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Everything drug cartels do to survive and prosper they've learnt from big business - brand value and franchising from McDonald's, supply chain management from Walmart, diversification from Coca-Cola. Whether it's human resourcing, R&D, corporate social responsibility, off-shoring, problems with e-commerce or troublesome changes in legislation, the drug lords face the same strategic concerns companies like Ryanair or Apple. So when the drug cartels start to think like big business, the only way to understand them is using economics. In Narconomics, Tom Wainwright meets everyone from coca farmers in secret Andean locations, deluded heads of state in presidential palaces, journalists with a price on their head, gang leaders who run their empires from dangerous prisons and teenage hitmen on city streets - all in search of the economic truth.
A practical guide to addressing the challenges managers face in implementing and enforcing new anti-bribery regulations
The Bribery Act became the law of the land in July 2011. It abolished all existing U.K. anti-bribery laws and replaced them with a suite of new regulations decidedly different and more strenuous than what has come before. Under it companies found noncompliant will be open to billions in penalties and remediation costs, and managers will be open to prosecution if anyone associated with their company commits an offence covered by the act. As employees in nearly all departments will share responsibility for ensuring that adequate procedures are in place and enforced, there is a screaming need for practical, jargon-free guidance on the subject. This book fills that need. It arms managers and advisors with the knowledge and tools they need to implement, communicate and test controls and procedures that not only comply with but exceed the new anti-bribery requirements. It also offers priceless pointers on how to effectively react to bribery allegations if and when they occur.Packed with takeaway tips and checklists that put crucial information at readers' fingertipsWritten by a chartered accountant and compliance expert, the book offers practical steps managers should take to guarantee company complianceDescribes best practices in anti-bribery and corruption compliance in all key business areas, including accounting, sales and marketing, management, legal, and internal auditing
Georgia is one of the most corrupt and crime-ridden nations of the former Soviet Union. In the Soviet period, Georgians played a major role in organized crime groups and the shadow economy operating throughout the Soviet Union, and in the post-Soviet period, Georgia continues to be important source of international crime and corruption. Important changes have been made since the Rose Revolution in Georgia to address the organized crime and pervasive corruption.
This book, based on extensive original research, surveys the most enduring aspects of organized crime and corruption in Georgia and the most important reforms since the Rose Revolution. Endemic crime and corruption had a devastating effect on government and everyday life in Georgia, spurring widespread popular discontent that culminated with the Rose Revolution in 2003. Some of the hopes of the Rose Revolution have been realized, though major challenges lie ahead as Georgia confronts deep-seated crime and corruption issues that will remain central to political, economic, and social life in the years to come.
This book is a comprehensive and critical introduction to the field of gender and crime, re-thinking the key themes and debates within a human rights framework. Integrating empirical, theoretical and policy-related material, this Second Edition has been significantly updated, and now includes; Full consideration of the 2010-2015 Coalition Government and its effect on gender and crime within England and Wales A new chapter relating criminological theory to gender and crime A new chapter discussing the history of gender and crime A new chapter analysing contemporary issues in gender and crime in a globalised world Fully updated learning features including; Chapter Overviews, Key Words, Study Questions, Chapter Summaries, Key Further Readings and a Glossary. Gender and Crime: A Human Rights Approach is essential reading for students studying criminology, sociology, social policy and gender studies.
The criminal justice process is unavoidably human. Police detectives, witnesses, suspects, and victims shape the course of investigations, while prosecutors, defense attorneys, jurors, and judges affect the outcome of adjudication. In this sweeping review of psychological research, Dan Simon shows how flawed investigations can produce erroneous evidence and why well-meaning juries send innocent people to prison and set the guilty free.
The investigator s task is genuinely difficult and prone to bias. This often leads investigators to draw faulty conclusions, assess suspects truthfulness incorrectly, and conduct coercive interrogations that can lead to false confessions. Eyewitnesses identification of perpetrators and detailed recollections of criminal events rely on cognitive processes that are often mistaken and can easily be skewed by the investigative procedures used. In the courtroom, jurors and judges are ill-equipped to assess the accuracy of testimony, especially in the face of the heavy-handed rhetoric and strong emotions that crimes arouse.
Simon offers an array of feasible ways to improve the accuracy of criminal investigations and trials. While the limitations of human cognition will always be an obstacle, these reforms can enhance the criminal justice system s ability to decide correctly whom to release and whom to punish."
As a society we are buying more sex than ever before. Adult sex shops now take their place amongst retailers in the high street and lap dancing clubs compete for an increased share of the leisure economy; hotel chains offer sexually explicit films as part of their standard service, the party selling of adult toys to women in their homes has become a mainstream activity; and at the traditional end of the sexual service economy, prostitution has experienced new growth. Along with this has come new legal measures and attempts to regulate the sexual leisure economy, and far more comprehensive plans than ever before to regulate prostitution, in particular in the form of the new Sex Offences Act. This book seeks to address the range of issues and contemporary debates on the sex industry, including the demand by customers who buy sex, the policing of women who work in the street sex industry, and the violence that pervades prostitution. It shows how these issues have been addressed in policy terms, the problems that have emerged in this, and how a social policy might be formulated to minimize harm and enhance public understanding. Overall the book aims to provide a critical perspective on prostitution policies and the legal chaos and complexities that surround this.
This companion offers a user-friendly and practical introduction to the various aspects of studying and researching Criminology and Criminal Justice. With study skills coverage integrated alongside broad overviews of the key theories and concepts that drive Criminology and Criminal Justice, the book offers an authoritative overview for those starting out in their studies. It is also packed with helpful reflective questions to encourage the reader to think more deeply about the material and its application in the real world. This is an essential resource for students with no prior experience of studying Criminology or Criminal Justice, as well as for those who want a handy reference book at any point in their study and further career. It has been designed to be used as pre-course reading, as a core text on introductory Criminology, Criminal Justice or Criminological Skills modules, or as complimentary reading on Criminological Theory modules.
Expertly authored by the co-editor of the best-selling text Cultural Criminology Unleashed, this book re-examines criminology in a global context. Wide-ranging and up-to-date, it covers the topics of colonialism and post-colonialism, genocide, state control, the impact of September 11th and the post-9/11 world.
Exploring the relationship between a modern discipline and modernity, it reworks the history and composition of criminology in light of September 11th and the prevalence of genocide in modernity. Analizing statistics, anthropology and the everyday assumptions of criminology's history, this text addresses the political and scholarly grip on the territorial state and the absence of a global criminology.
Rejecting the prevalent belief that September 11th and the responses it evoked were exceptions that either destroyed or revealed the absence of global legal order, the author argues that, in fact, they confirm the nature of the world order of modernity.
A compelling and topical volume, this is a must read for anyone interested or studying in the areas of criminology and criminal justice.
With the popularity of crime dramas like CSI focusing on forensic science, and increasing numbers of police and prosecutors making wide-spread use of DNA, high-tech science seems to have become the handmaiden of law enforcement. But this is a myth,asserts law professor and nationally known expert on police profiling David A. Harris. In fact, most of law enforcement does not embrace science-it rejects it instead, resisting it vigorously. The question at the heart of this book is why. "" Eyewitness identifications procedures using simultaneous lineups-showing the witness six persons together,as police have traditionally done-produces a significant number of incorrect identifications. "" Interrogations that include threats of harsh penalties and untruths about the existence of evidence proving the suspect's guilt significantly increase the prospect of an innocent person confessing falsely. "" Fingerprint matching does not use probability calculations based on collected and standardized data to generate conclusions, but rather human interpretation and judgment.Examiners generally claim a zero rate of error - an untenable claim in the face of publicly known errors by the best examiners in the U.S. Failed Evidence explores the real reasons that police and prosecutors resist scientific change, and it lays out a concrete plan to bring law enforcement into the scientific present. Written in a crisp and engaging style, free of legal and scientific jargon, Failed Evidence will explain to police and prosecutors, political leaders and policy makers, as well as other experts and anyone else who cares about how law enforcement does its job, where we should go from here. Because only if we understand why law enforcement resists science will we be able to break through this resistance and convince police and prosecutors to rely on the best that science has to offer. Justice demands no less. Visit the author's blog here.
Today's home is a kind of fortress that tells us as much about our need for privacy as it does about ensuring our security. Fortress homes, gated communities and elaborate defensive systems have become everyday features of urban life, highlighting the depth of fear as well as the desire for prestige and social display and the ideological strength of home ownership. This book offers a fresh analysis of our homes, our demands for security and anxieties about invasion, loss and finding seclusion in a worrying and divided world. Using a rich range of sources from cutting-edge research to media accounts, the book considers the fantasies and realities of dangers to the contemporary home and its inhabitants, and details the extreme measures now used in the pursuit of total safety. -- .
Expertly authored by the co-editor of the best-selling text Cultural Criminology Unleashed, this book re-examines criminology in a global context. Wide-ranging and up-to-date, it covers the topics of colonialism and post-colonialism, genocide, state control, the impact of September 11th and the post-9/11 world. Exploring the relationship between a modern discipline and modernity, it reworks the history and composition of criminology in light of September 11th and the prevalence of genocide in modernity. Analizing statistics, anthropology and the everyday assumptions of criminology's history, this text addresses the political and scholarly grip on the territorial state and the absence of a global criminology. Rejecting the prevalent belief that September 11th and the responses it evoked were exceptions that either destroyed or revealed the absence of global legal order, the author argues that, in fact, they confirm the nature of the world order of modernity. A compelling and topical volume, this is a must read for anyone interested or studying in the areas of criminology and criminal justice.
Police Unlimited is centred on the controversial idea that police forces are a focal point for conflict in modern society. Instead of emphasising the socially integrative function of police forces, the book links to a conflict model concerned with its socially divisive effects. Throughout the book, the consequences of this social division are discussed, using a detailed ethnographic study of the Dutch police as a starting point, and extending the analysis out to look at the global situation. The book is based on a five year ethnography exploring police discrimination in the Dutch police. It examines cases of conflict, both inside and outside the police station, thus covering interethnic tensions at work as well as hostility towards migrants observed while joining officers on patrol. The cases are discussed in light of the corroding public character of Dutch policing and the risks involved in terms of discrimination, and the arbitrary, or even privatized, use of power. Signalling an increased blurring of the private and public spheres in policing, the book warns of an "unlimited" police service that is no longer constrained by the public contours that delineate a legal bureaucracy. To develop a police anthropology, the ethnographic materials are consistently compared with other police ethnographies in the "global north" and "global south". This comparative analysis points out that the demise of bureaucracy makes it increasingly difficult for police organizations across the globe to exclude politics, particularism and populism from their operations. Police Unlimited addresses the curious position of police organizations in the 21st century through the lens of a police anthropology concerned with deep-seated police discrimination across the world. In an age in which bureaucracy is considered to be the social evil of our time, Police Unlimited offers a controversial message: it is exactly the dehumanized and impersonal nature of bureaucracy that transforms policing into a neutral and fair practice.
Told with equal parts raw honesty and unbridled compassion, All Day recounts a year in Liza Jessie Peterson's classroom at Island Academy, the high school for inmates detained at New York City's Rikers Island. A poet and actress who had done occasional poetry workshops at the correctional facility, Peterson was ill-prepared for a full-time stint teaching a full GED curriculum program for the incarcerated youth. For the first time faced with full days teaching the rambunctious, hyper, and fragile adolescent inmates, "Ms. P" comes to understand the essence of her predominantly Black and Latino students as she attempts not only to educate them, but to instill them with a sense of self-worth long stripped from their lives. "I have quite a spirited group of drama kings, court jesters, flyboy gangsters, tricksters, and wannabe pimps all in my charge, all up in my face, to educate," Peterson discovers. "Corralling this motley crew of bad-news bears to do any lesson is like running boot camp for hyperactive gremlins. I have to be consistent, alert, firm, witty, fearless, and demanding, and most important, I have to have strong command of the subject I'm teaching." Discipline is always a challenge, with the students spouting street-infused backtalk and often bouncing off the walls with pent-up testosterone. Peterson learns quickly that she must keep the upper hand-set the rules and enforce them with rigor, even when her sympathetic heart starts to waver. Despite their relentless bravura and antics-and in part because of it-Peterson becomes a fierce advocate for her students. She works to instill the young men, mostly black, with a sense of pride about their history and culture: from their African roots to Langston Hughes and Malcolm X. She encourages them to explore and express their true feelings by writing their own poems and essays. When the boys push her buttons (on an almost daily basis) she pushes back, demanding that they meet not only her expectations or the standards of the curriculum, but set expectations for themselves-something most of them have never before been asked to do. She witnesses some amazing successes as some of the boys come into their own under her tutelage. Peterson vividly captures the prison milieu and the exuberance of the kids who have been handed a raw deal by society and have become lost within the system. Her time in the classroom teaches her something, too-that these boys want to be rescued. They want normalcy and love and opportunity.
The police force use a number of breeds of dogs for a variety of duties. The type of dog sometimes depends on the job to be done, but the following breeds are the ones usually used in Britain: German Shepherd, Rottweiler, Giant Schnauzer, Doberman, Labrador, Belgian Shepherd, Springer Spaniels, Weimaraners and German Short-Haired Pointers. Searching and tracking are the main tasks of police dogs. A single police officer is no match for a police dog as they are able to search more quickly and in very constricted places. How to become a police dog handler is an exciting new book that covers every element of the selection process and also provides practical advice on police dog types, police dog commands, the health of police dogs, dog handler laws and the training of police dogs and their handlers.
People with personality disorder who offend tend to be neglected by health services in most countries. In the UK, there has been renewed interest in the field since government initiatives in the end of the 1990s. Government proposals themselves are controversial, but there is growing recognition that it is unsafe, both for the general public and for the primary sufferer alike, if the neglect continues. Years of experience have combined to provide a highly practical reference work covering: A*Models of understanding of personality development and disorder A*Methods of assessment and treatment and how they can be applied and modified A*Special issues - drug misuse, long-stay induced secondary disorders, issues pertinent to women only, 'intractable' patients A*A path for care - from initial assessment to the logistics of discharge A*Management issues - choosing staff, supervision and support of staff Evidence-based and entirely comprehensive in its approach, practitioners will find Personality Disorder and Serious Offending both a practical and insightful adjunct that will assist them in their work.
Secrets of Life and Death is the first book to focus on women whose lives are entangled in the workings of the mafia. Drawing on courtroom testimonies, interviews, contemporary journalism and recent research, Siebert cuts through the mafia's myth of honouring women to expose the harsh realities for women living with, and fighting against, the mafia. With careful attention to the socio-economic realities of southern Italy, she looks at what it actually means to live in the mafia's shadow. She explores the gains and costs of being a mafia wife in New York or Palermo, probing the emotions underlying women's mafia loyalties and the sexual lure of the mafioso. In vivid and often harrowing detail, Siebert examines women's growing resistance to a culture of death and dangerously intensified masculinity. Alongside the public stories of the wives of murdered judges, policemen and politicians, she places the extraordinary accounts of women who have taken a stand against their own mafia upbringing or have spoken out as witnesses, at enormous personal cost. It is women's courageous initiatives, Siebert shows, which have led to the development of local anti-mafia organizations and recent mass protests in the face of violent intimidation. Poignant and incisive, Secrets of Life and Death breaks the code of silence to tell a story that is both haunting and inspiring.
How much do you know about key issues in crime, crime control, policing and punishment in the UK? This exciting, dynamic and accessible book presents 50 key facts related to crime and criminal justice policy in Britain. Did you know that, contrary to public belief, in the UK a life sentence does actually last for life? And that capital punishment in the UK was abolished for murder in 1965 but the Death Penalty was a legally defined punishment as late as 1998? Offering thought-provoking insights into the study of crime, this fascinating "go to" book is packed with facts and figures revealing the myths and realities of crime in contemporary Britain.
Based on five years of ethnography, archival research, census data analysis, and interviews, Police, Power, and the Production of Racial Boundaries reveals how the LAPD, city prosecutors, and business owners struggled to control who should be considered "dangerous" and how they should be policed in Los Angeles. Sociologist Ana Muniz shows how these influential groups used policies and everyday procedures to criminalize behaviors commonly associated with blacks and Latinos and to promote an exceedingly aggressive form of policing. Muniz illuminates the degree to which the definitions of "gangs" and "deviants" are politically constructed labels born of public policy and court decisions, offering an innovative look at the process of criminalization and underscoring the ways in which a politically powerful coalition can define deviant behavior. As she does so, Muniz also highlights the various grassroots challenges to such policies and the efforts to call attention to their racist effects. Muniz describes the fight over two very different methods of policing: community policing (in which the police and the community work together) and the "broken windows" or "zero tolerance" approach (which aggressively polices minor infractions - such as loitering - to deter more serious crime). Police, Power, and the Production of Racial Boundaries also explores the history of the area to explain how Cadillac-Corning became viewed by outsiders as a "violent neighborhood" and how the city's first gang injunction - a restraining order aimed at alleged gang members - solidified this negative image. As a result, Muniz shows, Cadillac-Corning and other sections became a test site for repressive practices that eventually spread to the rest of the city.
Today there are approximately fifty thousand prisoners in American prisons serving life without parole, having been found guilty of crimes ranging from murder and rape to burglary, carjacking, and drug offences. In The Forgotten Men, criminologist Margaret Leigey provides an insightful account of a group of aging inmates imprisoned for at least twenty years, with virtually no chance of release. These men make up one of the most marginalized segments of the contemporary U.S. prison population. Considered too dangerous for rehabilitation, ignored by prison administrators, and overlooked by courts disinclined to review such sentences, these prisoners grow increasingly cut off from family and the outside world. Drawing on in-depth interviews with twenty-five such prisoners, Leigey gives voice to these extremely marginalized inmates and offers a look at how they struggle to cope. She reveals, for instance, that the men believe that permanent incarceration is as inhumane as capital punishment, calling life without parole "the hard death penalty" Indeed, after serving two decades in prison, some wished that they had received the death penalty instead. Leigey also recounts the ways in which the prisoners attempt to construct meaningful lives inside the bleak environment where they will almost certainly live out their lives. Every state in the union (except Alaska) has the life-without-parole sentencing option, despite its controversial nature and its staggering cost to the taxpayer. The Forgotten Men provides a much-needed analysis of the policies behind life-without-parole sentencing, arguing that such sentences are overused and lead to serious financial and ethical dilemmas.
Born in 1970s North Korea, Lucia Jang grew up in a typical household-her parents worked in the factories and the family scraped by on rationed rice and a small garden. Nightly, she bowed to her photo of Kim Il-Sung. But it was the beginning of a chaotic period with a decade-long famine resulting in more than a million deaths. In this harsh time, Jang married an abusive man who sold their baby. She left him and went home to help her family by illegally crossing the river to China to trade goods. She was caught and imprisoned twice. After giving birth to a second child, which the government ordered to be killed, she escaped with him, fleeing under gunfire across the Chinese border. This stunning demonstration of love and courage reflects the range of experiences many North Korean women have endured.
This is a frankly-written penetrating study of flagellation in all its aspects: penal, religious, educational and erotic. Represented here are soldiers and sailors, thieves and prostitutes, schoolboys and schoolgirls, slaves and servants, and the various forms of flagellation used on these groups throughout the ages. The physical, psychological and pathological dangers of corporal punishment are thoroughly studied, and an analysis of the pernicious effects of this punishment on sexual health-effects which are only too often ignored or overlooked-is also included.
This is a comprehensive introduction to the study of criminology, focussing on the vital core of criminological theory - theory, method, and criminal behaviour. Hagan investigates all forms of criminal activity, such as organized crime, white collar crime, political crime, and environmental crime. He explains the methods of operation, the effects on society and policy decisions, and how various theories account for criminal behaviour in clear, accessible fashion. This Ninth Edition is also available as an Interactive Ebook. New to this edition Updated coverage of terrorism and counter-terrorism efforts, as well as new coverage of emerging criminological methods, such as ethnographies. A concerted effort has also been made to make this text as concise as possible, while still maintaining the breadth and depth of coverage that makes this text Tables, figures, statistics, and examples have been updated throughout. To help better prepare students for learning and to increase comprehensive, Learning Objectives and Pre-tests have been added to the beginning of each chapter. A new Crime in the Media box has been added to highlight the increasing attention to the effect that the media has on public perception of crime. To better differentiate the purpose of the crime files (to demonstrate a specific crime that helps illustrate a concept), many of your favourite crime files from the previous edition are now call Criminology in Context and provide further information on an important concept discussed in the text. Many of the Crime Files throughout have been updated to reflect recent cases.
The prison is a recent invention, hardly more than two centuries old, yet it has become the universal system of punishment. How can we understand the place that the correctional system occupies in contemporary societies? What are the experiences of those who are incarcerated as well as those who work there? To answer these questions, Didier Fassin conducted a four-year-long study in a French short-stay prison, following inmates from their trial to their release. He shows how the widespread use of imprisonment has reinforced social and racial inequalities and how advances in civil rights clash with the rationales and practices used to maintain security and order. He also analyzes the concerns and compromises of the correctional staff, the hardships and resistance of the inmates, and the ways in which life on the inside intersects with life on the outside. In the end, the carceral condition appears to be irreducible to other forms of penalty both because of the chain of privations it entails and because of the experience of meaninglessness it comprises. Examined through ethnographic lenses, prison worlds are thus both a reflection of society and its mirror. At a time when many countries have begun to realize the impasse of mass incarceration and question the consequences of the punitive turn, this book will provide empirical and theoretical tools to reflect on the meaning of punishment in contemporary societies.
The Prevention of Crime provides a unique and comprehensive overview of effective crime prevention programs, strategies and policies, demonstrating how criminological theories, research, and practice are interrelated. Offers the most cutting-edge, comprehensive summaries of effective interventions based on the latest research, by the foremost scholars on the topic of crime prevention in the U.S Provides unique practical information and discussions on how to effectively replicate prevention strategies in communities and criminal-justice settings is highly relevant to students, providing them with the latest research in this area Coverage of multiple theories of crime includes the more recent public-health and life-course developmental perspectives Includes a comprehensive review of the increasing number of effective crime prevention interventions and the practicalities of ensuring that these programs, practices and policies are effectively implemented, both in the U.S and in other countries Presents the most cutting-edge current and optimistic view regarding crime prevention: that it is possible to effectively reduce crime but that efforts need to start early in communities and continue through the life-course
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