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This tome explains the newest research results scientists obtained during their scientific dissertation of the Old Testament, as well as the scientific fields connected with it. The themes of the individual compositions are widely spread; they concern both, exegetical and literary questions, as well as historical and religious history problems and central questions regarding the theology of the Old Testament. Relevant suggested reading invites the reader to go in for such themes. In den Beitraegen dieses Bandes werden neueste Forschungsergebnisse dargelegt, die weltweit in der wissenschaftlichen Arbeit am Alten Testament sowie in den mit ihm in Verbindung stehenden Wissenschaftsgebieten erzielt wurden. Die Themen der einzelnen Aufsaetze sind breit gefaechert; sie betreffen sowohl exegetische und literarische Fragen als auch historische und religionsgeschichtliche Probleme sowie zentrale Fragen der Theologie des Alten Testaments. Einschlaegige Literaturangaben leiten gut zur weiterfuehrenden Beschaeftigung mit den behandelten Themen an.
While Scripture is at the center of many religions, among them Islam and Christianity, this book inquires into the function, development, and implications of the centrality of text upon the Jewish community, and by extension on the larger question of canonization and the text-centered community. It is a commonplace to note how the landless and scattered Jewish communities have, from the time of the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in 70 A.D. until the founding of modern Israel in 1948, cleaved to the text and derived their identity from it. But the story is far more complex. The shift from the Bible to the Torah, from biblical religion to rabbinic Judaism mediated by the Sages, and the sealing of the canon together with its continuing interpretive work demanded from the community, amount to what could be called an unparalleled obsession with textuality. Halbertal gives us insights into the history of this obsession, in a philosophically sophisticated yet straightforward narrative.
"People of the Book" offers the best introduction available to Jewish hermeneutics, a book capable of conveying the importance of the tradition to a wide audience of both academic and general readers. Halbertal provides a panoramic survey of Jewish attitudes toward Scripture, provocatively organized around problems of normative and formative authority, with an emphasis on the changing status and functions of Mishnah, Talmud, and Kabbalah. With a gift for weaving complex issues of interpretation into his own plot, he animates ancient texts by assigning them roles in his own highly persuasive narrative.
Ayatollah al-Sayyid Abu al-Qasim al Musawi al-Khui (1899-1992) was
one of the most respected and widely acclaimed authorities on
Twelver Shi'ite Islam in this century. This book, which was first
published in Arabic in 1974, presents al-Khuis comprehensive
introduction to the history of the Quran. In it, al-Khui revisits
many critical and controversial topics connected with the
collection and ultimate canonization of the text that have received
little attention in contemporary Muslim scholarship since the
classical age. For instance, he tackles what is probably the single
most controversial subject in Quranic studies: the question of
possible alterations to the Quran as maintained by some succeeding
generations of compilers of the Quran.
Traditionally, the Talmud was read as law, that is, as the authoritative source for Jewish practice and obligations. To this end, it was studied at the level of its most minute details, with readers often ignoring the composite whole. Methods of reading have shifted as more readers have turned to the Talmud for evidence of rabbinic history, religion, rhetoric, or anthropology; still, few have employed a genuinely literary approach. In Reading the Rabbis, Kraemer attempts to fill this gap by developing a method for reading the Talmud as literature. He draws on the tools developed in the study of other literatures, particularly rhetorical and reader-response criticisms, to unearth previously unnoticed levels of meaning. The result is that readers will gain a new understanding of the complexity of Rabbinic Judaism, and a new model of rabbinic piety.
Texts about war pervade the Hebrew Bible, raising challenging questions in religious and political ethics. Among the most disquieting war passages are those in which God demands the total annihilation of the enemy without regard to gender, age, or military status. The ideology of the "ban", however, is only one among a range of attitudes towards war preserved in the ancient Israelite literary tradition. Applying insights from anthropology, comparative literature, and feminist studies, Niditch considers a wide spectrum of war ideologies in the Hebrew Bible, seeking in each case to discover why and how these views might have made sense to biblical writers, who themselves can be seen to wrestle with the ethics of violence. Niditch thus challenges the stereotype of the violent "Old" Testament - of law versus gospel, justice versus mercy, and judgment versus love. To understand attitudes about war in the Hebrew Bible, Niditch argues, is to understand war in general: the motivations, justifications, and rationalizations of those who wage it. In addition, this exploration reveals much about the social and cultural history of Israel, as war texts are found to map the world views of biblical writers from various periods and settings. Reviewing ways in which modern scholars have interpreted this controversial material, Niditch sheds further light on the normative assumptions that shape our understanding of ancient Israel. More widely, this work explores how human beings attempt to justify killing and violence. Niditch's unique study will be of particular interest to students of Judaism, the Bible, and religion, as well as ethicists and historians concerned with relating classical sources tocontemporary issues.
Jerome was one of the very few early Christian scholars to know any Hebrew. This is a unique introduction, translation, and commentary of his Questions on Genesis - a fascinating work showing a Christian working alongside Jews in an age very different from our own. Jerome's influence on the Church is well known - but this work is equally important for the light thrown on the history and origin of many ideas at the heart of the Jewish tradition.
The Hadith are believed to be the words of the Prophet, memorised by his followers and written down in the first or second centuries AH. This is a clear introduction to the arguments surrounding both the Hadith and the documents themselves. Comparing the views put forward in the Hadith with those of the Qur'an, it takes the student through all aspects of the Hadith in clear and accessible terms.
This is a literary and theological study of the Biblical Antiquities of Pseudo-Philo--a long, well-written reinterpretation of the Hebrew Bible written by a Palestinian Jew of the first century C.E. Using the methodologies of redaction and literary criticism, Murphy provides an analysis of the whole of the Biblical Antiquities. After a chapter-by-chapter analysis, Murphy addresses several topics more generally--major characters, major themes, and the historical context of the work. Full concordances to the Latin text are provided to assist future research on Pseudo-Philo. This book will prove an important resource for students of Jewish interpretation of the Bible at the end of the Second Temple period. It also sheds light on Jewish thought of the period regarding covenant, leadership in Israel, women in Israel, relations with Gentiles, divine providence, divine retribution, eschatology, and many other subjects. Furnishing a broad interpretive context for future work on the Biblical Antiquities, this study gives students of the Bible access to an important literary and religious product of first-century Judaism.
This critical study traces the development of the literary forms and conventions of the Babylonian Talmud, or Bavli, analyzing those forms as expressions of emergent rabbinic ideology. The Bavli, which evolved between the third and sixth centuries in Sasanian Iran (Babylonia), is the most comprehensive of all documents produced by rabbinic Jews in late antiquity. It became the authoritative legal source for medieval Judaism, and for some its opinions remain definitive today. Kraemer here examines the characteristic preference for argumentation and process over settled conclusions of the Bavli. By tracing the evolution of the argumentational style, he describes the distinct eras in the development of rabbinic Judaism in Babylonia. He then analyzes the meaning of the disputational form and concludes that the talmudic form implies the inaccessibility of perfect truth and that on account of this opinion, the pursuit of truth, in the characteristic talmudic concern for rabbinic process, becomes the ultimate act of rabbinic piety.
The Sprunt Lectures delivered at Union Theological Seminary,
Richmond, Virginia, February 1982.
The author presents a new approach to the study of manna, which does not concentrate only on one particular representation of the bread from heaven (especially Ex 16). Additionally, he investigates the interconnections between Ps 78:23-25, Wis 16:20-13; 19:21 and Jn 6:22-59 and he explores the new ideas of each of these texts. He also strongly asserts that Hellenistic Judaism, represented by the Book of Wisdom, is not "a second-class Judaism". This fact is proved with the example of manna as the food of immortality, an idea not introduced by Christians in the Fourth Gospel, but already present in Wis 19:21.
Provides social analysis of ancient Israel and how these books fit into that society. Includes charts, study questions, other aids, and copious searching capabilities.
The stories of Elisha the prophet have received scant attention in recent years, perhaps because they are so enigmatic. This study places the Elisha material firmly within the narrative of Genesis-2 Kings, and examines the effect these stories have on the reader's perception of the role of the 'prophet'. Using the narratological theories of Mieke Bal, David Jobling and others, Bergen shows that the Elisha stories present prophetism in a negative light, confining prophets to a rather limited scope of action in the narrative world.>
Since the photographs of the Dead Sea Scrolls were released in 1992, there has been an explosion of interest in them. This volume explores the issue of apocalypticism in the Scrolls; how the notions of the 'end', Messianic expectation and eternal life affected the Dead Sea sect, influenced Judaism and filtered into Christianity. Collins' volume provides a valuable and accessible introduction to the interpretation of the Scrolls, which is an informative addition to the series examining the major themes of the Scroll texts.
Providing an analysis of the complete story of Mary in its liturgical, narrative and rhetorical contexts, this literary reading is a prerequisite to any textual reading of the Qur'an whether juristic, theological, or otherwise. intertextuality between the Old Testament, New Testament and the Qur'an. The Qur'an is an oral event, linguistic phenomenon and great literature. So the application of modern literary theories is essential to have full comprehension of the history of the development of literary forms from pre-Islamic period such as poetry, story telling, speech-giving to the present. In addition, there is a need, from a feminist perspective, to understand in depth why a Christian mother figure such as Mary was important in early Islam and in the different stages of the development of the Qur'an as a communication process between Muhammad and the early Muslim community. Introducing modern literary theories, gender perspective and feminist criticism into Qur'anic scholarship for the first time, this book will be an invaluable resource for scholars and researchers of Islamic Studies, Qur'anic and New Testament Studies, Comparative Literature and Feminist Theology.
The work of the twelfth-century Shi'ite scholar al-Tabrisi, Majma' al-bayan, is one of the most important works of medieval commentary on the Qur'an, and is still in use today. This work is an in-depth case study of Islamic exegetical methods and an exploration of the nature of scriptural interpretation in Islam. Drawing on a wide variety of sources including unpublished manuscripts, the author examines how exegesis serves to construct, maintain and defend the status of the Qur'an as scripture and to uphold certain ideological agendas, among them the notion of the literary and rhetorical supremacy of God's revelation in Arabic. Focusing on the genre and process of Qur'anic exegesis itself, he treats Qur'an interpretation as part of a category of religious practice recognizable from the history and comparative study of religion. Written in clear and accessible style, Qur'anic Hermeneutics makes Qur'anic exegesis intelligible to specialists in Islam as well as those interested in scripture and its interpretation in general. As such, it will be a valuable reference to scholars of Islamic studies, religion and scripture.
This book investigates the relationship between the various
interpretations of the "Bhagavad-Gita" and the Hindu
Alejandro Botta locates the Aramaic legal formulary in context of the Egyptian legal tradition and looks at the influence of foreign legal practices on other formulae which do not have their roots in Egypt.This is a study of the interrelationships between the formulary traditions of the legal documents of the Jewish colony of Elephantine and the legal formulary traditions of their Egyptian counterparts.The legal documents of Elephantine have been approached in three different ways thus far: first, comparing them to the later Aramaic legal tradition; second, as part of a self-contained system, and more recently from the point of view of the Assyriological legal tradition. However, there is still a fourth possible approach, which has long been neglected by scholars in this field, and that is to study the Elephantine legal documents from an Egyptological perspective. In seeking the Egyptian parallels and antecedents to the Aramaic formulary, Botta hopes to balance the current scholarly perspective, based mostly upon Aramaic and Assyriological comparative studies.It was formerly the Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha Supplement.
Environmentalists have turned to Eastern religion, Deep Ecology and Native American religion for alternatives to the Western view that humans should dominate nature. In Economics, Ecology, and the Roots of Western Faith, Robert R. Gottfried persuasively demonstrates that the ancient Hebrew worldview, found in the Torah and the New Testament, is remarkably "green." Drawing on these insights from ancient Western thought and economic understanding of ecosystems and natural processess, Gottfried analyzes the prerequisites for maintaining or improving human welfare and ecological vitality in terms of land economics and management.
The Bible is often said to be one of the foundation texts of
Western culture. The present volume shows that it goes far beyond
being a religious text. The essays explore how religious, political
and cultural identities, including ethnicity and gender, are
embodied in biblical discourse. Following the authors, we read the
Bible with new eyes: as a critic of gender, ideology, politics and
culture. We ask ourselves new questions: about God's body, about
women's role, about racial prejudices and about the politics of the
This is a collection of essays drawn from Schwartz's previously published work in which he explores how each successive phase of Jewish literature has drawn upon and reimagined the previous ones. Arguing that there is a continuity in Jewish literature which extends from the biblical era to our own times, this collection serves as a useful guide to the history of that literature and its genres.
Bodhidharma, its first patriarch, reputedly said that Zen Buddhism
represents "a special transmission outside the teaching/Without
reliance on words and letters." This saying, along with the often
perplexing use of language (and silence) by Zen masters, gave rise
to the notion that Zen is a
This study argues that the authors of Deuteronomy - a corpus of laws purportedly given to Israel through Moses - radically transformed ancient Israelite religion and society. Their new vision, says author Bernard Levinson, was completely without precedent and included matters of worship, justice, political administration, family life, and theology. Where their agenda and the conventions of Jewish law conflicted, Levinson shows, the authors of Deuteronomy appropriated the problematic laws in question and reworked them in order to erase the conflict and to further their own program.
This acclaimed book offers the first comprehensive treatment and analysis fo the phenomenon of textual interpretation ion ancient Israel. Fishbane explores the rich tradition of exegesis prior to the development of biblical interpretation in early classical Judaism and the earliest Christian communities, and analyzes four main categories of exegesis: scribal, legal, aggadic, and mantological. The paperback edition has been expanded with new material and appendices.
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