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This volume examines reflexes of a West Semitic myth describing an attempted coup against the high god of the pantheon. In 1939, J. Morgenstern theorized that this myth was the precursor of the Satan traditions found in Jewish and Christian sources. This treatment (1) reconsiders Morgenstern's hypothesis, (2) reviews scholarship on this myth of cosmic rebellion within the W.F. Albright/F.M. Cross, Jr. lineage, (3) compiles a concordance of texts cited by scholars in analyzing the myth, (4) considers the possibility that Athtar is the myth's divine antihero, (5) provides a translation and close reading of selected Ugaritic and Hebrew texts that have informed discussion about the myth, (6) reassesses the value of these texts, and (7) provides a reconstruction of the myth.
This first part of a 2-volume work, this study combines recent
approaches that treat the formation and early interpretation of the
final form of the book of Isaiah with the more conventional
historical-critical methods that treat the use of traditions by
Isaiah's authors and editors. Studies investigate Isaiah's use of
early sacred tradition, the editing and contextualization of
oracles within the Isaianic tradition itself, and the
interpretation of the book of Isaiah in later traditions (as seen
in the various versions of the text and various communities).
The present work deals with anthropomorphism and interpretation of the Qur'?n in the theology of the Zaidite imam al-Q?sim ibn Ibr?h?m (785-860 A.D.). The edition and annotated translation of al-Q?sim's epistle "Kit?b al-mustarshid" is preceded by a detailed introduction, which treats early Islamic theology. For the abrogation of the literal meanings of Qur'?nic anthropomorphic expressions, the author uses similes, idioms and phrases in Arabic, pieces of evidence from ancient Arabic poetry and rational arguments which often reflect the Mu'tazilite ways of dealing with anthropomorphism. The second subject, the place of the Qur'?n in al-Q?sim's writings and his methods of interpretation of the Qur'?n, bears directly upon his doctrines in general and upon his doctrine of anti-anthropomorphism in particular, and also contributes to the understanding of the development of Qur'?nic exegesis in the first half of the ninth century.
What is prophecy? - Social criticism? Divination? Political rhetoric? Whimsy? A literary genre? Some or all of the above, or something else entirely? How does it function in the biblical text? How did it function in Israelite society? How does it relate to phenomena found in other Ancient Near Eastern cultures? How does true prophecy differ from false? The various facets and enigmas of Hebrew prophecy have occupied many biblical scholars over recent decades, and the progress of the investigation is documented by this collection of quality articles that have appeared in "Vetus Testamentum," Readers will find the individual studies, from a variety of approaches, frequently eye-opening, always instructive and stimulating. The collection as a whole offers a useful resource for all students of biblical prophecy.
This volume of conference papers presents new discoveries, updated information, and technological advances in the study of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Two papers examine the identity of the messiahs in 4Q246 and 4Q521. A thorough analysis of scribal markings in the Dead Sea texts is presented. Biblical studies include multiple literary editions of biblical texts, the book of Numbers at Qumran, and the appearance of the Tetragrammaton in 4QSama texts. The notions of judgment and salvation according to "Sapiential Work A" are thoroughly examined, and the relationship of the six "Barki Nafshi" texts is carefully considered. New developments in the field of Dead Sea Scrolls studies include the Dead Sea Scrolls Database and DNA studies on the scrolls themselves.
This book considers the place of the women disciples of Jesus in Christian Gnostic documents. It examines their significance and representation in Nag Hammadi documents (GosThom, GosPhil, SophJesChr, DialSav, 1ApocJas) and other early gnostic sources (GosMary, Pistis Sophia), in Patristic anti-Gnostic documents, and in Manichaean Psalms. In these documents, mostly composed during the second and third centuries C.E., Mary Magdalene, Salome, Martha and Mary, Arsinoe, Mary, the mother of Jesus, and other anonymous women appear as female disciples. A central issue of the book is the relation between the central role of these women disciples and the apparently contradictory statements about femininity and masculinity which appear in the same texts. The negative view of femininity proves to offer a background to the high assessment of the role of particular women. These female disciples transcend their femininity and become "male."
Recent developments in Pentateuchal studies -- from both diachronic
(historical) and synchronic (literary-textual) perspectives -- have
made it possible to read Genesis 18 and 19, the evocative story of
Abraham and Lot, in a new light. This work uses both types of
approach to examine the text, (1) considered in its own terms --
its structural and linguistic features, in a detailed close reading
of each verse -- and (2) considered in terms of its symbolism and
imagery in relation to those found in comparable cultures of the
ancient Middle East.
B.R. Ambedkar's magnum opus, The Buddha and his Dhamma, was barely completed before his death and was published posthumously in 1957. The book is known for Ambedkar's review and analysis of the vast Buddhist canon and literature. This is the first critical edition of The Buddha and his Dhamma. Along with a new Introduction, it includes footnotes indicating sources and annotations explaining various topics of discussion. The annotations provide useful information on canons like Suttas and Dhammapada indicating their authoritativeness in the Buddhist tradition and discuss the modifications effected in Ambedkar's use of the source material. An analytical index helps locate various passages and themes in the original text.
This work is part of a 21-volume set that provides a bilingual concordance to the "Targum of the Prophets". The bilingual (Aramaic-Hebrew) concordance is the product of an international project based in the Theological University, Kampen and supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). The aim was to provide a research tool for those engaged in research in Biblical and Jewish studies. Quotations from the Targum and the Masoretic Hebrew text of the Bible are set out in parallel so that the user can study the translation technique of the Targum in detail. For comparative purposes the concordance is published per book of the Prophets. Eventually a complete concordance will become available in electronic form. The concordance makes a wealth of largely unknown material accessible to researchers. The discovery of the presumed-lost "Song of the Lamb" (referred to in Revelations 15:3) by members of the editorial team illustrates the importance of such a concordance to both Judaic and New Testament studies. It should also of use in the textual criticism and the history of interpretation. To facilitate consultation on the basis of the Hebrew, every concordance per book contains a Hebrew-Aramaic index. The final volume will contain a cumulative Hebrew-Aramaic index.
The present volume was compiled as a respectful tribute to A.S. van der Woude and presented to him on the occasion of his 65th birthday, which coincided with his retirement as professor of Old Testament and Intertestamental Studies at the University of Groningen, a chair he held for more than thirty years. The title of this "Festschrift," "The Scriptures and the Scrolls," reflects the two fields of study to which he has devoted his scholarly life, not only by doing research himself, but also by stimulating many of his colleagues to collaborate in publications initiated by him. The contributions, a melange of studies covering the wide range of Van der Woude's interests, have been arranged according to the order: Hebrew Bible (following the sequence of the books), Apocrypha, Dead Sea Scrolls, and Rabbinic Tradition. From the Contents: E. Tov, '4QLevd (4Q26)' C.J. Labuschagne, ''You Shall not Boil a Kid in its Mother's Milk'. A New Proposal for the Origin of the Prohibition.' J.A. Emerton, 'The Translation of Isaiah 5,1.' J.T.A.G.M. van Ruiten, 'The Intertextual Relationship between Isa 11, 6-9 and Isa 65, 25.' W.A.M. Beuken, 'Isa 29, 15-24: Perversion Reverted.' W. McKane, 'Jeremiah 30, 1-3, Especially 'Israel.'' R.P. Carroll, 'Night without Vision. Micah and the Prophets.' C. van Leeuwen, 'The 'Northern One' in the Composition of Joel, 2, 19-27.' G. Wallis, A Note on Ps 45, 7a?.' M.J. Mulder, 'Does Canticles 6, 12 Make Sense?' B. Otzen, 'Michael and Gabriel. Angelological Problems in the Book of Daniel.' J.P.M. van der Ploeg, 'Some Remarks on a Newly Found Syriac Text of the Book of Judith.' A. Hilhorst, 'The Speech on Truth in 1 Esdras 4, 34-41.' P.R. Davies, 'Redaction and Sectarianismin the Qumran Scrolls.' M.A. Knibb, 'A Note on 4Q372 and 4Q390.' F. Garcia Martinez, 'The Last Surviving Columns of 11QNJ.' G. Stemberger, 'The Maccabees in Rabbinic Tradition.' J. Neusner, 'How the Bavli Shaped Rabbinic Discourse: The Case of Sifra.' J.W. Rogerson, 'Writing the History of Israel in the 17th and 18th Centuries.' F. Garcia Martinez, 'Bibliography of A.S. van der Woude.'
Harish Johari's revelations on the lessons and predictions in this
classic Indian epic
"Qur'anic Keywords: A Reference Guide" analyzes basic keywords contained in the Qur'an revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. The dominant vocabulary in the modern world is that of the secular-Christian and Western ideology and its institutions. In order to appreciate the message of the Qur'an understanding the concepts which each Qur'anic term conveys is essential. The author maintains that unless these concepts are fully understood, one cannot benefit from and be inspired by the Qur'an. He has selected over 140 words and provided explanatory notes on each of them. These will help to clarify and provide better understanding about the dynamic ideas portrayed in the Qur'an. The book will be valuable tool especially for those who do not know Arabic and try to understand the Qur'an through translations.
aFor the general reader, and the ever-burgeoning number of students
in Jewish studies programs, the "Essential Papers" series brings
together a wealth of core secondary material, while the
commentaries offered by the editors aim to place this material in
critical comparative context.a
No work has informed Jewish life and history more than the Talmud. This unique and vast collection of teachings and traditions contains within it the intellectual output of hundreds of Jewish sages who considered all aspects of an entire peopleas life from the Hellenistic period in Palestine (c. 315 B.C.E.) until the end of the Sassanian era in Babylonia (615 C.E.). This volume adds the insights of modern talmudic scholarship and criticism to the growing number of more traditionally oriented works that seek to open the talmudic heritage and tradition to contemporary readers. These central essays provide a taste of the myriad ways in which talmudic study can intersect with such diverse disciplines as economics, history, ethics, law, literary criticism, and philosophy.
Contributors: Baruch Micah Bokser, Boaz Cohen, Ari Elon, Meyer S. Feldblum, Louis Ginzberg, Abraham Goldberg, Robert Goldenberg, Heinrich Graetz, Louis Jacobs, David Kraemer, Geoffrey B. Levey, Aaron Levine, Saul Lieberman, Jacob Neusner, Nahum Rakover, and David Weiss-Halivni.
Now at seventy-three volumes, this popular MLA series (ISSN 1059-1133) addresses a broad range of literary texts. Each volume surveys teaching aids and critical material and brings together essays that apply a variety of perspectives to teaching the text. Upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, student teachers, education specialists, and teachers in all humanities disciplines will find these volumes particularly helpful.
An original study of the Qur'anic foundations of women's identity and agency, this book is a bold call to Muslim women and men to reread and reinterpret the Qur'an and to discover within its revelations an inherent affirmation of gender equality. Barazangi asserts that Muslim women have been generally excluded from full participation in Islamic society, and thus from full and equal Islamic identity, primarily because of patriarchal readings of the Qur'an and the entire range of early Qur'anic literature. Based on her study of the sacred text, she argues that Islamic higher learning is a basic human right, that women have equal authority to participate in the interpretation of Islamic primary sources, and that women will realize their just role in society and their potential as human beings only when they are involved in the interpretation of the Qur'an. Barazangi offers a curricular framework for self-teaching that could prepare Muslim women for an active role in citizenship and policymaking in a pluralistic society by affirming the self-identity of the Muslim woman as an autonomous spiritual and intellectual human being.
This book aims to help prepare travellers for both their trip to Saudi Arabia and the sacred Pilgrimage itself. The rites of Hajj and Umrah are clearly explained, and relevant prayers and supplications are provided in both Arabic and English. A final chapter is provided detailing a visit to Madinah.
The Qur'an Revealed is a landmark publication in the history of Islamic studies, providing for the first time a comprehensive critical analysis of Bedizuzzaman Said Nursi's 6000-page work of Quranic exegesis, The Epistles of Light. In discussing a wide range of themes, from Divine unity to causation, from love to spirituality, from prophethood to civilization and politics, Colin Turner invites the reader into Nursi's conceptual universe, presenting the teachings of arguably the Muslim world's most understudied theologian in a language that is accessible to both expert and interested layperson alike.
Skandapurana IIb presents a critical edition of Adhyayas 31-52 from the Skandapurana, with an introduction and English synopsis. The text edited in this volume includes central myths of early Saivism, such as the destruction of Daksa's sacrifice and Siva acquiring the bull for his vehicle. Also included is an extensive description of the thirteen hells (Naraka).
This lucidly written study is unique in that there is no book
extant by an economic historian that discusses Talmudic economics
"in the light of modern economics. Its major focus is on the
intricate debates, statements and principles that were forged by
the Talmudic Rabbis. This ancient storehouse of learning includes a
wealth of economic knowledge of modern sophistication. The book
taps these "economic treasures" by way of analytic inquiry.
This volume deals with the Sarv?stiv?da school of "Buddhism," the major philosophical school of H?nay?na. First a general outline is given of the school's origin in the (Indian) Buddhist synods. Part one ends with a general "survey of Sarv?stiv?da Literature," In the actual corpus the philosophical texts of Sarv?stiv?da are treated in detail. The organization of the work follows the geographical spread of Sarv?stiv?da. In these Parts special emphasis is laid on the Central Asian history of the school, as well as on how the school eventually reached "China" ('Abhidharma and Kosa Schools'). Treatment is based on the Chinese versions of the major works of the school (S?trapi?aka, Abhidarmapi?aka and Vinayapi?aka). All in all, this major work throws a "new light" on the relationship between Sarv?stiv?da and M?lasarv?stiv?da and provides an innovative view on the D?rs?tantika and Sautr?ntika Schools.
The Dasam Granth is a 1,428-page anthology of diverse compositions attributed to the tenth Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh, and a topic of great controversy among Sikhs. The controversy stems from two major issues: a substantial portion of the Dasam Granth relates tales from Hindu mythology, suggesting a disconnect from normative Sikh theology; and a long composition entitled Charitropakhian tells several hundred rather graphic stories about illicit liaisons between men and women. Sikhs have debated whether the text deserves status as a "scripture" or should be read instead as "literature." Sikh scholars have also long debated whether Guru Gobind Singh in fact authored the entire Dasam Granth. Much of the secondary literature on the Dasam Granth focuses on this authorship issue, and despite an ever-growing body of articles, essays, and books (mainly in Punjabi), the debate has not moved forward. The available manuscript and other historical evidence do not provide conclusive answers regarding authorship. The debate has been so acrimonious at times that in 2000, Sikh leader Joginder Singh Vedanti issued a directive that Sikh scholars not comment on the Dasam Granth publicly at all pending a committee inquiry into the matter. Debating the Dasam Granth is the first English language, book-length critical study of this controversial Sikh text in many years. Based on research on the original text in the Brajbhasha and Punjabi languages, a critical reading of the secondary literature in Punjabi, Hindi, and English, and interviews with scholars and Sikh leaders in India, it offers a thorough introduction to the Dasam Granth, its history, debates about its authenticity, and an in-depth analysis of its most important compositions.
Oxford Scholarly Classics is a new series that makes available again great academic works from the archives of Oxford University Press. Reissued in uniform series design, the reissues will enable libraries, scholars, and students to gain fresh access to some of the finest scholarship of the last century.
Joshua Berman engages the text of the Hebrew Bible from a novel perspective -- as a document of social and political thought. He proposes that the Pentateuch can be read as the earliest prescription on record for the establishment of an egalitarian polity. The blueprint that emerges is that of a society that would stand in stark contrast to the social orders found in the surrounding cultures of the ancient Near East -- Egypt, Mesopotamia, Ugarit, and the Hittite Empire -- where the hierarchical structure of the polity was centered on the figure of the king and his retinue. Berman shows that the Pentateuch's egalitarian ideal is articulated in comprehensive fashion and is expressed in its theology, politics, economics, use of technologies of communication, and in its narrative literature. Throughout, he invokes parallels from the modern period as heuristic devices to illuminate the ancient developments under study. Thus, for example, the constitutional principles in the Book of Deuteronomy are examined in the light of principles espoused by Montesquieu, and the rise of the novel in 18th-century England serves to illuminate the advent of new modes of storytelling in biblical narrative.
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