on troves of risk data, are disconnected from the lived experiences of the young people they were created to support. Going beyond the narrow stories told about at-risk youth through data and in policy, Greenberg sketches a vivid portrait of young men and women coming of age and forming relationships in a world of abiding harm and fleeting, fragmented support. At the same time, Greenberg maps the minefield of historical and structural inequalities that program facilitators must navigate to build meaningful connections with the youth they serve. Taken together, these programs shape the stories and politics of a generation and reveal how social policy can go wrong when it ignores the lives of young people.
The number of people incarcerated in the U.S. now exceeds 2.3 million, due in part to the increasing criminalization of drug use: over 25% of people incarcerated in jails and prisons are there for drug offenses. Judging Addicts examines this increased criminalization of drugs and the medicalization of addiction in the U.S. by focusing on drug courts, where defendants are sent to drug treatment instead of prison. Rebecca Tiger explores how advocates of these courts make their case for what they call "enlightened coercion," detailing how they use medical theories of addiction to justify increased criminal justice oversight of defendants who, through this process, are defined as both "sick" and "bad." Tiger shows how these courts fuse punitive and therapeutic approaches to drug use in the name of a "progressive" and "enlightened" approach to addiction. She critiques the medicalization of drug users, showing how the disease designation can complement, rather than contradict, punitive approaches, demonstrating that these courts are neither unprecedented nor unique, and that they contain great potential to expand punitive control over drug users. Tiger argues that the medicalization of addiction has done little to stem the punishment of drug users because of a key conceptual overlap in the medical and punitive approaches-that habitual drug use is a problem that needs to be fixed through sobriety. Judging Addicts presses policymakers to implement humane responses to persistent substance use that remove its control entirely from the criminal justice system and ultimately explores the nature of crime and punishment in the U.S. today.
Killing Pablo charts the rise and spectacular fall of the Colombian drug lord, Pablo Escobar, the richest and most powerful criminal in history. The book exposes the massive illegal operation by covert US Special Forces and intelligence services to hunt down and assassinate Escobar. Killing Pablo combines the heart-stopping energy of a Tom Clancy techno-thriller and the stunning detail of award-winning investigative journalism. It is the most dramatic and detailed and account ever published of America's dirtiest clandestine war.
Explaining the mechanics of torture--even now a controversial topic--this history questions why so much effort has been put into causing pain to fellow human beings Taking readers into the ancient Roman coliseum, the medieval dungeon, the Inquisitional interrogation, the auto-da-fe, the witch-trial, and the most horrid of prisons, this is an exploration of the systematic use throughout the ages of various means of punishment, torture, coercion, and torment. It is a shocking and compelling study of the shameful methods and motives of the torturer and the executioner, and of the heinous duty they have performed through the ages. Since the earliest times it is an acknowledged fact that anyone can be made to confess to anything under torture, making such confessions inadmissible. This history of pain questions why such practices have continued for so long.
The Fourth Edition of Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls, and Controversies by Phyllis B. Gerstenfeld takes a multidisciplinary approach that allows students to explore a broad scope of hate crimes. Drawing on recent developments, topics, and current research, this book examines the issues that foster hate crimes while demonstrating how these criminal acts impact individuals, as well as communities. Students are introduced to the issue through first-person vignettes-offering a more personalized account of both victims and perpetrators of hate crimes. Packed with the latest court cases, research, and statistics from a variety of scholarly sources, the Fourth Edition is one of the most comprehensive and accessible textbooks in the field.
2007 Ruth Shonle Cavan Young Scholar Award presented by the American Society of Criminology
2007 American Society of Criminology Michael J. Hindelang Award for the Most Outstanding Contribution to Research in Criminology
By comparing how adolescents are prosecuted and punished in juvenile and criminal (adult) courts, Aaron Kupchik finds that prosecuting adolescents in criminal court does not fit with our cultural understandings of youthfulness. As a result, adolescents who are transferred to criminal courts are still judged as juveniles. Ultimately, Kupchik makes a compelling argument for the suitability of juvenile courts in treating adolescents. Judging Juveniles suggests that justice would be better served if adolescents were handled by the system designed to address their special needs.
This second edition of the Handbook of Victims and Victimology presents a comprehensively revised and updated set of essays, bringing together internationally recognised scholars and practitioners to offer substantial research informed overviews within their specialist fields of investigation. This handbook is divided into five parts, with each part addressing a different theme within victimology: Part I offers a scene-setting exploration of new developments in the field, enduring issues that remain relatively unchanged and the gaps and traps within the contemporary victimological agenda Part II examines of the complex dimensions to victim experiences as structured by gender, age, ethnicity, sexuality and intersectionality Part III reflects on the problems and possibilities of formulating policy responses in the light of the changing appreciation of the nature and extent of victimhood Part IV focused on the value of a comparative lens and the problems and possibilities of victim policies when seen through this lens, explored along three geographical axes: Europe, Australia and Asia Part V considers other ways of thinking about who counts as a victim and what counts as victimhood and extends the boundaries of the victimological imagination outward Building on the success of the previous edition, this book provides an international focus on cutting-edge issues in the field of victimology. Including brand new chapters on intersectionality, child victims, sexuality, hate crime and crimes of the powerful, this handbook is essential reading for students and academics studying victims and victimology and an essential reference tool for those working within the victim support environment.
This book provides a lively, concise and definitive introduction to the study of the causes of crime. Authoritative yet accessible, it offers a guide to the historical development of criminology as an academic discipline and in doing so: presents an overview of a range of different theories of crime, including classical, biological, psychological and sociological approaches analyses the strengths and weaknesses of each theory discussed provides chapter overview boxes and key summary points helps you to take your studies further with self-study tasks and suggestions for further reading. In covering key theoretical positions and placing them in their historical context, Criminological Theory in Context is perfect for students taking introductory courses in criminological theory.
Over two million people are incarcerated in America's prisons and jails, eight times as many since 1975. Mandatory minimum sentencing, parole agencies intent on sending people back to prison, three-strike laws, for-profit prisons, and other changes in the legal system have contributed to this spectacular rise of the general prison population.
After overseeing the largest city jail system in the country, Michael Jacobson knows first-hand the inner workings of the corrections system. In Downsizing Prisons, he convincingly argues that mass incarceration will not, as many have claimed, reduce crime nor create more public safety. Simply put, throwing away the key is not the answer.
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