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The commentary of Yefet ben Eli the Karaite (second half of the tenth century) on The Song of Songs is example of an exegetical work obeying two imperatives: The explanation of the divine message of Salvation mixed with the assiduous Karaite effort to prove wrong their adversaries, the Rabbanites, with the help of the Bible. In so doing Yefet ben Eli wrote a thoughtful and original commentary on the very symbolic Song of Songs. Indeed, according to Yefet ben Eli nothing in the Book should be taken realistically. The ability of Yefet to replace symbols by historical events is one of the many marks that show Yefet's mastery and the originality of his commentary.
In the Pauline literature of the New Testament, the characteristics of the Spirit and Christian life are described through the use of metaphor. An interpreter of Paul must understand his metaphors in order to arrive at a complete understanding of the Pauline pneumatological perspective. Thus, The Pauline Metaphors of the Holy Spirit examines how the Pauline Spirit metaphors express the intangible Spirit's tangible presence in the life of the Christian. Rhetoricians prior to and contemporary with Paul discussed the appropriate usage of metaphor. Aristotle's thoughts provided the foundation from which these rhetoricians framed their arguments. In this context, The Pauline Metaphors surveys the use of metaphor in the Greco-Roman world during the NT period and also studies modern approaches to metaphor. The modern linguistic theories of substitution, comparison, and verbal opposition are offered as representative examples, as well as the conceptual theories of interaction, cognitive-linguistic, and the approach of Zoltan Koevecses. In examining these metaphors, it is important to understand their systematic and coherent attributes. These can be divided into structural, orientational, and ontological characteristics, which are rooted in the conceptual approach of metaphor asserted by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. This book evaluates these characteristics against each of the Pauline Spirit-metaphors.
The imperative mood as a whole has generally been neglected by Greek grammarians. The Greek Imperative Mood in the New Testament: A Cognitive and Communicative Approach utilizes insights from modern linguistics and communication theory in order to propose an inherent (semantic) meaning for the mood and describe the way in which it is used in the New Testament (pragmatics). A linguistic theory called neuro-cognitive stratificational linguistics is used to help isolate the morphological imperative mood and focus on addressing issues directly related to this area, while principles from a communication theory called relevance theory provide a theoretical basis for describing the usages of the mood. This book also includes a survey of New Testament and select linguistic approaches to the imperative mood and proposes that the imperative mood is volitional-directive and should be classified in a multidimensional manner. Each imperative should be classified according to force, which participant (speaker or hearer) benefits from the fulfillment of the imperative, and where the imperative falls within the event sequence of the action described in the utterance. In this context, sociological factors such as the rank of participants and level of politeness are discussed together with other pragmatic-related information. The Greek Imperative Mood in the New Testament is a valuable teaching tool for intermediate and advanced Greek classes.
This book is a sequel to Biblical Historiography and Historical Geography; published in 1998. It comprises further studies in the field of biblical historiography, literary history of the biblical historical narratives and the quest for their veracity. They rely on a study of the tangible data of territorial history and the testimony elicited from the patterned historical concepts that figure in the texts. This line of research is based on a historical evaluation of literary testimonies interrelated with the archaeological evidence and regional history.
This work investigates the Lucan journey motif from a literary and theological perspective. It starts by examining the indications of movement in the narrative sequence of the Gospel. Using the historical-critical method, the author continues with a study of the Transfiguration (Luke 9:28-36) and the Ascension (Acts 1:6-11) narratives, and presents a comparison between them. The work concludes with an investigation of the Lucan journey in the two-volume work of Luke. On the literary level, the author suggests that the Transfiguration and the Ascension narratives are composed as an architectural pair and, in turn, serve as the respective starting points for the parallel journeys in Luke-Acts. On the theological level, she shows that the two journeys are, in fact, two stages of the one unique journey, namely the journey of the Salvific Message. Thus, the author provides a further confirmation of the unity of the two-volume work of Luke.
The Golden Book is a multi-volume in-depth study that sets forth a plan, strategies, and solutions to eradicate violations of human rights through the proposed theory of the divinity of God as the source of law distinct from religiosity. In turn, this divinity positively impacts the divinity of humanity in governmental systems, embracing the classification of law as eternal, divine, natural, and human as put forth by Thomas Aquinas. Charles Mwalimu focuses on the creation of the National State of Africa Under God (NSA) as the case study. The critical analysis seeks answers to what terms such as "A Nation Under God", "In God We Trust", and "We the People", really mean as sources of power in constitution-making.
This study sets out to interpret the Marcan Temple incident (Mark 11, 15-19) as a distancing device, by which the Marcan faction differentiates itself from other Jews, especially the anti-Roman revolutionaries who had turned the temple in Jerusalem into 'a den of bandits' during the Jewish revolt between 66 and 74 CE. It concentrates on the interactions between the Marcan faction and other Jewish factions in the context of its Jewish symbolic universe. The study concludes that the Marcan faction is 'Jewish but differently'.
In From Spinoza to Levinas, Ze'ev Levy discusses the pivotal ideas of the most influential Jewish thinkers in modern times including Spinoza, Mendelssohn, and Levinas. Levy accounts for the political foundation of the philosophies of Spinoza and Mendelssohn and the role of hermeneutics in the writings of Spinoza and Maimonides. He traces the history of modern philosophical and biblical hermeneutics and considers issues pertaining to death and dying in light of traditional Jewish and contemporary concepts of the body and soul. Finally, Levy focuses on the thought of Emmanuel Levinas, arguably one of the most important Jewish philosophers in the second half of the twentieth century. By articulating and responding to contemporary ethical and political challenges and dilemmas, Levy succeeds in contributing to the rich legacy of Jewish thought.
The Shepherd-Flock Motif in the Miletus Discourse (Acts 20:17-38) Against Its Historical Background provides a comprehensive survey of the use of the shepherd-flock motif in the ancient world for the readers of the New Testament. This review of Ancient Near Eastern, Jewish, Greco-Roman, and Christian sources is guided by a motific approach that integrates the concept of metaphor, Semantics, and the comparative method. A chief concern of this study is to apply this knowledge to the study of Luke-Acts, especially the Miletus Discourse (Acts 20:17-38). The shepherd-flock motif appears to be central in this speech and helps to integrate other motifs and themes in this discourse, such as the kingship motif. The Shepherd-Flock Motif in the Miletus Discourse (Acts 20:17-38) Against Its Historical Background is indispensable to the study of motifs in the New Testament and contributes meaningfully to the scholarly research on Luke-Acts.
The Nay Science offers a new perspective on the problem of
scientific method in the human sciences. Taking German Indological
scholarship on the Mahabharata and the Bhagavadgita as their
example, Adluri and Bagchee develop a critique of the modern
valorization of method over truth in the humanities.
4Q246 (4QApocryphon of Daniel ar), 4Q521 (4QMessianic Apocalypse), and 4Q215a (4QTime of Righteousness) are among the «newer texts from Qumran Cave 4 that are of relatively recent publication. All three texts share an interest in eschatology, and more specifically in the time of salvation. Two of them, 4Q246 and 4Q521, are among the most debated texts from the Qumran library, chiefly because they are assumed to have significant and substantial parallels to texts in the New Testament. The main aim of the thesis is a separate and detailed analysis of the three texts. More substantially this analysis aims at presenting improved textual editions of each of the texts, with new readings, critically examine and evaluate scholars' attempts to restore the texts' fragmentary parts, and writing detailed commentaries on the texts. On the basis of this detailed treatment of the three texts, the images they present of the time of salvation are compared in a synthetic presentation.
A Word Fitly Spoken explores significant poetic devices within the four alphabetic acrostic psalms found in Book I of the Psalter. The majority of scholarly opinion has been that these acrostics are poetically and artistically deficient due to the writers' and editors' pre-occupation with the alphabetic pattern. In contrast to this view, A Word Fitly Spoken proposes that the acrostic pattern contributes to, rather than detracts from, the poetic artistry of these psalms. In an effort to promote a holistic, canonical reading of the four acrostic poems within Book I of the Psalter, this study also examines the linguistic and grammatical connections within the text. Such a close reading repeatedly demonstrates the emotive power and the imagination of this literature in contradiction to its supposedly stiff, wooden nature. A Word Filly Spoken is attuned to the frequent plays on word and sound that occur throughout these four poems and as such would be useful in graduate courses on biblical interpretation, Hebrew poetry, or the Psalms.
Written by a leading authority on Chinese philosophy, Decoding Dao uniquely focuses on the core texts in Daoist philosophy, providing readers with a user-friendly introduction that unravels the complexities of these seminal volumes. * Offers a detailed introduction to the core texts in Daoist philosophy, the Dao De Jing and the Zhuangzi, two of the most widely read and most challenging texts in China s long literary history * Covers the three main ways the texts can be read: as religious, mystical, and philosophical works * Explores their historical context, origins, authorship, and the reasons these seminal texts came into being, along with the key terms and approaches they take * Examines the core philosophical arguments made in the texts, as well as the many ways in which they have been interpreted, both in China itself and in the West * Provides readers with an unrivalled insight into the multifaceted philosophy of Daoism and the principles underlying much of Chinese culture informed by the very latest academic scholarship
The work of Rabbi Naftali Zvi Yehuda Berlin, the Neziv, ranks amongst the most widely read rabbinic literature of the nineteenth century. His breadth of learning, unabashed creativity, and penchant for walking against the stream of the rabbinic commentarial establishment has made his commentaries a favorite amongst rabbinic scholars and scholars of rabbinics alike. Yet, to date, there has been no comprehensive and systematic attempt to place his intellectual oeuvre into its historical context - until now. In the Pillar of Volozhin, Gil Perl traces the influences which helped mold and shape the Neziv's thinking while also opening new doors into the world of early nineteenth-century Lithuanian Torah scholarship, an area heretofore almost completely untouched by academic research.
The history of scholarship narrates a complicated past for the interpretation of the -Shepherd Discourse in the Fourth Gospel. Both the internal and contextual integrity of John 9: 39-10: 21 have been compromised by a misapplied analogy dividing the passage into a parable and explanation structure, and by reading models that favor historical approaches. As a result, the images and figures encountered in the discourse have not been allowed their full imaginative impact and the tendency is to look outside the Gospel for their referents and explanations. The meaning of the -Shepherd Discourse lies not in its relation to the rest of the Fourth Gospel, but to that which is imported into the narrative. Moreover, its function as the discourse to chapter 9, and in the whole of the Gospel, is overlooked. Lewis employs the strategy of rereading, borrowed from literary theory, to address the internal integrity of the discourse and the relationship of the discourse to the rest of the narrative. The literary phenomenon of rereading highlights the interconnectedness of the whole of the discourse and allows all of the imagery to be assessed at a figurative level. Rereading also foregrounds the function of John 9: 39-10: 21 as the discourse to the healing of the blind man in chapter nine, and calls attention to the importance of the -Shepherd Discourse for the interpretation of the Fourth Gospel, especially the often-ignored image of Jesus as the door. This book suggests that rereading is necessitated by the Gospel itself as a fundamental feature of its unique theological expression."
Despite its controversy, experience remains a perdurable category for contemporary theology. This book explores the appeal to experience in the Christologies of Friedrich Schleiermacher and Karl Rahner, two theologians often accused of reducing theology to anthropology by allowing apologetic concerns to dictate their method in their appeal to experience. This work demonstrates that both theologians develop their hermeneutics under the tutelage of theology even while using «experience as a category by which to provide leverage in apprehending Jesus. Both the perils and possibilities of their Christologies are explored in preparation for an account of experience construed sacramentally.
Progressive Christians have largely resisted studying the book of Revelation, but Reclaiming the Book of Revelation shows that the last book of the Bible has great relevance for progressive Christians and congregations in this world. It addresses themes such as how to avoid being drawn into the values of a consumerist society, how to describe our fears instead of fleeing from them, and how to live with hope in difficult times. Because Revelation has been claimed by the «religious right and proponents of rapture theology, Wilfried E. Glabach addresses the need for more progressive Christians to give another interpretation of the book. Reclaiming the Book of Revelation offers an interpretation that stresses God's forgiveness and the «healing of the nations rather than the destruction of many and the redemption of a few. Dr. Glabach motivates and encourages preachers, teachers, and lay readers to explore Revelation's vision of assurance, justice, and peace.
In the biblical tradition revelation from God is frequently mediated through certain gifted individuals. Disclosure and hiddenness are both integral to revelation and this study explores how Matthew presents Jesus as a true discerner of revelation and how he seeks to persuade his readrs to accept the truth of his claim. Discemment of revelation is a significant motif running through Matthew's Gospel, relating closely to other aspects of his theological dynamic. This is explored by examining the background in the Old Testament and early Jewish literature, model discemment (Jesus), fragile discemment (Peter) and failed discernment (opponents). A general composition critical approach is taken, although insights from literary criticism are also used, especially to explore literary devices familiar in the apocalyptic and wisdom traditions which Matthew uses as persuasive tools.
"To some readers of this book, the Talmud represents little more than a famous Jewish book. But people want to know about a book that, they are told, defines Judaism. Everyman's Talmud is the right place to begin not only to learn about Judaism in general but to meet the substance of the Talmud in particular. . . . In time to come, Cohen's book will find its companion-though I do not anticipate it will ever require a successor for what it accomplishes with elegance and intelligence: a systematic theology of the Talmud's Judaism."
Ezekiel's oracles against Egypt (Ezek 29-32) account for the largest group of foreign oracles in the Book of Ezekiel. Here the first oracle of judgment (29,1-16) is the earliest dated oracle in the entire book, which contains also an oracle of salvation for Egypt (29,13-16). This is expressed in terms that are similar to those otherwise used exclusively for Israel: namely, to gather, bring back, and settle the captives in their homeland. Ezekiel's application of this formulation of the oracle of salvation to Egypt, Israel's arch rival, displays a paradigm of God's salvation for Israel in His way of dealing with Egypt. The present study addresses this particular aspect of God's comportment towards Egypt in the first oracle of judgment against her, as He places Egypt next to Israel as standing among God's people.
Following a thorough examination of the structure, language, and argument of Matthew's discourse on parables, Anthony O. Ewherido underscores its primary relevance to the ongoing discussion on the social context of Matthew's Gospel. The convincing analysis of the textual evidence and study of some social and historical trends in Christianity and Judaism in the post-70 C.E. era inform Ewherido's conclusion that at the time the Gospel was written to its predominantly Jewish-Christian community, that community had parted ways with Judaism and stood at an ideologically irreconcilable distance from the « synagogue across the street.
Simon Episcopius (1583-1643), who began his theological career as the protege of Jacobus Arminius, led the Arminians at the Synod of Dort and was instrumental in guaranteeing Arminianism's survival. This book breaks new ground by clearly showing how, in the process of working out the implications of the theological trajectories which Arminius established, Episcopius introduced significant changes in his master's theology. It begins by demonstrating changes between Episcopius' early theological works and Arminius' writings, and then even greater changes in his mature theological work, Institutions Theologicoe. It defends the idea that Arminianism represented a pre-Calvinist movement within the Netherlands, which not only rejected Genevan predestination, but also intentionally moved away from Reformed Scholasticism. This book is useful for seminars in early Arminian theology and the Arminian controversy in the Netherlands.
In April 2003, Rowan Williams, the Archbishop of Canterbury, convened a group of twenty-five leading Christian and Muslim scholars for three days of theological dialogue. Scriptures in Dialogue presents a record of this seminar, held in Doha at the invitation of the Amir of Qatar. The focus of this gathering was the study of passages from the Qur'an and the Bible. Combining scholarship at the highest level with commitment to the practice of their faiths in the modern world, the participants addressed questions such as discernment of the Word of God, the place of women in their believing communities, and making space for the religious 'Other'. At a time when the world's attention was fixed on the conflict in Iraq, this inter faith gathering was also a hopeful sign of the deepening of the dialogue between Christians and Muslims which is so important for both faith communities today. It includes: Papers by Vincent Cornell, Basit Koshul, Esther Mombo, Mona Siddiqui, Tim Winter, Tom Wright and Francis Young. Substantial summaries of the discussions. Brief reflections from participants on the place of scripture in their own lives as believers. A major lecture on inter faith relations given by Rowan Williams in Birmingham shortly after the seminar.
God as Father in Luke-Acts argues that 'Father' is the central image for God in Luke-Acts by tracing a line of continuity in the portrayal of God as Israel's merciful, faithful, and authoritative Father from the Old Testament to Luke-Acts and its Second Temple Jewish milieu. The fulfillment of the promises to Abraham, David, and Israel in Jesus is best understood as the fatherly actions of Israel's God. Furthermore, the striking similarities between God as Father and Augustus as Pater Patriae undermine the assertion of the Lukan view of the Roman Empire as highly polemical.
Exegesis and Hermeneutics in the Churches of the East contains the proceedings of the Bible in the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Traditions unit of the Society of Biblical Literature's (SBL) 2007 meeting in San Diego, California. Biblical professors and scholars from the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox traditions (the latter including Aramaic, Syriac, Armenian, Arabic, Georgian, and Coptic, among others) gathered to engage in critical study of the role of the Bible in eastern Christianity, past and present. The collection of articles in Exegesis and Hermeneutics in the Churches of the East examines the latest scholarly findings in the field of the utilization and interpretation of the Bible in the Christian communities in the East during the first five centuries of Christianity. They offer critical evaluations of the early church's hermeneutical and exegerical tools and methodologies.
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