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The pharmaceutical industry must exist to serve the community, but over the years it has engaged repeatedly in corporate crime and anti-social behaviour, with the public footing the bill. This readable study by experts in medicine, law, criminology and public health, with deep experience of the industry, documents problems ranging from false advertising and counterfeiting to corruption, fraud and overpricing. It is a fresh and revealing look at the unacceptable pressures brought to bear on doctors, politicians, patients and the media. Uniquely, the book presents realistic and worldwide solutions for the future, with positive policies encouraging honest dealing, as well as partial privatization of enforcement and a transformation of science policy to develop the medicines that society needs most. The authors examine in turn each of the main facets of the pharmaceutical industry's activities - research, manufacturing, information, distribution and pricing - as well as some questionable aspects of its relationship with society. Offering a considered analysis of pharmaceutical rights and wrongs as they have developed, particularly over the last half-century, this book is rich in new insights for managers in the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory agencies and health agencies.
The final volume of Jeffrey Archer's prison diaries covers the period of his transfer from Wayland to his eventual release on parole in July 2003. It includes a shocking account of the traumatic time he spent in the notorious Lincoln jail and the events that led to his incarceration there - it also throws light on a system that is close to breaking point. Told with humour, compassion and honesty, it closes with a thought-provoking manifesto that should be applauded by the Establishment and prison population alike.
This book examines the position of `contextual elements' as a constitutive element of the legal definition of the crime of genocide, and determines the extent to which an individual genocidaire is required to act within a particular genocidal context. Unlike other books in the field of the study of the crime of genocide, this book captures the nuance and the complex issues of the debate by providing book-length comprehensive examination of the position of contextual elements in light of the evolution of genocide as a concept and the literal legal definition of the crime of genocide, which expressly characterized the crime with only the existence of an individualistic intent to destroy a group. With scholars of international criminal law, students, researchers, practitioners in the field, and international criminal tribunals in mind, the author tackles many of the issues raised on the position of contextual elements in both academic literature and judicial decisions. Nasour Koursami is the Director of Applied Research and a Lecturer at the National School of Administration in Chad. He studied law at Cardiff and Bristol Universities and holds a Ph.D. in International Law from the University of Edinburgh.
This powerful retrospective analysis of the aftermath of the 1999 Columbine High School shooting considers society's response to the attack, the long-term implications of the shooting, and the ways in which research and related policy must continue to move forward. * Analyzes the broad cultural impact of the Columbine High School shooting * Reviews changes in police responses that have developed since the day of the attack * Examines warning signs that pre-dated the attack and how threat assessment has advanced to preclude similar tragedies * Explores legislative responses in the aftermath and why they were not successful * Considers the lessons learned in the 20 years after the shooting and how they can be used to prevent future acts of mass violence
Although the practice of disguising the illicit origins of money dates back thousands of years, the concept of money laundering as a multidisciplinary topic with social, economic, political and regulatory implications has only gained prominence since the 1980s. This groundbreaking volume offers original, state-of-the-art research on the current money laundering debate and provides insightful predictions and recommendations for future developments in the field. The contributors to this volume - academics, practitioners and government representatives from around the world - offer a number of unique perspectives on different aspects of money laundering. Topics discussed include the history of money laundering, the scale of the problem, the different types of money laundering, the cost to the private sector, and the effectiveness of anti-money laundering policies and legislation. The book concludes with a detailed and insightful synthesis of the problem and recommendations for additional steps to be taken in the future. Students, professors and practitioners working in economics, banking, finance and law will find this volume a comprehensive and invaluable resource.
It isn't enough to celebrate the death penalty's demise. We must learn from it.When Henry McCollum was condemned to death in 1983 in rural North Carolina, death sentences were commonplace. In 2015, DNA tests set McCollum free. By then, death sentences were as rare as lightning strikes. To most observers this national trend came as a surprise. What changed? Brandon Garrett hand-collected and analyzed national data, looking for causes and implications of this turnaround. End of Its Rope explains what he found, and why the story of who killed the death penalty and how can be the catalyst for criminal justice reform.No single factor put the death penalty on the road to extinction, Garrett concludes. Death row exonerations fostered rising awareness of errors in death penalty cases, at the same time that a decline in murder rates eroded law-and-order arguments. Defense lawyers radically improved how they litigate death cases when given adequate resources. More troubling, many states replaced the death penalty with what amounts to a virtual death sentence--life without possibility of parole. Today, the death penalty hangs on in a few scattered counties where prosecutors cling to entrenched habits and patterns of racial bias.The failed death penalty experiment teaches us how inept lawyering, overzealous prosecution, race discrimination, wrongful convictions, and excessive punishments undermine the pursuit of justice. Garrett makes a strong closing case for what a future criminal justice system might look like if these injustices were remedied.
When Emmett Till was murdered aged fourteen for allegedly whistling at a white woman, photographs of his destroyed face became a flashpoint in the civil rights movement. A decade earlier Emmett's father, Louis, had also been killed - court-martialled and hanged. Though the circumstances could hardly have been more different, behind both deaths stood the same crime, of being black. In Writing to Save a Life, John Edgar Wideman, born the same year as Emmett Till, investigates the tragic fates of father and son. Mixing research, memoir and imagination, this book is an essential commentary on racism in America - illuminating, humane and profound.
This work compiles experiences and lessons learned in meeting the unique needs of women and children regarding crime prevention and criminal justice, in particular the treatment and social reintegration of offenders, and serves a as a cross-disciplinary work for academic and policy-making analyses and follow-up in developing and developed countries. Furthermore, it argues for a more humane and effective approach to countering delinquency and crime among future generations. In a world where development positively depends on the rule of law and the related investment security, two global trends may chart the course of development: urbanization and education. Urbanization will globalize the concepts of "justice" and "fairness"; education will be dominated by the urban mindset and digital service economy, just as a culture of lawfulness will. This work looks at crime prevention education as an investment in the sustainable quality of life of succeeding generations, and at those who pursue such crime prevention as the providers of much-needed skills in the educational portfolio. Adopting a reformist approach, this work collects articles with findings and recommendations that may be relevant to domestic and international policymaking, including the United Nations Studies and their educational value for the welfare of coming generations. The books address the relevant United Nations ideas by combining them with academic approaches. Guided by the Editors' respective fields of expertise, and in full recognition of academic freedom and "organized scepticism", it includes contributions by lawyers, criminologists, sociologists and other eminent experts seeking to bridge the gap between academic and policy perspectives, as appropriate, against the international background, including the United Nations developments. The first volume opens with a foreword by Marta Santos Pais, the United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence against Children, and a general introduction by the editors. Part I provides an overview of United Nations principles for crime prevention and the treatment of women and children. Part II concentrates on education and the social learning of children and adolescents. The importance of quality education is stressed as is its impact on the behaviour of children of all ages. It also includes a discussion of the factors that still hinder access to good schooling in many parts of the world. Part III presents international research findings on children, juveniles and women both as victims and offenders. Statistics show overwhelmingly that these groups are more often victims than offenders.
Explore the possibilities for successfully treating incarcerated or community-based substance abusersSubstance Abuse Treatment with Correctional Clients: Practical Implications for Institutional and Community Settings provides key research findings and policy implications for treating alcohol- and drug-addicted correctional clients. This book addresses a range of critical issues associated with delivering treatment in institutional and community settings. The critical thinking questions, tables, extensive bibliographies, and name and subject index will help academics and practitioners in criminal justice, sociology, counseling/psychology, and public policy. Substance Abuse Treatment with Correctional Clients shares the practical knowledge of researchers and practitioners in the fields of drug and alcohol addictions, substance abuse counseling, and criminal justice. The first section provides a review of the theoretical explanations for substance abuse, "best practice" treatment programs for substance abusers, and the use of coerced/mandated treatment. The second section addresses the substance-addicted offender in the institutional setting, the third includes works that describe community-based treatment programs and the problems associated with them, and the fourth looks at special treatment populations, including juveniles and adolescent females. In Substance Abuse Treatment with Correctional Clients, you will find: reviews of various types of treatment programs being used to treat substance-addicted individuals a study of the predictors of success and/or failure in corrections-based substance abuse programming--how to identify and use the predictors to prevent relapse arguments for and against coerced treatment in the correctional environment, and the concept of "motivation" a thorough investigation of the therapeutic community (TC) program for institutional-based substance abusers descriptions of treatment programming designed specifically for substance abusing community corrections clients--drug courts and Pennsylvania's Restrictive Intermediate Punishment treatment programSubstance Abuse Treatment with Correctional Clients guides you through the major policy issues faced by those who provide substance abuse treatment under what can only be described as coercive circumstances. In this important resource, you will discover major treatment modules as well as advice for working with adult, juvenile, and male or female offenders. This book provides you with the techniques that treatment communities need for helping offenders stay clean after they re-enter the community environment.
Written reports and other types of writings by criminal justice and social science professionals can directly affect people's lives. Thus, it is crucial for the writer to effectively convey his or her message in a coherent and organized manner. Write & Wrong: Writing Within Criminal Justice Student Workbook is a comprehensive workbook that guides students through the entire process of writing an academic-style paper, by teaching them how to conduct library research, how to take notes without plagiarizing, how to cite in proper APA style, and how to complete a final draft of a paper. The Student Workbook includes hands-on writing exercises and reference guides to further help improve the students' writing skills. The Second Edition also helps students prepare for entering the job market, by discussing how to write a professional resume and cover letter, how to prepare PowerPoint presentations, and how to write a variety of professional reports.
Killing Times begins with the deceptively simple observation-made by Jacques Derrida in his seminars on the topic-that the death penalty mechanically interrupts mortal time by pre-empting the typical mortal experience of not knowing at what precise moment we will die. Through a broader examination of what constitutes mortal temporality, David Wills proposes that the so-called machinery of death summoned by the death penalty works by exploiting, or perverting, the prosthetic machinery of time that already regulates human existence. Killing Times traces the logic of the death penalty across a range of sites. Starting with the struggles of American courts to articulate what methods of execution constitute "cruel and unusual punishment," Wills goes on to show the ways that technologies of death have themselves evolved in conjunction with fraught ideas of cruelty and instantaneity, from the guillotine through today's lethal injections-and beyond the justice system to the opposed but linked practices of suicide bombing and drone warfare. Grounded in a deep ethical and political commitment to death penalty abolition, Wills's engaging and powerfully argued book pushes the question of capital punishment beyond the confines of legal arguments to show how the technology of capital punishment defines and appropriates the instant of death and reconfigures the whole of human mortality.
Organised crime puts on a smiley face. When the Summer of Love hit Britain in '88, Wayne embraced the bright new world of dance music, MDMA and all-night celebrations. But alongside the ecstasy, his natural East End entrepreneurial instincts kicked in, and he began to organise the infamous Genesis dance parties for thousands of kids. Wayne soon became a key figure in the high octane, technicolour rave scene. But beneath the shiny, smiley surfaces, he quickly found himself in a vicious world of violence, police harassment and organised crime, for which he was totally unsuited and unprepared. He was beaten by ex-paratroopers, menaced by gangsters, kidnapped, confronted with sawn off shotguns and threatened with murder, all so Britain could party like never before. When Class of '88 was first published, it was so popular that Foyles dedicated an entire window to the book for a month. Now, re-issued for the 30th anniversary, this is Wayne's very lively, highly individual account of the two years he spent as an illegal party promoter, leading the rave revolution which was sweeping the UK, changing lives, music and popular culture forever.
How has America's over-emphasis on the pursuit of materialistic gain contributed to the it's high rate of violent crime? CRIME AND THE AMERICAN DREAM, 5E, International Edition is an easy-to-understand book that attempts to answer that question using seminal criminological theory.
Winner, 2014 Distinguished Contribution to Research Award presented by the Latina/o Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association Los Angeles is the epicenter of the American gang problem. Rituals and customs from Los Angeles' eastside gangs, including hand signals, graffiti, and clothing styles, have spread to small towns and big cities alike. Many see the problem with gangs as related to urban marginality-for a Latino immigrant population struggling with poverty and social integration, gangs offer a close-knit community. Yet, as Edward Orozco Flores argues in God's Gangs, gang members can be successfully redirected out of gangs through efforts that change the context in which they find themselves, as well as their notions of what it means to be a man. Flores here illuminates how Latino men recover from gang life through involvement in urban, faith-based organizations. Drawing on participant observation and interviews with Homeboy Industries, a Jesuit-founded non-profit that is one of the largest gang intervention programs in the country, and with Victory Outreach, a Pentecostal ministry with over 600 chapters, Flores demonstrates that organizations such as these facilitate recovery from gang life by enabling gang members to reinvent themselves as family men and as members of their community. The book offers a window into the process of redefining masculinity. As Flores convincingly shows, gang members are not trapped in a cycle of poverty and marginality. With the help of urban ministries, such men construct a reformed barrio masculinity to distance themselves from gang life.
Featuring experts from Europe, Australia, Japan, China, and the United States, this collection of essays follows changes in the theory and policy of China's death penalty from the Mao era (1949-1979) through the Deng era (1980-1997) up to the present day. Using empirical data, such as capital offender and offense profiles, temporal and regional variations in capital punishment, and the impact of social media on public opinion and reform, contributors relay both the character of China's death penalty practices and the incremental changes that indicate reform. They then compare the Chinese experience to other countries throughout Asia and the world, showing how change can be implemented even within a non-democratic and rigid political system, but also the dangers of promoting policies that society may not be ready to embrace.
Packed with the latest data and research, the powerful new Seventh Edition of Howard Abadinsky's DRUG USE AND ABUSE: A COMPREHENSIVE INTRODUCTION, International Edition delivers a thorough, interdisciplinary survey of all aspects of drug and alcohol abuse. The text draws from the many disciplines of history, law, pharmacology, political science, social work, counseling, psychology, sociology, and criminal justice -- resulting in the most comprehensive, authoritative single source available. Coverage includes the history of drugs, their impact on society, the pharmacological impact of drugs on the body, drug policy implications, the criminal justice system response, the drug business, law enforcement, theories of use, as well as the effects, treatment, and prevention of abuse. Completely current, the Seventh Edition also includes new coverage of neuroenhancers, the "Michael Jackson drug" propofol, tobacco and alcohol as "gateway drugs", changes in heroin, Mexican drug cartels, the connection between drugs and terrorists, and much more.
Cybercrime is a worldwide problem of rapidly increasing magnitude and, of the countries in the Asia Pacific region, Taiwan and China are suffering most. This timely book discusses the extent and nature of cybercrime in and between Taiwan and China, focussing especially on the prevalence of botnets (collections of computers that have been compromised and used for malicious purposes). The book uses routine activity theory to analyse Chinese and Taiwanese legal responses to cybercrime, and reviews mutual assistance between the two countries as well as discussing third party cooperation. To prevent the spread of cybercrime, the book argues the case for a `wiki' approach to cybercrime and a feasible pre-warning system. Learning from lessons in infectious disease prevention and from aviation safety reporting, Cybercrime in the Greater China Region proposes a feasible information security incident reporting and response system. Academics, government agency workers, policymakers and those in the information security or legal compliance divisions in public and private sectors will find much to interest them in this timely study.
Imprisoned by the Past: Warren McCleskey, Race, and the American Death Penalty connects the history of the American death penalty to the case of Warren McCleskey. By highlighting the relation between American history and an individual case, Imprisoned by the Past provides a unique understanding of the big picture of capital punishment in the context of a compelling human story. McCleskey's criminal law case resulted in one of the most important Supreme Court cases in U.S. legal history, where the Court confronted evidence of racial discrimination in the administration of capital punishment. The case marks the last that the Supreme Court realistically might have held that capital punishment violates the Eighth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. As such, the constitutional law case also created a turning point in the death penalty debate in the country. The book connects McCleskey's case - as well as his life and crime - to the issues that have haunted the American death penalty debate since the first executions by early settlers and that still affect the legal system today. Imprisoned by the Past ties together three unique American stories in U.S history. First, the book considers the changing American death penalty across centuries where drastic changes have occurred in the last fifty years. Second, the book discusses the role that race played in that history. And third, the book tells the story of Warren McCleskey and how his life and legal case brought together the other two narratives.
'Devastating' J. M. Coetzee, Winner of the Man Booker Prize and the Nobel Prize in Literature THE STORY OF A YOUNG MAN'S COMING OF AGE A TENDER TRIBUTE TO A LIFE LOST A DEVASTATING ANALYSIS OF A BROKEN SYSTEM Aged 15 and living in LA, Michael Allen was arrested for a botched carjacking. He was tried as an adult and sentenced to thirteen years behind bars. After growing up in prison Michael was then released aged 26, only to be murdered three years later. In this deeply personal yet clear-eyed memoir, Danielle Allen reconstructs her cousin's life to try and understand how this tragedy was the end result. We become intimate with Michael's experience, from his first steps to his first love, and with the events of his arrest, his coming of age in prison, and his attempts to make up for lost time after his release. We learn what it's like to grow up in a city carved up by invisible gang borders; and we learn how a generation has been lost. With breathtaking bravery and intelligence, Cuz circles around its subject, viewing it from all angles to expose a shocking reality. The result is both a personal and analytical view of a life that wields devastating power. This is the new American tragedy.
Corruption presents many legal and regulatory challenges, but these challenges cannot be met by the law in isolation. This book presents economic analysis of crime as an essential tool for shaping an effective legal apparatus. The authors contend that in order to assess whether and how to regulate corruption, it is necessary to start with a thorough inquiry into the causes, institutional and social effects, and most of all, actual and potential economic and financial consequences of crimes. This, they argue, should inform and help shape a balanced legal and regulatory approach to corruption. Economic analysis is also the key to measuring the efficacy of current anti-corruption instruments, and in the light of this the book finds many existing legal counter-measures lacking. On the other hand, its assessment of new international instruments and their domestic implementation and enforcement, and the monitoring mechanisms embedded by certain international organizations, demonstrates a clear relationship between realistic economic analysis and effective solutions to the economic and legal problems posed by corruption. Offering a comprehensive legal study of corruption and grounded in economic analysis, this detailed book will appeal to scholars and researchers in crime and corruption, international public organizations and anti-corruption agencies.
Criminologists are primarily concerned with the analysis of actions that violate existing laws. But a growing number have begun analyzing crimes as actions that inflict harm, regardless of the applicability of legal sanctions. Even as they question standard definitions of crime as law-breaking, scholars of crime have few theoretical frameworks with which to understand the etiology of harmful action. In Why We Harm, Lois Presser scrutinizes accounts of acts as diverse as genocide, environmental degradation, war, torture, terrorism, homicide, rape, and meat-eating in order to develop an original theoretical framework with which to consider harmful actions and their causes. In doing so, this timely book presents a general theory of harm, revealing the commonalities between actions that impose suffering and cause destruction. Harm is built on stories in which the targets of harm are reduced to one-dimensional characters-sometimes a dangerous foe, sometimes much more benign, but still a projection of our own concerns and interests. In our stories of harm, we are licensed to do the harmful deed and, at the same time, are powerless to act differently. Chapter by chapter, Presser examines statements made by perpetrators of a wide variety of harmful actions. Appearing vastly different from one another at first glance, Presser identifies the logics they share that motivate, legitimize, and sustain them. From that point, she maps out strategies for reducing harm.
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