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This edited book examines the contemporary regional security concerns in the Asia-Pacific recognizing the `Butterfly effect', the concept that small causes can have large effects: `the flap of a butterfly's wings can cause a typhoon halfway around the world'. For many Asia-Pacific states, domestic security challenges are at least as important as external security considerations. Recent events (both natural disasters and man-made disasters) have pointed to the inherent physical, economic, social and political vulnerabilities that exist in the region. Both black swan events and persistent threats to security characterize the challenges within the Asia-Pacific region. Transnational security challenges such as global climate change, environmental degradation, pandemics, energy security, supply chain security, resource scarcity, terrorism and organized crime are shaping the security landscape regionally and globally. The significance of emerging transnational security challenges in the Asia-Pacific Region impact globally and conversely, security developments in those other regions affect the Asia-Pacific region.
Genocide has emerged as one of the leading problems of the twentieth century. No corner of the world seems immune from this form of collective violence. While many individuals are familiar with the term, few people have a clear understanding of what genocide is and how it is carried out. This book clearly discusses the concept of genocide and dispels the widely held misconceptions about how these crimes occur and the mechanisms necessary for its perpetration.
Genocidal Crimes differs from much of the writing on the subject in that it explicitly relies upon the criminological literature to explain the nature and functioning of genocide. Criminology, with its focus on various types of criminality and violence, has much to offer in terms of explaining the origins, dynamics, and facilitators of this particular form of collective violence. Through application of a number of criminological theories to various elements of genocide Alex Alvarez presents a comprehensive analysis of this particular crime. These criminological perspectives are underpinned by a variety of psychological, sociological, and political science based insights in order to present a more complete discussion of the nature and functioning of genocide.
By analyzing nearly 5,000 homicides over an eighteen-year period, Gilles Vandal provides a clear picture of the level of physical violence in Louisiana after the Civil War. He combines statistics with more traditional sources to draw conclusions about the patterns of violence and their geographical distribution. Examining post-Civil War Louisiana homicide from various perspectives, this book shows that patterns of homicide varied widely from one region to another, between racial and ethnic groups, and between genders.
Vandal also compares the situation in rural areas with that in New Orleans, the state's largest city. He examines the motivations for criminal violence and provides an explanation for the emergence of lynching as an acceptable form of punishment, especially against African Americans. This study points to a clear dichotomy between the general lawlessness of whites and the relatively nonviolent attitude of blacks during Reconstruction. Finally, Rethinking Southern Violence shows how black intraracial homicides became an important component of the general atmosphere of lawlessness in the South as the degradation of social, legal, and political conditions which characterized the Reconstruction period increasingly alienated blacks.
The quantity of data analyzed, the issues raised, and the methodological approach used take Vandal's work beyond the traditional study of violence in southern society. Not only does he deal with issues and subjects rarely addressed by historians, but he also opens new paths for understanding the roots of violence in twentieth-century America.
Claims about a pursuit of justice weave through all periods of China's modern history. But what do authorities mean when they refer to 'justice' and do Chinese citizens interpret justice in the same way as their leaders? This book explores how certain ideas about justice have come to be dominant in Chinese polity and society and how some conceptions of justice have been rendered more powerful and legitimate than others. This book's focus on 'how' justice works incorporates a concern about the processes that lead to the making, un-making and re-making of distinct conceptions of justice. Investigating the processes and frameworks through which certain ideas about justice have come to the political and social forefront in China today, this innovative work explains how these ideas are articulated through spoken performances and written expression by both the party-state and its citizenry.
Though institutional care for people suffering from mental illness was phased out in the last century, mentally disordered offenders remain the exception to this rule. The numbers detained in medium secure care have increased and new initiatives in high secure care have created specialist facilities for individuals thought to be particularly dangerous to other people. This means that the nature of institutional life, and in particular the balance between continuing detention for its own sake and care and treatment designed to allow for discharge to a more normal life in the community, should continue to pre-occupy us. Secure Lives is a unique study of life in a high security hospital, based on original research material obtained in the mid 1990s. Compelling personal accounts from staff and patients, as well as case study material, illustrate the complex culture of a high security hospital. The book explores the complex relationship that exists between staff and patients, the social hierarchy, and life amongst potentially dangerous and mentally ill individuals. Though there are many texts on forensic psychiatry in practice, this book provides a first-hand account of life in an environment never seen by those outside its walls.
From Boy Scout to assassin - the true confessions of a cartel hitman At the age of twelve Martin Corona started dealing drugs. After years in and out of prison, he rose through the ranks to become the leader of an elite killing squad for a notorious Tijuana drug cartel. Now haunted by his past deeds, he lives with the fact that he once pulled the trigger on a pregnant woman in front of her seven-year-old child, and accidentally shot a cardinal while hunting down El Chapo in an airport. Martin Corona has been convicted of multiple murders committed during his time as a cartel career hitman. These killings were brutal and cruelly efficient. Corona's gang would cross into the United States from their luxurious hideout in Mexico, eradicate whoever needed to be killed north of the border, and return home in the afternoon. In this book, Martin's shocking first-hand confessions illuminate his descent from teenage drug dealer to murderous member of the drug cartel run by the Arellano brothers that dominated the Southern California drug trade - and initiated much violent gang warfare - for decades. Martin's story illuminates how a young boy, who played Little League football and was a Boy Scout, became a vicious criminal. Both shocking and powerful, it asks us how someone can inflict so much evil and whether they can find forgiveness on the other side.
This engaging and timely collection gathers together for the first time key and classic readings in the ever-expanding area of crime and media. Comprizing a carefully distilled selection of the most important contributions to the field, Crime and Media: A Reader tackles a wide range of issues including: understanding media; researching media; crime, newsworthiness and news; crime, entertainment and creativity; effects, influence and moral panic; and cybercrime, surveillance and risk. Specially devized introductory and linking sections contextualize each reading and evaluate its contribution to the field, both individually and in relation to competing approaches and debates. This book provides a single source around which criminology, media and cultural studies modules can be structured, an invaluable revision and consultation guide for students, and an extremely useful resource for scholars writing and researching across a wide range of relevant fields. Accessible yet challenging, and packed with additional pedagogical devices, Crime and Media: A Reader will be an invaluable resource for students and academics studying crime, media, culture, surveillance and control.
The most straightforward overview available covering the entire criminal justice system. A 'no frills' explanation for beginners. This basic guide sets out the main components of the criminal justice system in an accessible way. Intended as a starting point for readers coming to the subject for the first time it is ideal for new staff, volunteers, first year students and other 'rookies' a short book of facts, explanations and pointers to further study. Chapters: 1. What is Crime? 2. What is Criminal Justice? 3. Who's Who? 4. Modern Developments 5. The Police 6. The Criminal Courts in Action 7. Sentencing (including Probation Work) 8. Prisons and Imprisonment 9. Victims and Restorative Justice 10. Causes of Crime The book also features the Rule of Law, risk assessment, decision-making, forensic investigation, witnesses, surveillance, criminology, crime reduction strategies, border controls, penal reform and some international and historical dimensions. With a Glossary of Words, Phrases and Abbreviations Bryan Gibson is a barrister and editor-in-chief at Waterside Press.
In this path-breaking book, Richard Zerbe introduces a new way to think about the concept of economic efficiency that is both consistent with its historical derivation and more useful than concepts currently used. He establishes an expanded version of Kaldor-Hicks efficiency as an axiomatic system that performs the following tasks: the new approach obviates certain technical and ethical criticisms that have been made of economic efficiency; it answers critics of efficiency; it allows an expanded range for efficiency analysis; it establishes the conditions under which economists can reasonably say that some state of the world is inefficient. He then applies the new analysis to a number of hard and fascinating cases, including the economics of duelling, cannibalism and rape. He develops a new theory of common law efficiency and indicates the circumstances under which the common law will be inefficient. The book will be of great interest to scholars, students, and practitioners interested in the concept of economic efficiency and how it should be applied to law and economics.
This book draws on the latest literature to highlight a fundamental challenge in offender rehabilitation; it questions the ability of contemporary approaches to address this challenge, and proposes an alternative strategy of criminal justice that integrates control, opportunity, and autonomy. * Provides an up to date review of the links between cognition and criminal behavior, as well as treatment and rehabilitation * Engages directly with the antisocial underpinnings of criminal behavior, a major impediment to treatment and rehabilitation * Outlines a clear strategy for communicating with offenders which is firmly rooted in the "What Works" literature, is evidence-based, and provides a way of engaging even the most antisocial of offenders by presenting them with meaningful opportunities to change * Provides hands-on instructions based upon the real-life tactics and presentation of the high-risk offender * Offers a way forward for a more meaningful and effective system of criminal justice
The Criminal Justice System: An Introduction, Fifth Edition incorporates the latest developments in the field while retaining the basic organization of previous editions which made this textbook so popular. Exploring the police, prosecutors, courts, and corrections, including probation and parole, the book moves chronologically through the different agencies in the order in which they are usually encountered when an individual goes through the criminal justice process. New in the Fifth Edition: A complete updating of charts and statistics to reflect the changes the FBI has made to the Unified Crime Reports System Expanded material on the history of law enforcement Additional information on terrorism, homeland security, and its effect on the police New approaches to policing such as Problem-Oriented Policing and Intelligence-Led Policing Cyber crime, identity theft, accreditation, and new approaches to crime analysis New information on prosecution standards, community prosecution, and prosecutorial abuse New emphasis on the concept of jurisdiction and the inter-relation between the courts' functions and the other branches of the criminal justice system An examination of the dilemma for the courts caused by the intersection of politics, funding, media, and technology New discussions on prisoner radicalization Pedagogical features: Each chapter begins with an outline and a statement of purpose to help students understand exactly what they are supposed to master and why Illustrations to assist in the clarification and further development of topics in the text Each chapter ends with a summary, a list of key terms, and a series of discussion questions to stimulate thought Appendices with the United States Constitution, a glossary of criminal justice terminology, and websites useful in gaining knowledge of the criminal justice system Access to a free computerized learning course based on the book
The Madrid train bombers, shoe-bomber Richard Reid, al-Qaeda in Iraq, and the 9/11 attacks-all were led by men radicalized behind bars. By their very nature, prisons are intended to induce transformative experiences among inmates, but today's prisons are hotbeds for personal transformation toward terrorist beliefs and actions due to the increasingly chaotic nature of prison life caused by mass incarceration. In The Spectacular Few, Mark Hamm demonstrates how prisoners use criminal cunning, collective resistance and nihilism to incite terrorism against Western targets. A former prison guard himself, Hamm knows the realities of day-to-day prison life and understands how prisoners socialize, especially the inner-workings and power of prison gangs-be they the Aryan Brotherhood or radical Islam. He shows that while Islam is mainly a positive influence in prison, certain forces within the prison Muslim movement are aligned with the efforts of al-Qaeda and its associates to inspire convicts in the United States and Europe to conduct terrorist attacks on their own. Drawing from a wide range of sources-including historical case studies of prisoner radicalization reaching from Gandhi and Hitler to Malcolm X, Bobby Sands and the detainees of Guantanamo; a database of cases linking prisoner radicalization with evolving terrorist threats ranging from police shootouts to suicide bombings; interviews with intelligence officers, prisoners affiliated with terrorist groups and those disciplined for conducting radicalizing campaigns in prison-The Spectacular Few imagines the texture of prisoners' lives: their criminal thinking styles, the social networks that influenced them, and personal "turning points" that set them on the pathway to violent extremism. Hamm provides a broad understanding of how prisoners can be radicalized, arguing that in order to understand the contemporary landscape of terrorism, we must come to terms with how prisoners are treated behind bars.
Written as a text for undergraduate courses, this book appeals to instructors interested in teaching the field of white-collar crime, both from a matter-of-fact investigative perspective as well as a decidedly academic endeavor. Accordingly, it goes beyond discussing the basic theories and typologies of commonly-encountered offenses such as fraud, forgery, embezzlement, and currency counterfeiting, to include the legalistic aspects of white-collar crime. It also explores the investigative tools and analytical techniques needed if students wish to pursue careers in this field. Because of the inextricable links between abuse-of-trust crimes such as misuse of government office, nepotism, and bribery and the realm of corporate corruption, these issues are also included.
The text also maintains a connection between white-collar crime and acts of international terrorism; as well as the more controversial aspects of possible abuses of power within the public arena posed by the USA Patriot Act of 2001 and the asset forfeiture process.
Adapted readings at the end of each chapter provide readable cases of white collar crime in action to illustrate the principles / theories presented. Activities, Exercises, and Photographs are also included in each of the 10 chapters and a Companion Web Site provides additional test items and other instructor support material.
In a time of increasing mass incarceration, US prisons and jails are becoming a major source of literary production. Prisoners write for themselves, fellow prisoners, family members, and teachers. However, too few write for college credit. In the dearth of well-organized higher education in US prisons, noncredit programs established by colleges and universities have served as a leading means of informal learning in these settings. Thousands of teachers have entered prisons, many teaching writing or relying on writing practices when teaching other subjects. Yet these teachers have few pedagogical resources. This groundbreaking collection of essays provides such a resource and establishes a framework upon which to develop prison writing programs. Prison Pedagogies does not champion any one prescriptive approach to writing education but instead recognizes a wide range of possibilities. Essay subjects include working-class consciousness and prison education; community and literature writing at different security levels in prisons; organized writing classes in jails and juvenile halls; cultural resistance through writing education; prison newspapers and writing archives as pedagogical resources; dialogical approaches to teaching prison writing classes; and more. The contributors within this volume share a belief that writing represents a form of intellectual and expressive self-development in prison, one whose pursuit has transformative potential.
Police Unlimited is centred on the controversial idea that police forces are a focal point for conflict in modern society. Instead of emphasising the socially integrative function of police forces, the book links to a conflict model concerned with its socially divisive effects. Throughout the book, the consequences of this social division are discussed, using a detailed ethnographic study of the Dutch police as a starting point, and extending the analysis out to look at the global situation. The book is based on a five year ethnography exploring police discrimination in the Dutch police. It examines cases of conflict, both inside and outside the police station, thus covering interethnic tensions at work as well as hostility towards migrants observed while joining officers on patrol. The cases are discussed in light of the corroding public character of Dutch policing and the risks involved in terms of discrimination, and the arbitrary, or even privatized, use of power. Signalling an increased blurring of the private and public spheres in policing, the book warns of an "unlimited" police service that is no longer constrained by the public contours that delineate a legal bureaucracy. To develop a police anthropology, the ethnographic materials are consistently compared with other police ethnographies in the "global north" and "global south". This comparative analysis points out that the demise of bureaucracy makes it increasingly difficult for police organizations across the globe to exclude politics, particularism and populism from their operations. Police Unlimited addresses the curious position of police organizations in the 21st century through the lens of a police anthropology concerned with deep-seated police discrimination across the world. In an age in which bureaucracy is considered to be the social evil of our time, Police Unlimited offers a controversial message: it is exactly the dehumanized and impersonal nature of bureaucracy that transforms policing into a neutral and fair practice.
"Backed up by the best science, Todd Clear and Natasha Frost make a compelling case for why the nation's forty-year embrace of the punitive spirit has been morally bankrupt and endangered public safety. But this is far more than an expose of correctional failure. Recognizing that a policy turning point is at hand, Clear and Frost provide a practical blueprint for choosing a different correctional future--counsel that is wise and should be widely followed."--Francis T. Cullen, Distinguished Research Professor of Criminal Justice, University of Cincinnati Over the last 35 years, the US penal system has grown at a rate unprecedented in US history--five times larger than in the past and grossly out of scale with the rest of the world. This growth was part of a sustained and intentional effort to "get tough" on crime, and characterizes a time when no policy options were acceptable save for those that increased penalties. In The Punishment Imperative, eminent criminologists Todd R. Clear and Natasha A. Frost argue that America's move to mass incarceration from the 1960s to the early 2000s was more than just a response to crime or a collection of policies adopted in isolation; it was a grand social experiment. Tracing a wide array of trends related to the criminal justice system, The Punishment Imperative charts the rise of penal severity in America and speculates that a variety of forces--fiscal, political, and evidentiary--have finally come together to bring this great social experiment to an end. Clear and Frost stress that while the doubling of the crime rate in the late 1960s represented one of the most pressing social problems at the time, this is not what served as a foundation for the great punishment experiment. Rather, it was the way crime posed a political problem--and thereby offered a political opportunity--that became the basis for the great rise in punishment. The authors claim that the punishment imperativeis a particularly insidious social experiment because the actual goal was never articulated, the full array of consequences was never considered, and the momentum built even as the forces driving the policy shifts diminished. Clear and Frost argue that the public's growing realization that the severe policies themselves, not growing crime rates, were the main cause of increased incarceration eventually led to a surge of interest in taking a more rehabilitative, pragmatic, and cooperative approach to dealing with criminal offenders. The Punishment Imperative cautions that the legacy of the grand experiment of the past forty years will be difficult to escape. However, the authors suggest that the United States now stands at the threshold of a new era in penal policy, and they offer several practical and pragmatic policy solutions to changing the criminal justice system's approach to punishment. Part historical study, part forward-looking policy analysis, The Punishment Imperative is a compelling study of a generation of crime and punishment in America. Todd R. Clear is Dean of the School of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University. He is the author of Imprisoning Communities and What Is Community Justice? and the founding editor of the journal Criminology & Public Policy.
In the mid-1990s, as public trust in big government was near an all-time low, 80% of Americans told Gallup that they supported the death penalty. Why did people who didn't trust government to regulate the economy or provide daily services nonetheless believe that it should have the power to put its citizens to death? That question is at the heart of Executing Freedom, a powerful, wide-ranging examination of the place of the death penalty in American culture and how it has changed over the years. Drawing on an array of sources, including congressional hearings and campaign speeches, true crime classics like In Cold Blood, and films like Dead Man Walking, Daniel LaChance shows how attitudes toward the death penalty have reflected broader shifts in Americans' thinking about the relationship between the individual and the state. Emerging from the height of 1970s disillusion, the simplicity and moral power of the death penalty became a potent symbol for many Americans of what government could do-and LaChance argues, fascinatingly, that it's the very failure of capital punishment to live up to that mythology that could prove its eventual undoing in the United States.
A guide to the literature on corruption. The articles illustrate and explain the scope, incidence and consequences of corruption in a variety of political settings in the developed world, covering issues such as the American experience of sleaze and sleaze and the sense of malaise in Germany.
A discussion of corruption. The articles illustrate and explain the scope, incidence and consequences of corruption in a variety of political settings in the developed and developing world, addressing issues such as corruption in the Mexican political system and OTRAG in Zaire.
A guide to the literature on corruption. The articles included address issues such as: economic development through bureaucratic corruption; corruption as a feature of governmental organization; the corruption of a state; and directions in the study of administrative corruption.
Since Gary Becker's seminal article in the late sixties, the economic analysis of crime has blossomed, from an interesting side field within law and economics, into a mature stand-alone sub-discipline that has been embraced by many well-respected academic economists. Wide ranging and accessible, this is the most up-to-date textbook in this area, taking current economic research and making it accessible to undergraduates and other interested readers. Without use of graphs or mathematical equations, Winter combines theory and empirical evidence with controversial examples from the news media.Topics discussed include: the death penalty, racial profiling, rational drug addiction and drug legalization, private crime deterrence, gun control, the privatization of prisons, juvenile crime, and alternative social reforms to deter crime. By requiring no previous knowledge of economics, not only is this book a perfect choice for students new to the study of economics and public policy, it will also be of interest and accessible to students of criminology, law, political science, and other disciplines interested in the study of crime topics. By emphasizing the benefits and costs of social policy to deter crime, The Economics of Crime can be enjoyed by anyone who follows current public policy debate over one of society's most contentious issues.
A blend of Manhunt, Killing Pablo, and Zero Dark Thirty, Andrew Hogan and Douglas Century's sensational investigative high-tech thriller--soon to be a major motion picture from Sony--chronicles a riveting chapter in the twentieth-century drug wars: the exclusive inside story of the American lawman and his dangerous eight-year hunt that captured El Chapo--the world's most wanted drug kingpin who evaded the law for more than a decade. Every generation has a larger-than-life criminal: Jesse James, Billy the Kid, John Dillinger, Al Capone, John Gotti, Pablo Escobar. But each of these notorious lawbreakers had a "white hat" in pursuit: Wyatt Earp, Pat Garrett, Eliot Ness, Steve Murphy. For notorious drug lord Joaqu n Archivaldo Guzm n-Loera--El Chapo--that lawman is former Drug Enforcement Administration Special Agent Andrew Hogan. In 2006, fresh out of the D.E.A. Academy, Hogan heads west to Arizona where he immediately plunges into a series of gripping undercover adventures, all unknowingly placing him on the trail of Guzm n, the leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, a Forbes billionaire and Public Enemy No. 1 in the United States. Six years later, as head of the D.E.A.'s Sinaloa Cartel desk in Mexico City, Hogan finds his life and Chapo's are ironically, on parallel paths: they're both obsessed with the details. In a recasting of the classic American Western on the global stage, Hunting El Chapo takes us on Hogan's quest to achieve the seemingly impossible, from infiltrating El Chapo's inner circle to leading a white-knuckle manhunt with an elite brigade of trusted Mexican Marines--racing door-to-door through the cartel's stronghold and ultimately bringing the elusive and murderous king-pin to justice. This cinematic crime story following the relentless investigative work of Hogan and his team unfolds at breakneck speed, taking the reader behind the scenes of one of the most sophisticated and dangerous counter-narcotics operations in the history of the United States and Mexico.
The United States and her allies have found themselves plunged into `a war over [humanity's] future social and political organization' with criminal challengers to the nation-state form. These new wars are currently being fought globally with Al Qaeda, in Iraq with shifting coalitions of criminal gangs, insurgents, and Jihadi groups and throughout the Americas with the Maras (the first group of 3rd GEN Gangs to emerge). More new wars are poised to develop and the on-going ones are far from over, with more attacks upon the homelands of the US and her allies expected. This cutting edge book looks initially at the theoretical and legal side of criminal-state and criminal-soldier emergence and growth, before focusing on criminal-states and criminal-soldiers themselves, with particular attention paid to Al Qaeda, Hizballah, Mara Salvatrucha (MS 13), Caliphate and Mahdi concerns, Islamic Fundamentalist Use of Beheadings, Criminalization of Russian State Security, Nuclear Materials Trafficking, and Outlaw Private Security Firms. With the contributions from international experts, this book makes for critical reading for political scientists and criminal justice students and researchers, policy makers, and military and law enforcement practitioners. This book was previously published as a special issue of Global Crime.
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