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This book seeks to explore how disability is understood and the position and experiences of disabled people both within and across different societies. The authors explore the question of politics in relation to specific struggles, providing a wealth of insights and ideas, and examine the nature and value of a social model of disability. They criticize exclusionary barriers while advancing a more democratic and participatory society based on principles of equality, offer cross-cultural insights and present stimuli for debate and further research. The text is accessible, topical, and provides new and innovatory thinking. This book will appeal to undergraduate and postgraduate students, lecturers and researchers with interests in education, social policy, sociology and disability studies.
In 1994 the American Psychiatric Association published the groundbreaking diagnostic criteria for autism ('Autistic Disorder'). Since then, the reported numbers of people with autism have increased from one in every 2,000 children to one in every 50-a 75% rise in just the last decade. With big business emerging for everyone including basic researchers, therapists, and educators, while the media in turn promotes sensationalized reports like autism caused by vaccines, or claims that thousands of hours of 1:1 behavior modification programs can cure it, the need for a level playing field has emerged. The Politics of Autism explores new viewpoints on 'old' issues: Is there more autism? What's wrong with how autism gets diagnosed? Are standard treatments really appropriate given the life course of people with autism? Why does fear of vaccines persist? Are we effectively allocating autism research dollars if the goal is to help people with autism? What does this modern fascination with something like autism tell us about our society today? What does it tell us about what people will believe, and how little it can take to get them to believe something? This book takes on the politics of autism by exposing the sub rosa truths that are often impolitic or seemingly too sensitive to discuss. All drawn from data-readers will explore unabashed contrarian views on autism epidemiology, autism service provision, autism education, and autism research. Each chapter will focus both on the controversies themselves, and how these controversies came to be. Chapters divided to address a different set of issues, data, and social policy recommendations for changes can be read as a sequence or individual treatments on the selected topics. Each chapter will shine light into arenas of the autism world where Bryna Siegel, who has worked in the autism field for 40 years, has had a ringside seat or sometimes been in the ring herself. Each chapter will provide a narrative of the different false alarms, false cures, soft-as-quicksand science, or other snake oil that has heralded the surfacing of some aspect of the world of autism into public consciousness. In addition, readers will find a chapter-by-chapter bibliography with URLs to many engaging references posted on the author's website. References include popular media/internet resources. Dr. Bryna Siegel's work has focused on the development and learning of children with autism. She analyzes autism as the confluence of expected and atypical development as a way to understanding autism-specific learning disabilities and learning styles. Her interest in the politics of autism grows from years of observing disparities in access to autism diagnosis, autism education, and support for families living with autism. In The Politics of Autism, she explores American positivism, internet disinformation, and focuses on autism as a case example of how societal forces have led to wasteful and ineffective autism education, false hope for cures, pyrrhic battles about vaccines, lack of vision to plan for adults with autism, and costly medical research that helps no one with autism, but expropriates dollars that could be directed to improving lives. Analysis of each issue concludes with recommendations for social policy changes.
Gender & Mental Health is an exciting textbook written from a policy perspective. Based on up-to-date information from Europe and the United States, it focuses not only on the individual experience of mental disorder for both men and women, but also on a range of mental health policy issues, including law and crime. It will be extremely useful to a broad range of students (sociology, social policy and gender studies) and professionals (social work, nursing, legal and medical).
Universal Design is Selwyn Goldsmith's new authoritative design manual, the successor to his internationally acclaimed Designing for the Disabled. A clear and concise design guide for practising and student architects, it describes and illustrates the differences there are between universal design and 'for the disabled' design Universal Design presents detailed design guidance for architects in an easily referenced form. Covering both public buildings and private housing, it includes informative anthropometric data, along with illustrative examples of the planning of circulation spaces, sanitary facilities, car parking spaces and seating spaces for wheelchair users in cinemas and theatres. It is a valuable manual in enhancing understanding of the basic principles of 'universal design'.The aim - to encourage architects to extend the parameters of normal provision, by looking to go beyond the prescribed minimum design standards of the Part M building regulation, Access and facilities for disabled people.
Never before have the civil rights of people with disabilities aligned so well with developments in information and communication technology. The center of the technology revolution is the Internet, which fosters unprecedented opportunities for engagement in democratic society. The Americans with Disabilities Act likewise is helping to ensure equal participation in society by people with disabilities. Globally, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities further affirms that persons with disabilities are entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of fundamental personal freedoms. This book is about the lived struggle for disability rights, with a focus on Web equality for people with cognitive disabilities, such as intellectual disabilities, autism, and print-related disabilities. The principles derived from the right to the Web - freedom of speech and individual dignity - are bound to lead toward full and meaningful involvement in society for persons with cognitive and other disabilities.
This is an attempt to address the ethical issues raised by mental illness and its treatment by focusing on the question of autonomy. The mentally ill may be regarded as non-autonomous by virtue of irrationality, which may result in treatment models which may deny them a voice. As a counter to this, some have moved to the other extreme and argued that the mentally ill must be regarded as fully autonomous in all circumstances, and consequently that all their wishes regarding treatment must be respected. This book examines the ethical consequences of such simplistic approaches approaches towards autonomy and mental illness, and considers the ethical issues raised by specific forms of treatment. It is suggested in conclusion that improvement in the care and treatment of the mentally ill requires not only a fundamental change in social attitudes but also less impoverished conception of autonomy than some of those currently employed.
Published ten years after the first edition, this new Handbook offers topical, and comprehensive information on the welfare systems of all 28 EU member states and their recent reforms, giving the reader an invaluable introduction and basis for comparative welfare research. Additional chapters provide detailed information on EU social policy, as well as comparative analyses of European welfare systems and their reform pathways. For this second edition, all chapters have been updated and substantially revised, and Croatia additionally included. The second edition of this Handbook is most timely, given the often-fundamental welfare state transformations against the background of the financial and economic crises, transforming social policy ideas, as well as political shifts in a number of European countries. The book sets out to analyse these new developments when it comes to social policy. In the first part, all country chapters provide systematic and comparable information on the foundations of the different national welfare systems and their characteristics. In the second part, using a joint conceptual foundation, they focus on policy changes (especially of the last two decades) in different social policy areas, including old-age, labour market, family, healthcare, and social assistance policies. As the comparative chapters conclude, European welfare system landscapes have been in constant motion in the last two decades. While austerity is not to be seen on the aggregate level, the in-depth country studies show that all policy sectors have been characterised by different reform directions and ideas. The findings not only reveal both change and continuity, but also policy reversal as a distinct type that characterises social policy reform. The book provides a rich resource to the international welfare state research community, and is also useful for social policy teaching.
What is disability? Why terminate a pregnancy when disabling traits are diagnosed in the foetus? Can disability be part of a person's identity? These are important questions in the current climate of increased pre-natal screening programmes designed to further reduce the numbers of children born with disabilities. This book looks at disablement from a philosophical perspective by examining these questions through a combination of critical review, discussion and narrative theory. Disability: definitions, value and identity provides practical and concise information for social care workers, counsellors, academics, students, genetics counsellors, and medical and healthcare ethicists. It will also be invaluable for disability pressure groups and policy makers.
In the twenty-first century there is increasing global recognition of pain relief as a basic human right. However, as Susan Honeyman argues in this new take on child pain and invisible disability, such a belief has historically been driven by adult, ideological needs, whereas the needs of children in pain have traditionally been marginalised or overlooked in comparison. Examining migraines in children and the socially disabling effects that chronic pain can have, this book uses medical, political and cultural discourse to convey a sense of invisible disability in children with migraine and its subsequent oppression within educational and medical policy. The book is supported by authentic migraineurs' experiences and first-hand interviews as well as testimonials from a range of historical, literary, and medical sources never combined in a child-centred context before. Representations of child pain and lifespan migraine within literature, art and popular culture are also pulled together in order to provide an interdisciplinary guide to those wanting to understand migraine in children and the identity politics of disability more fully. Child Pain, Migraine, and Invisible Disability will appeal to scholars in childhood studies, children's rights, literary and visual culture, disability studies and medical humanities. It will also be of interest to anyone who has suffered from migraines or has cared for children affected by chronic pain.
Dementia in Close-Up is a clear and practical guide to dementia and
the world of the dementia sufferer.
Selwyn Goldsmith's Designing for the Disabled has, since it was first published in 1963, been a bible for practising architects around the world. Now, as a new book with a radical new vision, comes his Designing for the Disabled: The New Paradigm. Goldsmith's new paradigm is based on the concept of architectural disability. As a version of the social model of disability, it is not exclusively the property of physically disabled people. Others who are afflicted by it include women, since men customarily get proportionately four times as many amenities in public toilets as women - and women have to queue where men do not - and those with infants in pushchairs, because normal WC facilities are invariably too small to get a pushchair and infant into. To counter architectural disability, Goldsmith's line is that the axiom for legislation action has to be 'access for everyone' - it should not just be 'access for the disabled', as it presently is with the Part M building regulation and relevant provisions of the 1995 Disability Discrimination Act. In a 40-page annex to his book he sets out the terms that a new-style Part M regulation and its Approved Document might take, one that would cover alterations to existing buildings as well as new buildings. But architects and building control officers need not, he says, wait for new a legislation to apply new practical procedures to meet the requirements of the current Part M regulation; they can, as he advises, act positively now. This is a book which will oblige architects to rethink the methodology of designing for the disabled. It is a book that no practising architect, building control officer, local planning officer or access officer can afford to be without.
In "Cultural Locations of Disability", Sharon L. Snyder and David T. Mitchell trace how disabled people came to be viewed as biologically deviant. The eugenics era pioneered techniques that managed "defectives" through the application of therapies, invasive case histories, and acute surveillance techniques, turning disabled persons into subjects for a readily available research pool. In its pursuit of normalization, eugenics implemented disability regulations that included charity systems, marriage laws, sterilization, institutionalization, and even extermination. Enacted in enclosed disability locations, these practices ultimately resulted in expectations of segregation from the mainstream, leaving today's disability politics to focus on reintegration, visibility, inclusion, and the right of meaningful public participation. Snyder and Mitchell reveal cracks in the social production of human variation as aberrancy. From our modern obsessions with tidiness and cleanliness to our desire to attain perfect bodies, notions of disabilities as examples of human insufficiency proliferate. These disability practices infuse more general modes of social obedience at work today. Consequently, this important study explains how disabled people are instrumental to charting the passage from a disciplinary society to one based upon regulation of the self.
This work covers the history of those orders which combined religion and caring with military prowess. Among the orders covered: are the Hospitallers of St John; the Templars; the Teutonic order; and the Spanish. The book also discusses the perceptions and roles of the military orders.
Drawing on rehabilitation publications, novels by both famous and obscure American writers, and even the prosthetic masks of a classically trained sculptor, Great War Prostheses in American Literature and Culture addresses the ways in which prosthetic devices were designed, promoted, and depicted in America in the years during and after the First World War. The war's mechanized weaponry ushered in an entirely new relationship between organic bodies and the technology that could both cause, and attempt to remedy, hideous injuries. Such a relationship was also evident in the realm of prosthetic development, which by the second decade of the twentieth century promoted the belief that a prosthesis should be a spiritual extension of the person who possessed it. This spiritualized vision of prostheses proved particularly resonant in American postwar culture. Relying on some of the most recent developments in literary and disability studies, the book's six chapters explain how a prosthesis's spiritual promise was largely dependent on its ability to nullify an injury and help an amputee renew or even improve upon his prewar life. But if it proved too cumbersome, obtrusive, or painful, the device had the long-lasting power to efface or distort his 'spirit' or personality.
Albinism is one of the foremost disability and public health issues in Africa today. It often makes headlines in local, national and international medias and forms the basis for intense advocacy at all levels. This is primarily due to the harmful representations of persons with albinism deeply entrenched in African traditions. These deeply rooted ideologies about albinism in African thought have largely promoted the continuous discrimination, stigmatization, harming, killing, commodification and violation of the human rights of persons with albinism in African places. How has albinism emerged as a thick concept in African traditions? What are these deeply entrenched ideas about the ontology of albinism in African thought? What epistemic injustice has been done to persons with albinism in Africa places? Why do harmful beliefs about albinism still persist in modern African societies? How does the African communalistic ethic justify the harm done against persons with albinism? What is the duty to, and burden of, care for persons with albinism? What peculiar existential challenges do persons with albinism in general and females with albinism in particular face in African societies and how can they be overcome? What can be learnt from the education philosophy of reconstructionism and genetic engineering in improving the wellbeing of persons with albinism? African Philosophy and the Otherness of Albinism: White Skin, Black Race digs deep into these philosophical questions revealing fascinating but latent aspects of how albinism is understood in African places as a necessary step to take in improving the wellbeing and integrity of persons with albinism in Africa today. This book will be of interest to scholars and students of African philosophy, sociology, African studies and disability studies.
Publicity about neuroscientific research into the dementias spreads quickly compared to the advances made in the field of care-giving. In the absence of cures or treatments for dementia, improving the individual's experience of care and stimulating their capacity for happiness is a more realistic goal than improved cognition. In this comprehensive collection of contributions from America, Australia, Britain and other European countries, the reader can find up-to-date and practical information on research and the latest approaches to care-giving from a multidisciplinary and multiprofessional perspective.
This historical study of mental healthcare workers' efforts to educate the public challenges the supposition that public prejudice generates the stigma of mental illness. Drawing on extensive archival research, this book argues that psychiatrists, nurses and social workers generated representations of mental illness which reflected their professional aspirations, economic motivations and perceptions of the public. Sharing in the stigma of their patients, healthcare workers sought to enhance the prestige of their professions by focussing upon the ability of psychiatry to effectively treat acute cases of mental disturbance. As a consequence, healthcare workers inadvertently reinforced the stigma attached to serious and enduring mental distress. This book makes a major contribution to the history of mental healthcare, and critiques current campaigns which seek to end mental health discrimination for failing to address the political, economic and social factors which fuel discrimination. It will appeal to academics, students, healthcare practitioners and service users. -- .
Disability, Augmentative Communication, and the American Dream is a collaborative effort to tell the life story of Jon A. Feucht, a man who was born with a form of cerebral palsy that left him reliant on a wheelchair for mobility, with limited use of his arms and an inability to speak without an assistive communication device. It is a story about finding one's voice, about defying low expectations, about fulfilling one's dreams, and about making a difference in the world. Sociologist C. Wright Mills famously called for a "sociological imagination" that grapples with the intersection of biography and history in society and the ways in which personal troubles are related to public issues. Disability, Augmentative Communication, and the American Dream heeds this call through a qualitative "mixed-methods" study that situates Feucht's life in broader social context, understanding disability not just as an individual experience but also as a social phenomenon. In the tradition of disability studies, it also illuminates an experience of disability that avoids reading it as tragic or pitiable. Disability, Augmentative Communication, and the American Dream is intended as an analytical and empirical contribution to both disability studies and qualitative sociology, to be read by social science scholars and students taking courses in disability studies and qualitative research, as well as by professionals working in the fields of special education and speech pathology. Written in an accessible style, the book will also be of interest to lay readers who want to learn more about disability issues and the disability experience.
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