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In the wake of 9/11, and with ongoing wars and tensions in the Middle East, questioning contemporary connections between and among religion, identity, and global governance is an exercise that is both important and timely. This volume, edited by Patrick James, addresses essential themes in international relations today, asking how we can establish when religious identity is a relevant factor in explaining or understanding politics, when and how religion can be applied to advance positive, peace-oriented agendas in global governance, and how governments can reconsider their foreign and domestic policies in light of religious resurgence around the world. Exploring topics such as Pope John Paul II's Just War, the role of religious NGOs in relation to states, and religious extremism among Muslims in India, the contributors highlight the central role that religion can play in foreign policy. Taken together, these essays contend that global governance cannot and will not improve unless it can find a way to coexist with the powerful force of religion.
Many scholars wishing to consult a specific text in the Dead Sea Scrolls encounter a very specific difficulty: finding where it has been published. The scrolls are found in many publications, especially in the 39 volumes of the series ???Discoveries in the Judean Desert.??? Here they are not published in any systematic way, but in the order in which they were ready for publication.
Joseph Fitzmyer seeks to remedy that situation. His A Guide to the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature starts by explaining the conventional system of abbreviations for the Scrolls. Then it helpfully lists specifically where readers can find each of the scrolls and fragmentary texts from the eleven caves of Qumran and all the related sites.
Fitzmyer supplies information on tools of study helpful for scholars ? concordances, dictionaries, translations, outlines of longer texts, and more ? and briefly indications electronic resources for the study of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
This winning guide makes navigating the sprawl of scrolls and information much more straightforward.
Western interpretations of poverty proverbs in the Old Testament Book of Proverbs have tended to see a status quo acceptance in the ancient texts, thus neglecting existential challenges of the poverty issue. In contrast, Lechion Peter Kimilike argues that African proverbial material on poverty may - when used comparatively to interpret the corresponding Old Testament poverty proverbs - create a more dynamic analysis. The author's new and thought-provoking interpretation suggests "an African transformational hermeneutic" that balances between the questions and methodology of the "global [i.e., western] guild" and the concerns of the African interpretative context.
The topic of this book is to scholars what Uranus was to Scientists before 1781. The ignorance of astrologers about the existence of Uranus before 1781 does not negate the factuality of its being. This is similar in the case of the Servant of God in John. His predicates are there, although the title is missing. Scholars and epochs have witnessed researches and contributions in the Gospel of John. Many see aspects of the Servant of God in John. But just as Uranus could not be seen but its existence was proven because of its effects on the orbits of the other planets, so the Servant of God of the Fourth Gospel could not be seen as a title but its effects on the other christological titles of the gospel indicate its reality in the gospel. The author's approach is purely exegetico-theological.
This book demonstrates a number of approaches made by biblical scholars to find a theology of the Christian Scripture. It then considers attempts to bridge the gap between exegesis and dogmatics by appeal to the discipline of 'fundamental theology' and the doctrine of Revelation. It finds that, for all the interesting questions raised, one is forced back to the Bible from where one must form the themes and concepts which have been developed by theologians through the ages, and which with help from biblical historical critics can be made to refresh theology and serve the Church. This is done by examining the role of 'faith' in the two testaments and by considering how the Bible's understanding of that which receives revelation is itself useful for the total enterprise of theology.
The Muslim perception of Christianity and Christians is an issue of longstanding debate among scholars of both Islam and Christianity. In this book, Jane McAuliffe analyses a series of passages from the Qur'an that make ostensibly positive remarks about Christians. She conducts this analysis through a close examination of Muslim exegesis of the Qur'an, spanning ten centuries of commentary. In this effort to trace various interpretations of these passages, the author attempts to determine whether these positive passages can justifiably serve as proof-texts of Muslim tolerance of Christianity. She finds that commentators have consistently distinguished between the vast majority of Christians, who are denounced for having turned from the true word of God, and a small minority, who accepted the prophethood of Muhammed and are praised.
The Covenant Motif in Jeremiah's Book of Comfort: Textual and Intertextual Studies of Jeremiah 30-33 examines Jeremiah's promise of a new covenant that God will interiorize his law into people's hearts. This in-depth syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic study of selected texts in Jeremiah 30-33 comprises the foundation for a superb biblical theology of the new covenant. God's pledge that this covenant is « not like the one I made with your fathers is explored in relation to the Abrahamic, Mosaic, and Davidic covenants. Tiberius Rata makes a theologically and hermeneutically balanced incursion into Old Testament texts used in the New Testament and provides a springboard for further discussion on difficult yet important issues such as the Lord's Supper and the future of Israel.
This study of the word « people in the biblical context touches one of the central issues of biblical literature. The author addresses the semantic and literary-critical problems involved in interpreting the Hebrew word within the complex texts of 1-2 Samuel and 1-2 Kings. While the word is often rendered by the English word « people and its cognates in the modern languages, it is also shown that the idea of « people, together with its semantic range in the modern usage, is not identical to the ancient Hebrew. Concerted effort is thus made to identify the basic factors and patterns that explain its meaning in various Hebrew contexts. The study explains how expresses both Israel's identity as a secular polity as well as its identity as a religious entity. The discussion is carried out in the light of a number of chosen texts, and these are analyzed both synchronically and diachronically.
The Song of the Sea: The Date of Composition and Influence of Exodus 15: 1-21 offers a thorough exegetical study of the Song and its interextual influence across the Hebrew Bible. It argues through a convergence of three lines of evidence - linguistic, historical, and intertextual - for a composition of the poetic sections of Exodus 15: 1-21 in the mid-twelfth century b.c.e. Courses on the book of Exodus, Hebrew poetry, or intertextuality in the Hebrew Bible will find this text useful.
What role does the Christian community play in the process of growing in Christian maturity? This book argues that in Pauline theology the redeemed community is a necessary means for the progressive sanctification of the individual believer, an idea that is largely misunderstood in parts of the Western church. It evaluates foundational theological considerations traditionally omitted from sanctification studies and places them within the context of Pauline theology. Included are the missiological nature of holiness, the initiatory character of God, the creation of the new humanity as reflecting the image of God, and the impact upon the church resulting from the radical redefinition by Christ of the cultural symbols surrounding the Jewish temple system. This book offers a corrective to the individualized approach to Christian growth: For Paul, the focus of God's transformative activity culminates with the community rather than the individual, the goal of which is to reveal God's glory to the broader creation.
The Apostle Paul sought to exert his influence and authority over the congregations he founded long after they had been established. Such ongoing oversight by Christianity's prototypical "evangelist" has not been adequately understood. In a brief 1987 article, W. Paul Bowers challenged John Knox's assertion that Paul's "pastoral and administrative work irked him and that he wanted to be free of it." This book confirms and significantly develops Bowers's little-known thesis, examining a wide range of passages in the apostle's undisputed letters and highlighting crucial implications of Paul's broadly conceived vocation for understanding his mission and moral reflection.
In analyzing the intertextuality between the Genesis and Johannine Prologues, Dr. Lioy maintains that both passages utilize polemical theology to refute distorted views of ultimate reality. Furthermore, he theorizes that the author of the Johannine Prologue deliberately reflected the structure and themes found in the Genesis Prologue to emphasize that the God-man, Jesus Christ, created all things and is a new (spiritual) beginning for all who believe in Him. Ultimate reality is found through faith in the Son.
In his pathbreaking Israel in Egypt James K. Hoffmeier sought to refute the claims of scholars who doubt the historical accuracy of the biblical account of the Israelite sojourn in Egypt. Analyzing a wealth of textual, archaeological, and geographical evidence, he put forth a thorough defense of the biblical tradition. Hoffmeier now turns his attention to the Wilderness narratives of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers. As director of the North Sinai Archaeological Project, Hoffmeier has led several excavations that have uncovered important new evidence supporting the Wilderness narratives, including a major New Kingdom fort at Tell el-Borg that was occupied during the Israelite exodus. Hoffmeier employs these archaeological findings to shed new light on the route of the exodus from Egypt. He also investigates the location of Mount Sinai, and offers a rebuttal to those who have sought to locate it in northern Arabia and not in the Sinai peninsula as traditionally thought. Hoffmeier addresses how and when the Israelites could have lived in Sinai, as well as whether it would have been possible for Moses to write down the law received at Mount Sinai. Building on the new evidence for the Israelite sojourn in Egypt, Hoffmeier explores the Egyptian influence on the Wilderness tradition. For example, he finds Egyptian elements in Israelite religious practices, including the use of the tabernacle, and points to a significant number of Egyptian personal names among the generation of the exodus. The origin of Israel is a subject of much debate and the wilderness tradition has been marginalized by those who challenge its credibility. In Ancient Israel in Sinai, Hoffmeier brings the Wilderness traditionto the forefront and makes a case for its authenticity based on solid evidence and intelligent analysis.
Ancient peoples regarded names as indicative of character and destiny. The Jews were no exception. This is a critical study of ancient exegesis of the title 'Israel' and the meanings attributed to it among Jews down to Talmudic times, along with some early Christian materials. C. T. R. Hayward explores ancient etymologies of 'Israel', and the utilization of these very varied explanations of the name in sustained works of exegesis like Jubilees; the writings of Ben Sira, Philo, and Josephus; and selected Rabbinic texts including Aramaic Targumim. He also examines translational works like the Septuagint, to illuminate those writings' sense of what it meant to be a Jew.
This book illustrates how the macro-structure of the « body of Romans essentially follows that of the diatribes in Epictetus's Discourses. As in Discourses, the diatribe in Romans begins with the thesis (1.16-17), then follows an indictment (1.18-32) and dialogues with a fictitious second-person singular in chapter two. Arguments with the mē genoito formula dominate the middle part of the diatribe. In the middle of chapter eleven, the phase changes back to dialogues with the second-person singular. The ending of the diatribe Romans also, like Discourses, includes cynic and hyperbolic statements (14.21 and 14.23). Thus, the « body of Romans should not be read as a real letter, but as a diatribe that was distributed in Paul's school-room and later appropriated as a letter. This teaching was not directed to a specific group of people, viz., the Christians in Rome, but rather intrinsically universalized. Therefore, its message is intrinsically more powerful for us.
A comprehensive analysis of the ritual dimensions of biblical mourning rites, this book also seeks to illuminate mourning's social dimensions through engagement with anthropological discussion of mourning, from Hertz and van Gennep to contemporaries such as Metcalf and Huntington and Bloch and Parry. The author identifies four types of biblical mourning, and argues that mourning the dead is paradigmatic. He investigates why mourning can occur among petitioners in a sanctuary setting even given mourning's death associations; why certain texts proscribe some mourning rites (laceration and shaving) but not others; and why the mixing of the rites of mourning and rejoicing, normally incompatible, occurs in the same ritual in several biblical texts.
This book explores the cultic-military functions of the tabernacle in the biblical narrative from the exodus to the conquest. Previous studies in this area have focused almost exclusively on the 'cultic' functions of the tabernacle and have been confined to a limited range of texts (Exodus 25-31; 35-40). The originality of this book is that it discusses a much more extensive range of material. Insights drawn from this broader perspective highlight the tabernacle's role in the military domain. The Tabernacle in the Narrative History of Israel from the Exodus to the Conquest is a distinct addition to knowledge of a much-neglected area of Old Testament research.
Given the widespread consensus that the Qur'an was in oral tradition before being committed to written form, it should come as no surprise to learn that the Qur'an still bears the traces of its original oral form. The field of knowledge most concerned with oral tradition is folkloristics, the study of folklore. Folklorist Alan Dundes has carefully and respectfully documented some of these unmistakable traces. These traces include numerous oral formulas repeated throughout the Qur'an as well as several traditional folktales. Just as Jesus effectively used parables to get His message across, so similar means are to be found in the Qur'an. The scholarly identification of formulas and folktales in the Qur'an represents an entirely new approach to this world-famous religious text. Not only does it provide insight into the basic composition of this sacred document, but for readers not previously familiar with the Qur'an, it pinpoints and makes accessible many of the principal themes contained therein.
This book offers a catalogue of techniques of biblical interpretation in early rabbinic Judaism. It describes and illustrates how a central document of early talmudic Judaism, the Mishnah, integrates into its mostly legal discourse the words of Scripture. A fresh conceptual foundation is laid for the systematic study and description of rabbinic hermeneutics and its comparison with other hermeneutic traditions.
This book presents an original Christian moral psychology based upon the Cain and Abel story and discusses epilepsy, the Cain complex, and biblical lament. Special attention is devoted to moral emotions - rage, compassion, shame, and joy - as they flare up in children and family relationships in relation to an enemy. Lament is a cry of anger that erupts in protest against unfair suffering and that strives for justice through trust in God. As the first prayer of the Bible, Cain's lament reflects the pain of all those who commit evil to vindicate injustice.
This study of water symbolism in the Gospel of John attempts to unravel its subtle reference to eschatology. Wai-yee Ng, after examining various approaches to the interpretation of symbols in John, offers a composite treatment of the subject by surveying the literary development of water throughout the gospel and by expounding its underlying eschatological framework. Exploring the historical significance of the symbol in John 4:1-42 uncovers a vertical aspect of eschatology assumed in the discourse. Ng also interprets the water symbol of John in the canonical context of biblical revelation.
Reading the Tapestry proposes a literary-rhetorical, temporal process of reading the fourth Gospel's resurrection narrative (John 20-21) from the perspective of the implied reader in the text, according to the strategies of the implied author. Informed by narrative criticism and reader response criticism, Larry Darnell George unpacks the narrative and rhetorical devices of the three episodes and twelve scenes and argues that the entire resurrection narrative represents a finely woven tapestry, a coherent unified narrative text on its own terms and as it now stands.
This is a collection of essays by members of the Society for Old Testament Study. It reviews new approaches and major developments in established approaches to Old Testament study over a wide range of topics. It reflects clearly the lively diversity which characterizes this area of scholarly study.
In this systematic and accessible analysis, Harold Coward carefully explores the scriptures - written and spoekn - of six major world faiths. He examines their interpretation, their role in devotion and education, and their relationships with each other.
To determine the importance and function of the concept of grace in the letters of Paul, this book examines grace texts that relate to entrance into and continuing existence as a member of the Christian community. Although the focus is not on texts that deal with the relation of the church to Torah, this study points toward answers to questions about Paul's views of the role of grace in relation to the Jewish law. The picture that emerges is one of grace as a vital theme for Paul. This is not simply because grace is a useful part of his arsenal in the battle against reliance on works of the law, but because it is a vital part of the past, present, and future life of the believer.
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