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There have been many heroes and victims in the battle to abolish the death penalty, and Marie Deans fits into both of those categories. A South Carolina native who yearned to be a fiction writer, Marie was thrust by a combination of circumstances-including the murder of her beloved mother-in-law-into a world much stranger than fiction, a world in which minorities and the poor were selected to be sacrificed to what Supreme Court Justice Harry Blackmun called the ""machinery of death."" Marie found herself fighting to bring justice to the legal process and to bring humanity not only to prisoners on death row but to the guards and wardens as well. During Marie's time as a death penalty opponent in South Carolina and Virginia, she experienced the highs of helping exonerate the innocent and the lows of standing death watch in the death house with thirty-four condemned men.
This book presents a case study of human trafficking from Nigeria to the UK, with a focus on practical measures for ending this trafficking. The study addresses the many aspects of human trafficking, including sexual exploitation, domestic servitude, labor exploitation, benefit fraud, and organ harvesting. Despite the huge investment of the international community to eradicate it, this form of modern day slavery continues, and the author urges stakeholders to focus not only on criminals but also on attitudes, cultures, laws and policies that hinder the eradication of modern slavery.
Blackstone's Police Investigators' Q&A 2019 is the essential revision tool for all candidates sitting the National Investigators' Examination (NIE) examinations. Written in partnership with the best-selling Blackstone's Investigators' Manual, the only study guide endorsed by the College of Policing, the Q&A consists of over 200 multiple-choice questions arranged in the same order as the chapters in the Manual, providing the most authoritative means of self-testing outside of the NIE. With four parts, General Principles, Police Powers and Procedures; Serious Crime and Other Offences; Property Offences; and Sexual Offences, reflecting the Manual, Blackstone's Police Investigators' Q&A presents you with the only format of questions you will see in an NIE examination: Type A. Each question has a detailed and comprehensive answer that highlights not only the correct response, but also the reasoning behind the incorrect responses, allowing you to highlight any gaps or weaknesses in your knowledge. Full cross-references to the relevant Manual paragraphs and Keynotes encourage more effective studying, while a question checklist helps you track your progress. The introductory chapters also contain a useful section on how to study for the NIE, including advice on how to approach multiple-choice questions, practical exam techniques, and a 14-week revision plan. Fully updated for the 2019 syllabus, including coverage of relevant new legislation, the Policing and Crime Act 2017, including key revisions to PACE Codes C, E, and F, and significant case law decisions. This product is not endorsed by the College of Policing.
The Cincinnati Penal Congress of 1870 ushered in the era of "progressive" penology: the use of statistical and social scientific methodologies, commitment to psychiatric and therapeutic interventions, and a new innovation-the reformatory-as the locus for the application of these initiatives. The prisoner was now seen as a specimen to be analyzed, treated, and properly socialized into the triumphal current of American social and economic life. Of course, the Progressive rehabilitative initiatives succumbed in the 1970s to withering criticism from the proponents of equally futile strategies for addressing "the crime problem": retribution, deterrence, and selective incapacitation. The early Christian community developed a methodology for correcting human error that featured the unprecedented belief that a period of time spent in a given penitential locale, with the aid and encouragement of the community, was sufficient in and of itself to heal the alienation and self-loathing caused by sin and to lead an individual to full reincorporation into the community. The "correctional" practice was based upon the conviction that cooperative sociability-or conversion-is possible, regardless of the specific offense and that there is no need to inflict suffering or use the act of punishment as a warning to potential offenders or to intervene in the life of the offender with rehabilitation. Andrew Skotnicki contends that the modern practice of criminal detention is a protracted exercise in needless violence predicated upon two foundational errors. The first is an inability to see the imprisoned as human beings fully capable of responding to an affirmative accompaniment rather than maltreatment and invasive forms of therapy. The second is a pervasive dualism that constructs a barrier between the detainee and those empowered to supervise, rehabilitate, and punish them. In this book, Skotnicki argues that the criminal justice system can only be rehabilitated by eliminating punishment and policies based upon deterrence, rehabilitation, and the incapacitation of the urban poor and returning to the original justification for the practice of confinement: conversion.
In 1631, at the epicenter of the worst excesses of the European witch-hunts, Friedrich Spee, a Jesuit priest, published the Cautio Criminalis, a book speaking out against the trials that were sending thousands of innocent people to gruesome deaths. Spee, who had himself ministered to women accused of witchcraft in Germany, had witnessed firsthand the twisted logic and brutal torture used by judges and inquisitors. Combined, these harsh prosecutorial measures led inevitably not only to a confession but to denunciations of supposed accomplices, spreading the circle of torture and execution ever wider.
Driven by his priestly charge of enacting Christian charity, or love, Spee sought to expose the flawed arguments and methods used by the witch-hunters. His logic is relentless as he reveals the contradictions inherent in their arguments, showing there is no way for an innocent person to prove her innocence. And, he questions, if the condemned witches truly are guilty, how could the testimony of these servants and allies of Satan be reliable? Spee's insistence that suspects, no matter how heinous the crimes of which they are accused, possess certain inalienable rights is a timeless reminder for the present day.
The Cautio Criminalis is one of the most important and moving works in the history of witch trials and a revealing documentation of one man's unexpected humanity in a brutal age. Marcus Hellyer's accessible translation from the Latin makes it available to English-speaking audiences for the first time.
Studies in Early Modern German History
It is a little known fact that one immigrant Italian family ran London's thriving vice trade unchecked from the mid-1930s for some twenty years. The five Messina brothers imported prostitutes from the Continent on an industrial scale, acquiring the women British citizenship by phoney marriages. Demanding 80% of earnings, the Messina family became fabulously wealthy, purchasing expensive properties, cars and influence. As this revealing and absorbing account describes, the brothers ruled with a ruthless combination of charm, blackmail and all too credible threats of disfigurement and death. It took a sensational Sunday newspaper expos to get the authorities to act. A series of dramatic arrests and trials followed and one by one the brothers were imprisoned and deported for crimes including immoral earnings, attempted bribery and firearms offences. Such was their fortune that numerous potential beneficiaries came forward, most recently in 2012. The author, a much published former Metropolitan police officer, has researched the remarkable criminal careers of the five Messina's and the result is a riveting and shocking read.
Police Community Support Officers: Cultures and Identities within Pluralised Policing presents the first in-depth ethnographic study of Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs) since the creation of the role in 2002. Situated within the tradition of police ethnographies, this text examines the working worlds of uniformed patrol support staff in two English police forces. Based on over 350 hours of direct observation and 33 interviews with PCSOs and police constables in both urban and rural contexts, Police Community Support Officers offers a detailed analysis of the operational and cultural realities of pluralised policing from within. Using a dramaturgic framework, the author finds that PCSOs have been undermined by their own organisations from the beginning, which has left a lasting legacy in terms of their relationships and interactions with police officer colleagues. The implications of this for police cultures, community policing approaches and the success of pluralisation are examined. The author argues that while PCSOs can have similar occupational experiences to constables, their particular circumstances have led to a unique occupational culture, one which has implications for existing police culture theories. The book considers these findings in light of budget reductions and police reforms occurring across the sector, processes in which PCSOs are particularly vulnerable.
Listening to Killers offers an inside look at twenty years' worth of murder files from Dr. James Garbarino, a leading expert psychological witness who listens to killers so that he can testify in court. The author offers detailed accounts of how killers travel a path that leads from childhood innocence to lethal violence in adolescence or adulthood. He places the emotional and moral damage of each individual killer within a larger scientific framework of social, psychological, anthropological, and biological research on human development. By linking individual cases to broad social and cultural issues and illustrating the social toxicity and unresolved trauma that drive some people to kill, Dr. Garbarino highlights the humanity we share with killers and the role of understanding and empathy in breaking the cycle of violence.
The risk assessment process, the interventions and treatment commenced as a result of it and the theory behind it are central to the administration of criminal justice programmes around the world. Most youth and adult corrections departments routinely conduct risk assessments, which are then used to inform the nature and intensity of subsequent criminal justice interventions. In this unique and important text, a team of the world's leading researchers in the field of criminal justice come together to provide a critique of this risk paradigm, and to provide practical guidance for professionals, students and academics on how to move to a more effective way of working with offenders. Divided into three sections, the book provides coverage of topics such as: * The development of risk assessment in criminal justice practice, and its advantages and disadvantages * The significance of risk factor research in understanding and explaining juvenile delinquency - as well as the problems it creates * The argument that the risk paradigm fails to accommodate diversity, further disadvantaging women, ethnic minorities and other marginalized groups * The various ways in which real or imagined risk posed by offenders has been regulated under the risk paradigm, the powerful influence of media reporting,, and ways of moving 'beyond risk' to support successful reintegration of offenders * Ways forward for criminal justice interventions that do not rely on risk, but focus rather on the vitally important aspects of social context, relationships and motivation. With strong links between theory and practice, Beyond the Risk Paradigm in Criminal Justice provides a fresh new direction for criminal justice work.
This revised and expanded third edition offers a comprehensive and engaging introduction to the criminal justice system of England and Wales. Starting with an overview of the main theories of the causes of crime, this book explores and discusses the operation of the main criminal justice agencies including the police, probation and prison services and the legal and youth justice systems. This book offers a lively and critical discussion of some of the main themes in criminal justice, from policy-making and crime control to diversity and discrimination to the global dimensions of criminal justice, including organized crime and the role of the EU. Key updates to this new edition include: increased discussion of the measurement, prevention and detection of crime; a revised chapter on the police which discusses the principle of policing by consent, police methods, power and governance as well as the abuse of power; further discussion of pressing contemporary issues in criminal justice, such as privatization, multi-agency working and community-based criminal justice policy; a brand new chapter on victims of crime, key developments in criminal justice policy, and the response of the criminal justice system. This accessible text is essential reading for students taking introductory courses in criminology and criminal justice. A wide range of useful features includes review questions, lists of further reading, timelines of key events and a glossary of key terms.
From sex slaves to drug mules, The Daily Beast's Rome Bureau Chief uncovers a terrifying and intricate web of criminal activity right on Europe’s doorstep.
Caught between Camorra gunrunners selling to ISIS and Nigerian drug gangs along Italy’s picturesque coast, each year thousands of refugees and migrants are lured into their criminal underworld, forced to become sex slaves, drug mules or weapon smugglers. In this powerful exposť, investigative journalist Barbie Latza Nadeau follows the weapons trail, meets the Nigerian hair braiders trafficked and trapped by black magic, the brave nuns who try to save them and the Italian police who turn a blind eye as the most urgent issues facing Europe play out in broad daylight.
With gripping photos, an engaging magazine-like format, and riveting examples straight from today's headlines, CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN ACTION: THE CORE, 9th Edition puts you right in the center of the action. Providing just the right depth of coverage, this succinct text uses vivid cases and current events to demonstrate the core principles of the American justice system at work. It reflects the latest trends, practices, and developments in the field. Integrated learning objectives guide your study efforts, self-assessment tools allow you to check your understanding, and practical coverage of careers illustrates the many opportunities available to you in today's criminal justice workplace environment.
Victimology and Victim Assistance offers insights into the criminal justice system from the perspective of often overlooked participants-victims. Delving into victim involvement in the criminal justice system, the impact of crime on victims, and new directions in victimology and victim assistance, authors Yoshiko Takahashi and Chadley James provide crucial insights and practical applications into the field of victim assistance. With an emphasis on advocacy, intervention, and restoration, this book examines real issues and barriers in the criminal justice system for victims and offers a way forward for future criminal justice or other human service professionals.
By the close of the twentieth century, the United States became known for its reliance on incarceration as the chief means of social control, particularly in poor communities of color. The carceral state has been extended into the public school system in these communities in what has become known as the ""school-to-prison pipeline."" Through interviews with young people suspended from school, Weissman examines the impact of zero tolerance and other harsh disciplinary approaches that have transformed schools into penal-like institutions. In their own words, students describe their lives, the challenges they face, and their efforts to overcome those challenges. Unlike other studies, this book illuminates the students' perspectives on what happens when the educational system excludes them from regular school. Weissman draws attention to research findings that suggest punitive disciplinary policies and practices resemble criminal justice strategies of arrest, trial, sentence, and imprisonment. She demonstrates how harsh school discipline prepares young people from poor communities of color for their place in the carceral state. An invaluable resource for policy makers, Prelude to Prison presents recommendations for policy, practice, and political change that have the potential to dismantle the school-to-prison pipeline.
Providing a rounded and coherent history of crime and the law spanning the past 400 years, Histories of Crime explores the evolution of attitudes towards crime and criminality over time. Bringing together contributions from internationally acknowledged experts, the book highlights themes, current issues and key debates in the history of deviance and bad behaviour, including: ? marital cruelty and adultery ? infanticide ? murder ? the underworld ? blasphemy and moral crimes ? fraud and white-collar crime ? the death penalty and punishment. Individual case studies of violent and non-violent crime are used to explore the human means and motives behind criminal practice. Through these, the book illuminates society's wider attitudes and fears about criminal behaviour and the way in which these influence the law and legal system over time. This fascinating book is essential reading for students and teachers of history, sociology and criminology, as well as anyone interested in Britain's criminal past.
Praise for "Managing the Risk of Fraud and Misconduct: Meeting the Challenge of a Global, Regulated, and Digital Environment"
"This book belongs on any desk where fraud and misconduct
threaten. It is bristling with the kind of detail this field truly
needs. Written by leading pros at the top of their game, its
soup-to-nuts advice matches solutions to problems. Read it once to
gain broad insight; come back again and again to manage particular
"A valuable road map for corporate fraud fighters in an age when
shareholders, regulators, and whistleblowers are making their work
more vital than ever."
"Auditors, managers, and directors may argue over who is
responsible for minimizing fraud and misconduct. The fact is, we
all share this responsibility. As a current and comprehensive guide
to the subject, this book should be recommended reading for every
public company director."
"Written for managers from C-level on down -- without avoiding
technical jargon. This approach, combined with a consistent,
efficient, easy-to-read writing style, leads to a thorough
understanding of the subject without compromising its technical
accuracy. I strongly recommend this book."
"" Managing the Risk of Fraud and Misconduct " delves in great
depth into the issues and provides sage advice. Based on my
experience, the book should be required reading for every general
counsel and most corporate counsel."
"An extremely detailed book that serves as a comprehensive
guideline for risk managers."
"The definitive authority on this important business issue-the
fraud risk management bible" that stresses "the ever- growing
importance of integrity in business."
"Both a history of recent developments in the field -- and a
comprehensive plan for developing a robust approach to deterring,
detecting, and preventing fraud, and to assessing both a company's
vulnerabilities and the success of its anti-fraud measures."
"This book addresses the challenges posed by changes in law,
technology, and globalization in a comprehensive manner that can
help the reader improve core competencies and initiate some
interesting dialogue in the process."
A Comprehensive "C-Level" Guide to Preventing and Responding to Fraud and Misconduct
Maintaining and enhancing the integrity of an organization in a global, regulated, and digital environment has become an increasingly complex and difficult challenge for business leaders. Despite major legislative and regulatory reforms over the past decade, the headlines are replete with instances of corporate misdeeds. Indeed, nearly two-thirds of executives surveyed by KPMG reported that fraud and misconduct were significant risks in their industries, and a third of these executives expected fraud or misconduct to rise in their organizations within the year.
"Managing the Risk of Fraud and Misconduct" is an A-to-Z guidebook for business leaders who are looking for an integrated and comprehensive approach for cutting through the complexities in today's environment. This solution driven book provides insights from top experts who walk you through proven approaches to customize a strategy for preventing, detecting, and responding to fraud and corruption by building a culture of ethics and integrity.
"Managing the Risk of Fraud and Misconduct" will help business leaders to stay a step ahead of tomorrow's demands by providing guidance on how to: Assess your organization's vulnerability to fraud and misconduct, and design and implement controls to prevent, detect, and respond to these occurrences Address increased regulatory enforcement and enhanced scrutiny Preserve and create value from corporate governance and compliance programs Use technology and data analytics to mitigate fraud and misconduct risks Evaluate the ongoing effectiveness of your compliance program
Few incidents in crime history have been as notorious - yet mundane - as the 1927 murder of Queens suburbanite Albert Snyder by his wife and her lover. Resonant of the foot-loose Jazz Age, it made persistent headlines, led to a sensational trial, spawned a 1920s Broadway play, and two classic film noirs of the 1940s: ""Double Indemnity"" and ""The Postman Always Rings Twice"". This book assesses the entire case, from grisly slaying and shabby cover-up to sharp police work and aftermath. Moreover, it explores sociocultural questions that beg to be answered: what effect does news reportage exert upon high profile cases, and why did such a transparent crime earn such an enduring place in the popular psyche. Landis MacKellar lives in Vienna and Paris. His interest in the Snyder-Gray murder began when he taught in Queens College in New York City.
Taking an ethnographic approach to understanding urban violence, Enrique Desmond Arias examines the ongoing problems of crime and police corruption that have led to widespread misery and human rights violations in many of Latin America's new democracies. Employing participant observation and interview research in three favelas (shantytowns) in ""Rio de Janeiro"" over a nine-year period, Arias closely considers the social interactions and criminal networks that are at the heart of the challenges to democratic governance in urban Brazil. Much of the violence is the result of highly organized, politically connected drug dealers feeding off of the global cocaine market. Rising crime prompts repressive police tactics, and corruption runs deep in state structures. The rich move to walled communities, and the poor are caught between the criminals and often corrupt officials. Arias argues that public policy change is not enough to stop the vicious cycle of crime and corruption. The challenge, he suggests, is to build new social networks committed to controlling violence locally. Arias also offers comparative insights that apply this analysis to other cities in Brazil and throughout Latin America.
Filled with real world examples derived from media reports on crime trends and other sources, this fully updated Second Edition analyzes the specific errors that can occur in the three most common methods used to report crime-official crime data, self report, and victimization studies. For each method, the authors examine strengths and weaknesses, the fundamental issues surrounding accuracy, and the method's application to theoretical and policy research. Throughout the book, the authors demonstrate the factors that underlie crime data and illustrate the fundamental links between theory, policy, and data measurement.
"When I testify in court, I am often asked: 'What is the damage of long term solitary confinement?' ...Many prisoners with serious mental illness emerge from prison after years in solitary with much worse disability, and even stable individuals emerge with very serious psychiatric symptoms. The damage from isolation is dreadfully real." In the U.S., there are approximately 100,000 inmates held in supermax prisons and isolation units in other prisons and jails, confined to 8' x 10' windowless holes for 23-24 hours a day, sometimes for decades. Terry A. Kupers, one of the world's leading experts on the effects of solitary confinement, takes us inside the cells and minds of some of the thousand inmates he's interviewed while investigating prison conditions over the last 40 years. From prisoners ignored by staff for urgent medical and psychiatric needs to "cell extractions" where officers in riot gear spray a prisoner with immobilizing gas to subdue him, Kupers has seen the gamut of violence that inmates encounter daily. With an empathetic yet realistic voice, Kupers sheds light on the social purposes for disappearing disadvantaged people while providing constructive rehabilitative alternatives to solitary confinement.
How does order emerge out of the multiplicity of bodies, objects, ideas and practices that constitute the urban? This book explores the relation between space, law and control in the contemporary city - and particularly in the context of urban `mega events' - through a combined geographical and normative analysis. Informed by the recent spatial, affective and material `turns' in the humanities and social sciences, Andrea Pavoni addresses this question by pursuing an innovative and trans-disciplinary approach, capable of accounting for the emergence of order in urban space both at the conceptual and empirical levels. Two overarching objectives are pursued. First, to account for the increasing convergence of logics, techniques and technologies of law, security and marketing into novel, potentially oppressive spatial configurations. Second, to envisage a consistent ethico-political strategy to counter this evolution, by rethinking originally and in radically spatial terms the notion of justice. Forging a sophisticated and original analysis, this book offers an analysis that will be of considerable interest to those working in critical urban geography, critical legal studies, critical event studies, surveillance and control studies.
ORGANIZED CRIME examines how criminal groups are organized; the widening of their business activities; and the statutes, agencies, and techniques used to combat organized crime. Updated throughout, the eleventh edition reflects the decline of the American Mafia, its importance dwindling as new criminal organizations emerge. The text also explains how criminal organizations operating on a global scale have become more sophisticated and more threatening, and examines additional crime groups that have been added to the pantheon we refer to as organized crime.
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