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The Cincinnati Penal Congress of 1870 ushered in the era of "progressive" penology: the use of statistical and social scientific methodologies, commitment to psychiatric and therapeutic interventions, and a new innovation-the reformatory-as the locus for the application of these initiatives. The prisoner was now seen as a specimen to be analyzed, treated, and properly socialized into the triumphal current of American social and economic life. Of course, the Progressive rehabilitative initiatives succumbed in the 1970s to withering criticism from the proponents of equally futile strategies for addressing "the crime problem": retribution, deterrence, and selective incapacitation. The early Christian community developed a methodology for correcting human error that featured the unprecedented belief that a period of time spent in a given penitential locale, with the aid and encouragement of the community, was sufficient in and of itself to heal the alienation and self-loathing caused by sin and to lead an individual to full reincorporation into the community. The "correctional" practice was based upon the conviction that cooperative sociability-or conversion-is possible, regardless of the specific offense and that there is no need to inflict suffering or use the act of punishment as a warning to potential offenders or to intervene in the life of the offender with rehabilitation. Andrew Skotnicki contends that the modern practice of criminal detention is a protracted exercise in needless violence predicated upon two foundational errors. The first is an inability to see the imprisoned as human beings fully capable of responding to an affirmative accompaniment rather than maltreatment and invasive forms of therapy. The second is a pervasive dualism that constructs a barrier between the detainee and those empowered to supervise, rehabilitate, and punish them. In this book, Skotnicki argues that the criminal justice system can only be rehabilitated by eliminating punishment and policies based upon deterrence, rehabilitation, and the incapacitation of the urban poor and returning to the original justification for the practice of confinement: conversion.
This revised and expanded third edition offers a comprehensive and engaging introduction to the criminal justice system of England and Wales. Starting with an overview of the main theories of the causes of crime, this book explores and discusses the operation of the main criminal justice agencies including the police, probation and prison services and the legal and youth justice systems. This book offers a lively and critical discussion of some of the main themes in criminal justice, from policy-making and crime control to diversity and discrimination to the global dimensions of criminal justice, including organized crime and the role of the EU. Key updates to this new edition include: increased discussion of the measurement, prevention and detection of crime; a revised chapter on the police which discusses the principle of policing by consent, police methods, power and governance as well as the abuse of power; further discussion of pressing contemporary issues in criminal justice, such as privatization, multi-agency working and community-based criminal justice policy; a brand new chapter on victims of crime, key developments in criminal justice policy, and the response of the criminal justice system. This accessible text is essential reading for students taking introductory courses in criminology and criminal justice. A wide range of useful features includes review questions, lists of further reading, timelines of key events and a glossary of key terms.
Criminological Theory: A Text/Reader, Third Edition, by Stephen G. Tibbetts and Craig T. Hemmens helps you understand criminological theory, with each authored section of the text enhanced by empirical research articles that put theory into context. Key criminological theories are introduced and followed by articles that show how criminological theory can be applied to current policies, challenges, and issues, making it easier for you to connect theory and application. New to the Third Edition: Updated journal articles introduce you to important topics, such as media consumption and support for capital punishment, gender differences in delinquency, bias and police stops, and the effectiveness of reintegrative shaming and restorative justice. A new section dedicated entirely to feminist perspectives introduces you to feminist models of crime and underscores the importance of examining research related to female offending. A stronger global view integrated throughout the book increases your exposure to criminological research and theory across nations and continents. Several of the new readings are written by authors or use samples from outside the United States, including South Africa, Brazil, Canada, Korea, and more. New case studies examine offender motives to help you apply the theories discussed to interesting and memorable examples. Policy is now integrated into each section, allowing you to see the practical policy implications of each theory. Coverage of critical topics has been expanded throughout to introduce you to important issues, such as the influence of employment on criminal behavior, the success of school programs in reducing delinquent behavior, and federal sentencing guidelines in regard to crack versus powder cocaine. Statistics, graphs, and tables have all been updated to demonstrate the most recent trends in criminology.
Over recent years, the governance of crime - from policing and crime prevention to sentencing and prison organization - has moved away from a focus on reforming offenders toward preventing crime and managing behaviour using predictive and distributional (such as risk) techniques. Crime and Risk presents an engaging discussion of risk strategies and risk-taking in the domain of crime and criminal justice. It outlines the broad theoretical issues and political approaches involved, relating risk in contemporary crime governance to risk in criminal activity. Taking a broad and discursive approach, it covers: Risk-taking and contemporary culture The excitement associated with risk-taking and the impact of criminal activity The application of risk-oriented developments in crime prevention and control The use of genetic and related biotechnologies to assess and react to perceived threats The conceptualization of risk in relation to race and gender The influence of excitement upon criminal activity Evidence and accountability. ? Compact Criminology is an exciting series that invigorates and challenges the international field of criminology. Books in the series are short, authoritative, innovative assessments of emerging issues in criminology and criminal justice - offering critical, accessible introductions to important topics. They take a global rather than a narrowly national approach. Eminently readable and first-rate in quality, each book is written by a leading specialist. Compact Criminology provides a new type of tool for teaching, learning and research, one that is flexible and light on its feet. The series addresses fundamental needs in the growing and increasingly differentiated field of criminology.
How to think about, conduct, and evaluate research is fundamental to the study and understanding of criminology and criminal justice. Students take methods, statistics, theory, and topic-specific classes, but they struggle to integrate what they learn and to see how it fits within the broader field of criminology and criminal justice research. This book directly tackles this problem by helping students to develop a 'researcher sensibility', and demonstrates how the 'nuts and bolts' of criminal justice research - including research design, theory, data, and analysis - are and can be combined. Relying on numerous real-world examples and illustrations, this book reveals how anyone can 'think like a researcher'. It reveals, too, why that ability is critical for being a savvy producer or consumer of criminological and criminal justice research.
White-Collar Crime provides a theoretical framework and context for students and explores such timely topics as crimes in health care and educational systems, crimes by criminal justice professionals and politicians, corporate crime, environmental crime, and more. In Focus box inserts and follow-up discussion questions bring concepts to life and allow for further examination and critical thinking.
The increasing litigation against criminal justice practitioners in the United States poses a significant problem for law enforcement and other personnel. Law enforcement and corrections professionals need to have a working knowledge of both criminal law and the civil law process to ensure that they are performing their duties within the limits of the law. Civil Liability in Criminal Justice, 7th Edition, provides valuable information and recommendations to current and future officers and correctional system employees, introducing them to civil liability and federal law, as well as recommending strategies that can be taken to minimize risks. Civil Liability in Criminal Justice is unique in its combination of applicable case law and related liability research, while still providing an overview of current case law in high-liability areas. This new edition, revised to include up-to-date United States Supreme Court cases, including liability trends on the use of force, arrest-related deaths, custodial suicides in detention, qualified immunity, and the outcomes of the Department of Justice and the application of Section 14141, additional context for liability issues, and extended coverage of collective bargaining and public perception, is a valuable resource for enhancing student knowledge and practitioner job performance. The text is suitable for undergraduate and graduate courses in Criminal Justice programs as well as for in-service and academy training. Ross offers an engaging, accessible introduction to this aspect of the US criminal justice system.
Though American crime novels are often derided for containing misogynistic attitudes and limiting ideas of masculinity, Greg Forter maintains that they are instead psychologically complex and sophisticated works that demand closer attention. Eschewing the synthetic methodologies of earlier work on crime fiction, Murdering Masculinities argues that the crime novel does not provide a consolidated and stable notion of masculinity. Rather, it demands that male readers take responsibility for the desires they project on to these novels.
Forter examines the narrative strategies of five novels--Hammett's "The Glass Key," Cain's "Serenade," Faulkner's "Sanctuary," Thompson's "Pop. 1280," and Himes's "Blind Man with a Pistol"--in conjunction with their treatment of bodily metaphors of smell, vision, and voice. In the process, Forter unearths a "generic unconscious" that reveals things Freud both discovered and sought to repress.
This book takes students on a guided tour of the gang phenomenon through history, as well as current representations of gangs in literature and media. It includes: - A detailed global overview of gang culture, covering, amongst others, Glasgow, Chicago, Hong Kong, and Shanghai - A chapter on researching gangs which covers quantitative and qualitative methods - Extra chapter features such as key terms, chapter overviews, study questions and further reading suggestions. Alistair Fraser brings together gang-literature and critical perspectives in a refreshingly new way, exploring `gangs' as a social group with a long and fascinating history.
Andrew Karmen tracks a quarter century of murder in the city Americans have most commonly associated with rampant street crime. Providing both a local and a national context for New York's plunging crime rate, Karmen tests and debunks the many self-serving explanations for the decline. While crediting a more effective police force for its efforts, Karmen also emphasizes the decline of the crack epidemic, skyrocketing incarceration rates, favorable demographic trends, a healthy economy, an influx of hard working and law abiding immigrants, a rise in college enrollment, and an unexpected outbreak of improved behavior by young men growing up in poverty stricken neighborhoods. New York Murder Mystery is the most authoritative study to date of why crime rates rise and fall.
Police in America provides students with a comprehensive and realistic introduction to modern policing in our society. Utilizing real-word examples grounded in evidence-based research, this easy-to-read, conversational text helps students think critically about the many misconceptions of police work and understand best practices in everyday policing. Respected scholar and author Steven G. Brandl draws from his experience in law enforcement to emphasize the positive aspects of policing without sugar-coating the controversies of police work. Brandl tackles important topics that center on one question: "What is good policing?" This includes discussions of discretion, police use of force, and tough ethical and moral dilemmas-giving students a deeper look into the complex issues of policing to help them think more broadly about its impact on society. Students will walk away from this text with a well-developed understanding of the complex role of police in our society, an appreciation of the challenges of policing, and an ability to differentiate fact from fiction relating to law enforcement. Give your students the SAGE edge! SAGE edge offers a robust online environment featuring an impressive array of free tools and resources for review, study, and further exploration, keeping both instructors and students on the cutting edge of teaching and learning. Learn more at edge.sagepub.com/brandl
The United States arrests, punishes, and locks up far more people-both juveniles and adults-than any other democratic country in the world. Indeed, despite the fact that the U.S holds 5 percent of the world's population, it contains 25 percent of its prisoners. These individuals not only constitute a disproportionately large group, but also suffer decreased employment opportunities and housing discrimination after their release, making a return to prison all the more likely. Headlines of articles in US media allude to "Prison Without Punishment" in Germany and "Radical Humaneness" in Norway, but why are prison conditions in those countries so notably less bleak than those here? And when recidivism rates are lower in countries with these kinder, gentler prisons than in America, why do prisons here remain so harsh? In Unusually Cruel, Mark Morje Howard argues that the United States' prison system is exceptional-in a truly shameful way. Due to its exceptional nature, most scholars have focused on the internal dynamics that have produced the US' unusually large and severe prison system. Howard conducts a comparative analysis as a corrective to this myopia, demonstrating just how far the US lies outside of the norm of established democracies in this regard. He uses a new methodology in order to put American incarceration rates in perspective. The book compares data from 21 countries-all advanced industrialized societies, liberal democracies, and OECD members-ultimately showing that the US holds more than three times the number of incarcerated people of its closest competitor, New Zealand. This method reveals interesting findings, including that, although the female incarceration rate is only a fraction of the male incarceration in America, the US imprisons more than five times as many women as any other comparable country. And strikingly, while crime rates are roughly equal among countries in the western world, the US incarceration rate is seven times the average rate of European countries. Howard shows that in every measure of punitiveness-including policing, sentencing, prison conditions, and rehabilitation-US policies are harsher, producing worse individual outcomes and lower public safety, than those of any comparable country. The book does not merely paint a grim picture, however. Unusually Cruel also identifies solutions that are less punishing and more productive, arguing that, by learning from models that have worked elsewhere, the US can get out of its criminal justice quagmire.
A tour de force of investigative journalism, Killing Pablo tells the story of the violent rise and fall of Pablo Escobar, the head of the Colombian Medellin cocaine cartel. Escobar's criminal empire held a nation of thirty million hostage in a reign of terror that would only end with his death. In an intense, up-close account, award-winning journalist Mark Bowden exposes details never before revealed about the covert sixteen-month manhunt that was led by US Special Forces and intelligence services. With unprecedented access to important players - including Colombian president Cisar Gaviria and the incorruptible head of the special police unit that pursued Escobar, Colonel Hugo Martinez - as well as top-secret documents and transcripts of Escobar's intercepted phone conversations, Bowden has produced a gripping narrative that is a stark portrayal of rough justice in the real world.
Packed with examples from real-world situations faced by today's law enforcement professionals, CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: LAW AND PRACTICE, 10th Edition gives you a practical and authoritative look at the most current guidelines in criminal procedure. Comprehensive and accurate without bogging you down in unnecessary details, the text includes cutting-edge coverage of the law as it relates to arrests, searches and seizures, vehicle stops, use of force, interrogations, and line-ups. It also discusses current topics such as racial profiling, DNA evidence, plea bargaining, seizures of text/email messages, and many others. Interesting case briefs, sample police forms, hypothetical cases, and coverage of the most recent Supreme Court rulings keep the text as relevant as ever. Its clear, reader-friendly presentation makes law enforcement concepts easy to understand and apply.
Digital forensics deals with the acquisition, preservation, examination, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence. Networked computing, wireless communications and portable electronic devices have expanded the role of digital forensics beyond traditional computer crime investigations. Practically every crime now involves some aspect of digital evidence; digital forensics provides the techniques and tools to articulate this evidence. Digital forensics also has myriad intelligence applications. Furthermore, it has a vital role in information assurance -- investigations of security breaches yield valuable information that can be used to design more secure systems. Advances in Digital Forensics X describes original research results and innovative applications in the discipline of digital forensics. In addition, it highlights some of the major technical and legal issues related to digital evidence and electronic crime investigations. The areas of coverage include: - Internet Crime Investigations; - Forensic Techniques; - Mobile Device Forensics; - Forensic Tools and Training. This book is the 10th volume in the annual series produced by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Working Group 11.9 on Digital Forensics, an international community of scientists, engineers and practitioners dedicated to advancing the state of the art of research and practice in digital forensics. The book contains a selection of twenty-two edited papers from the 10th Annual IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics, held in Vienna, Austria in the winter of 2014. Advances in Digital Forensics X is an important resource for researchers, faculty members and graduate students, as well as for practitioners and individuals engaged in research and development efforts for the law enforcement and intelligence communities.
How does a holy God associate with paedophiles, murderers, drug addicts, alcoholics and others rejected by mainstream society? This book is a product of many years working with and in some cases befriending the most despised people in society, prisoners. It addresses questions such as: Why do some people end up in prison? Do they just wake up one morning and think: `I am going to rob a bank today'? What happens when they get to prison? How do they cope with the violence? Is rehabilitation a realistic expectation? How can victims of crime be helped and supported?
This comprehensive volume summarizes the contemporary evidence base for offender assessment and rehabilitation, evaluating commonly used assessment frameworks and intervention strategies in a complete guide to best practice when working with a variety of offenders. Presents an up-to-date review of 'what works' in offer assessment and rehabilitation, along with discussion of contemporary attitudes and translating theory into practiceIncludes assessment and treatment for different offender types across a range of settingsInternationally renowned contributors include James McGuire, James Bonta, Clive Hollin, Anthony Beech, Tony Ward, William Lindsay, Karl Hanson, Ray Novaco and William Marshall
The incredible, untold story of the American agent who captured El Chapo, the world's most-wanted drug-lord. Every generation has its larger-than-life criminal legend living beyond the reach of the law: Billy the Kid, Al Capone, Ronnie Biggs, Pablo Escobar. But for every one of these criminals, there's a Wyatt Earp, Pat Garrett or Slipper of the Yard. For Joaquin Archivaldo Guzman-Loera a.k.a. `El Chapo' - the 21st century's most notorious criminal - that man is D.E.A. Special Agent Andrew Hogan. This is the incredible story of Hogan's seven-year-long chase to capture El Chapo, a multibillionaire drug-lord and escape-artist posing as a Mexican Robin Hood, who in reality was a brutal sociopath responsible for the murders of thousands. His greedy campaign to take over his rivals' territories resulted in an unprecedented war with a body count of over 100,000. We follow Hogan on his quest to achieve the seemingly impossible: to cross the border into Mexico and arrest El Chapo, the leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, a billionaire and Public Enemy No. 1, who had been evading capture for more than a decade and had earned a reputation for being utterly untouchable. This intimate thriller tells how Hogan single-mindedly and methodically climbed the ladder within the hierarchy of the Sinaloa Cartel - the world's wealthiest and most powerful drug-trafficking organization - by creating one of the most sophisticated undercover operations in the history of the D.E.A. From infiltrating Chapo's inner circle to leading a white-knuckle manhunt with an elite brigade of Mexican Marines, Hogan left no stone unturned in his hunt for the world's most powerful drug kingpin.
Captivating, concise, and accessible, this Fourth Edition of Gus Martin's popular text introduces readers to the modern landscape of terrorism. Essentials of Terrorism: Concepts and Controversies covers key foundational topics by defining terrorism and introducing its history and causes, as well as discussing terrorist environments (domestic, international, religious, etc.), tactics, targets, and counterterrorism. The Fourth Edition presents new information regarding homeland security, emerging terrorist movements, gender-selective terrorism, the Internet and terrorism, social networking media and terrorism, religious terrorism, and media coverage of terrorism. It also presents new data, case studies, photos, and maps to show readers the locations of major terrorist activities and the devastation they have caused.
This book is a lucid and practical guide to understanding the core skills and issues involved in the criminal investigation process. Guiding students through a mock criminal investigation, each chapter introduces a layer of the crime scene and an investigative activity to allow students to develop a true comprehension of how forensic and criminal investigation takes place.
Drawing on multiple disciplines and perspectives, the book promotes a critical awareness and practical comprehension of the intersections between criminology, criminal investigation, and forensic science and uses active learning strategies to help students build their knowledge and ensure that the veracity of evidence and decision making is made clear.
The book is organised around the three key strategic phases in a criminal investigation: Instigation and Initial Response; The Investigation and Case Management, and each strategic phase of the investigative process is discussed to ensure the processes and responsibilities are relayed in a logical and practical structure. Alongside this practical approach theoretical perspectives and academic research are laid bare for students.
Targeted at undergraduate students studying forensic and criminal investigation on criminology and policing course, this book is the perfect balance of practical and theoretical learning.
In Syndicate Women, sociologist Chris M. Smith uncovers a unique historical puzzle: women composed a substantial part of Chicago organized crime in the early 1900s, but during Prohibition (1920 - 1933), when criminal opportunities increased threefold and crime was most profitable, women were largely excluded. Weaving historical data with contemporary references, the book uncovers how the Prohibition era made organized crime less territorial and less specialized, restructuring organizations to require relationships with crime bosses, and how these changes began with and reproduced gender inequality in organized crime. The book places organized crime within a gender-based theoretical framework and provides an assessment of crime-based patterns that have implications for non-crime and more general societal issues around gender. As a work of criminology that draws on both historical methods and social network analysis, Syndicate Women centers the women who have been erased from contemporary analyses of gender and crime while breathing new life into our understanding of the gender gap.
In a society where trust is in short supply and democracy weak, the Mafia sells protection, a guarantee of safe conduct for parties to commercial transactions. Drawing on the confessions of eight Mafiosi, Diego Gambetta develops an elegant analysis of the economic and political role of "the Sicilian Mafia."
For Emile Durkheim, writing in the nineteenth-century, punishment was simply understood as a clear response to the criminal behavior a society experiences. Today's penal institutions challenge such a simple understanding. Inseparably linked with many aspects of society, they are profoundly shaped by the traumatic events and changes a society undergoes. Nowhere is this clearer than in the American South.
Georgia embraced the concept of the penitentiary as a form of social control earlier than most of its southern neighbors. Its penal code of 1816 replaced or curtailed such traditional punishments as whipping, the pillory, fines, or death. Georgia's control over felony convicts effectively began in 1817, when the state prison at Milledgeville accepted its first convict.
Martha A. Myers finds that Georgia also led the region in embracing the convict lease system as an alternative to incarceration. In Race, Labor, and Punishment in the New South, she examines the social, political, and economic forces that shaped punishment over a seventy-year period. Between 1870 and 1940, Georgia's system of punishment shifted from capital and corporal punishment to hard labor in the penitentiary, then to the convict lease system, then to county-run chain gangs, and then back to incarceration in prison. This book forges a connection between these dramatic shifts and analyzes three facets of punishment for black and white men: rates of admission to the penitentiary, the harshness of sentences, and the ease with which felons achieved release from the penitentiary. Her findings challenge the conventional notion that hard times invariably prompt harsh punishment. In uncovering the complex link betweensocial change and southern punishment, Myers reveals the poverty of current theories of criminal punishment.
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