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This book provides all facets of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) and offers the future targets and directions of AAB research. It summarizes the distinctive physiological properties of AAB and the recent progress on AAB study, especially in the following five areas: 1) Molecular phylogeny and genome study of AAB; 2) Ecological features of AAB: interaction with plants, natural fermentation systems, and insects; 3) Physiological features and living strategies of AAB, including rapid oxidation ability, acid resistance, biofilm formation, and genetic instability; 4) Molecular mechanisms of several oxidative fermentations such as acetate fermentation, sorbose fermentation, and ketogluconate fermentation; 5) Recent biotechnological aspects of AAB: biocatalysts, biosensors, biocellulose, and other useful polysaccharides. AAB research has a long history since the discovery of AAB by Louis Pasteur and the identification of AAB by Martinus Beijerinck in the nineteenth century. In the twentieth century, basic research on the taxonomic study of AAB and on biochemical study for the unique oxidative reactions of AAB had progressed as well as the industrial application of AAB not only in vinegar fermentation but also in the bioconversion process for useful chemical or pharmaceutical products. Entering the twenty-first century, AAB research has expanded more, and further progress is expected to be seen in all fields of AAB: classification and ecology, physiology and biochemistry, genetics, and biotechnology of vinegar fermentation and other oxidative fermentations. Far-reaching development in the last decade makes these bacteria more valuable for various industrial uses. Readers can obtain useful and comprehensive information which is exciting in aspects of basic science and provides hints for the better application of these bacteria to various kinds of practical production scenarios as well.
With the knowledge of possible outcomes, what kind of actions
should we take? The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scored 74
response options for dealing with declines in ecosystem services
and biodiversity, and managing drivers such as climate change and
nutrient loading. This third volume in the MA series analyzes the
track record of past policies and the potential of new ones.
Metacommunity ecology links smaller-scale processes that have been the provenance of population and community ecology--such as birth-death processes, species interactions, selection, and stochasticity--with larger-scale issues such as dispersal and habitat heterogeneity. Until now, the field has focused on evaluating the relative importance of distinct processes, with niche-based environmental sorting on one side and neutral-based ecological drift and dispersal limitation on the other. This book moves beyond these artificial categorizations, showing how environmental sorting, dispersal, ecological drift, and other processes influence metacommunity structure simultaneously. Mathew Leibold and Jonathan Chase argue that the relative importance of these processes depends on the characteristics of the organisms, the strengths and types of their interactions, the degree of habitat heterogeneity, the rates of dispersal, and the scale at which the system is observed. Using this synthetic perspective, they explore metacommunity patterns in time and space, including patterns of coexistence, distribution, and diversity. Leibold and Chase demonstrate how these processes and patterns are altered by micro- and macroevolution, traits and phylogenetic relationships, and food web interactions. They then use this scale-explicit perspective to illustrate how metacommunity processes are essential for understanding macroecological and biogeographical patterns as well as ecosystem-level processes. Moving seamlessly across scales and subdisciplines, Metacommunity Ecology is an invaluable reference, one that offers a more integrated approach to ecological patterns and processes.
The environment, and how humans affect it, is more of a concern now
than ever. We are constantly told that halting climate change
requires raising awareness, changing attitudes, and finally
altering behaviors among the general public-and fast. New
information, attitudes, and actions, it is conventionally assumed,
will necessarily follow one from the other. But this approach
ignores much of what is known about attitudes in general and
environmental attitudes specifically-there is a huge gap between
what we say and what we do.
This book is the first comprehensive coverage of Red Sea fisheries to inform researchers and decision makers. The Red Sea is a geologically young sea, but also an area with the oldest record of human sea food exploitation. Examining the fisheries of the Red Sea has become extremely important to understand the ecosystem and the direct human impact of fishing on Red Sea ecosystems. This volume gives extensive data on different fisheries sectors identified and described for each country bordering the Red Sea. Furthermore, its catch and specific composition is also described over the period 1950 to 2010. Combined with the ecosystem model this useful information can uniquely help managing fisheries and ecosystems of the Red Sea.
Since its original publication in 1960, "The Wildlife Techniques Manual" has remained the cornerstone text for the professional wildlife biologist. Now fully revised and updated, this seventh edition promises to be the most comprehensive resource on wildlife biology, conservation, and management for years to come.
Superbly edited by Nova J. Silvy, the thirty-seven authoritative chapters included in this work provide a full synthesis of methods used in the field and laboratory. Chapter authors, all leading wildlife professionals, explain and critique traditional and new methodologies and offer thorough discussions of a wide range of relevant topics, including:
- experimental design- wildlife health and disease- capture techniques- population estimation- telemetry- vegetation analysis- conservation genetics- wildlife damage management- urban wildlife management- habitat conservation planning
A standard text in a variety of courses, the Techniques Manual, as it is commonly called, covers every aspect of modern wildlife management and provides practical information for applying the hundreds of methods described in its pages. To effectively incorporate the explosion of new information in the wildlife profession, this latest edition is logically organized into a two-volume set: Volume 1 is devoted to research techniques and Volume 2 focuses on management methodologies.
"The Wildlife Techniques Manual" is a resource that professionals and students in wildlife biology, conservation, and management simply cannot do without.
Published in association with The Wildlife Society
"Pollutants, Human Health and ""the Environment "is a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of environmental pollutants that are of current concern to human health.
Clearly structured throughout, the main body of the book is divided by pollutant type with a chapter devoted to each group of pollutants. Each chapter follows a similar format to facilitate comparison and discussion. For each pollutant, the authors describe the sources, pathways, environmental fate and sinks as well as known toxicological effects. Importantly, the second chapter on heavy metals and other inorganic substances deals with trace element deficiencies which can have serious problems for human health. Some rocks and soils are naturally low in some trace elements and intensive agriculture over the past half century has effectively mined many trace elements reducing their levels in soils and crops. The final chapter is a discussion about the various risk assessment frameworks and regulations covering the main pollutants.Comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of environmental pollutants of concern to human health Clearly divided into pollutant type with each chapter devoted to a different pollutant group Clearly structured throughout with the same format for each chapter to help facilitate comparison and discussion and enable readers to prioritise chemicals of concern Description of the sources, pathways, environmental fate and known toxicological effect Includes contributions from leading researchers and edited by a team of experts in the field
Ecological Economics for the Anthropocene provides an urgently needed alternative to the long-dominant neoclassical economic paradigm of the free market, which has focused myopically-even fatally-on the boundless production and consumption of goods and services without heed to environmental consequences. The emerging paradigm for ecological economics championed in this new book recenters the field of economics on the fact of the Earth's limitations, requiring a total reconfiguration of the goals of the economy, how we understand the fundamentals of human prosperity, and, ultimately, how we assess humanity's place in the community of beings. Each essay in this volume contributes to an emerging, revolutionary agenda based on the tenets of ecological economics and advances new conceptions of justice, liberty, and the meaning of an ethical life in the era of the Anthropocene. Essays highlight the need to create alternative signals to balance one-dimensional market-price measurements in judging the relationships between the economy and the Earth's life-support systems. In a lively exchange, the authors question whether such ideas as "ecosystem health" and the environmental data that support them are robust enough to inform policy. Essays explain what a taking-it-slow or no-growth approach to economics looks like and explore how to generate the cultural and political will to implement this agenda. This collection represents one of the most sophisticated and realistic strategies for neutralizing the threat of our current economic order, envisioning an Earth-embedded society committed to the commonwealth of life and the security and true prosperity of human society.
Prepared by two of the leading figures in wildlife biology, this book gathers in one volume the most influential articles published in the field. Paul R. Krausman and Bruce D. Leopold have collected the forty-two papers that every wildlife student should read. Each piece is introduced with a commentary that explains why it is important and a brief listing of papers that inspired or were inspired by the classic. Practical and conceptual topics consider every aspect of the wildlife profession, including ethics. Ideal for use as a textbook, Essential Readings in Wildlife Management and Conservation is divided into four sections: the philosophical roots of wildlife management, biology, habitat, and human dimensions. Contains the classic publications of K. T. Adair, R. A. Baer, L. C. Birch, W. H. Burt, L. H. Carpenter, G. Caughley, T. C. Chamberlin, E. L. Charnov, L. C. Chase, F. E. Clements, L. C. Cole, J. H. Connell, R. N. Conner, Z. J. Cornett, P. D. Dalke, D. J. Decker, L. R. Dice, J. G. Dickson, D. F. Doak, R. Y. Edwards, P. R. Ehrlich, C. S. Elton, P. L. Errington, D. Esler, C. D. Fowle, T. A. Gavin, V. Geist, M. Gilpin, H. A. Gleason, J. Grinnell, J. P. Hailman, G. Hardin, N. T. Hobbs, C. S. Holling, S. S. Hutchings, D. H. Johnson, S. R. Kellert, R. H. Klopfer, B. A. Knuth, C. C. Kreuger, A. Leopold, R. L. Lindeman, C. A. Loker, R. H. MacArthur, J. Macnab, S. P. Mahoney, G. F. Mattfield, D. R. McCullough, S. L. Mills, A. J. Nicholson, J. F. Organ, R. T. Paine, G. Parsons, M. E. Richmond, S. J. Riley, S. J. Schwager, V. E. Shelford, W. F. Siemer, D. S. Simberloff, M. E. Soule, G. Stewart, J. W. Thomas, B. Van Horne, S. C. Wecker, E. O. Wilson
These proceedings of the Smart and Sustainable Cities Conference (SSC) in Moscow from May 23 to 26, 2018 addresses important questions regarding the global trend of urbanization. What are the environmental consequences of megacities' expansion? What smart solutions can make life in cities safe, comfortable and environmentally friendly? It is projected that 70% of the global population will live in cities by 2050, and as such the book describes how this rapid urbanization will alter the face of the world. Focusing on solutions for the environmental problems of modern megapolises, it discusses advanced approaches and smart technologies to monitor, model and assess the environmental consequences and risks. The contributors present examples of successful sustainable urban development, including management and design of green infrastructure, waste management, run-off purification and remediation of urban soils. The SSC conference and its proceedings offer a valuable contribution to sustainable urban development, and are of interest to the scientific and research community, municipal services, environmental protection agencies, landscape architects, civil engineers, policy makers and other stakeholders in urban management and greenery.
As read by James Corden, Fearne Cotton, Jim Chapman and Dougie Poytner. 'We have a responsibility, every one of us' David Attenborough Around 12.7 million tonnes of plastic are entering the ocean every year, killing over 1 million seabirds and 100,000 marine mammals. By 2050 there could be more plastic in the ocean than fish by weight. Plastic pollution is the environmental scourge of our age, but how can YOU make a difference? This accessible guide, written by the campaigner at the forefront of the anti-plastic movement, will help you make the small changes that make a big difference, from buying a reusable coffee cup to running a clean-up at your local park or beach. Tips on giving up plastic include: * Washing your clothes within a wash bag to catch plastic microfibers (the cause of 30% of plastic pollution in the ocean) * Replacing your regular shampoo with bar shampoo * How to lobby your supermarket to remove unnecessary packaging * How to throw a plastic-free birthday party * How to convince others to join you in giving up plastic Plastic is not going away without a fight. We need a movement made up of billions of individual acts, bringing people together from all backgrounds and all cultures, the ripples of which will be felt from the smallest village to the tallest skyscrapers. This is a call to arms - to join forces across the world and to end our dependence on plastic. #BreakFreeFromPlastic Plastic is not going away without a fight. We need a movement made up of billions of individual acts, bringing people together from all backgrounds and all cultures, the ripples of which will be felt from the smallest village to the tallest skyscrapers. 'Plastic waste is one of the greatest environmental challenges facing the world' Theresa May 'As Head of Oceans at Greenpeace, Will is on the front line of humanity's global fight against plastic. This timely book not only explains how we got into this mess, but most importantly offers an optimistic and proactive approach as to how we can get out of it'. - Richard Walker, Managing Director at Iceland
Marine Ecological Field Methods describes marine ecological sampling equipment, methods and analysis, ranging from physical parameters to fish, microalgae, zooplankton, benthos and macroalgae. Evolved from material used to teach a course for Marine Biology Master s students at the University of Bergen in Norway, the book covers survey and sampling design, sample and data collection and processing, and data analysis. The research question and characteristics of the organisms and habitat dictate what sampling equipment is required. Information is included on sampling equipment, ranging from those that are useful in shallow nearshore areas, such as bottles, secchi discs, and gillnets or beach seines to those deployed from large research ships for studies offshore, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), fishing trawls, and hydroacoustics, or remote observation completed using satellites.
G. Tyler Miller's worldwide bestsellers have evolved right along with the changing needs of your diverse student population. Focused specifically on energizing and engaging all your students, Miller and new coauthor Scott Spoolman have been at work scrutinizing every line - enhancing, clarifying, and streamlining to reduce word density as well as updating with the very latest environmental news and research. The resulting texts are shorter, clearer, and so engaging that your students will actually want to read their assignments. The ideal alternative to ecology texts that tend to be too difficult for non-majors, this succinct 11-chapter, full-color textbook covers scientific principles and concepts, ecosystems, evolution, biodiversity, population ecology, and more.
The local diversity and global richness of coral reef fishes, along with the diversity manifested in their morphology, behaviour and ecology, provides fascinating and diverse opportunities for study. Reflecting the very latest research in a broad and ever-growing field, this comprehensive guide is a must-read for anyone interested in the ecology of fishes on coral reefs. Featuring contributions from leaders in the field, the 36 chapters cover the full spectrum of current research. They are presented in five parts, considering coral reef fishes in the context of ecology, patterns and processes, human intervention and impacts, conservation, and past and current debates. Beautifully illustrated in full-colour, this book is designed to summarise and help build upon current knowledge and to facilitate further research. It is an ideal resource for those new to the field as well as for experienced researchers.
Following the much acclaimed success of the first volume of Key Topics in Conservation Biology, this entirely new second volume addresses an innovative array of key topics in contemporary conservation biology. Written by an internationally renowned team of authors, Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2 adds to the still topical foundations laid in the first volume (published in 2007) by exploring a further 25 cutting-edge issues in modern biodiversity conservation, including controversial subjects such as setting conservation priorities, balancing the focus on species and ecosystems, and financial mechanisms to value biodiversity and pay for its conservation. Other chapters, setting the framework for conservation, address the sociology and philosophy of peoples relation with Nature and its impact on health, and such challenging practical issues as wildlife trade and conflict between people and carnivores. As a new development, this second volume of Key Topics includes chapters on major ecosystems, such as forests, islands and both fresh and marine waters, along with case studies of the conservation of major taxa: plants, butterflies, birds and mammals. A further selection of topics consider how to safeguard the future through monitoring, reserve planning, corridors and connectivity, together with approaches to reintroduction and re-wilding, along with managing wildlife disease. A final chapter, by the editors, synthesises thinking on the relationship between biodiversity conservation and human development. Each topic is explored by a team of top international experts, assembled to bring their own cross-cutting knowledge to a penetrating synthesis of the issues from both theoretical and practical perspectives. The interdisciplinary nature of biodiversity conservation is reflected throughout the book. Each essay examines the fundamental principles of the topic, the methodologies involved and, crucially, the human dimension. In this way, Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2, like its sister volume, Key Topics in Conservation Biology, embraces issues from cutting-edge ecological science to policy, environmental economics, governance, ethics, and the practical issues of implementation. Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2 will, like its sister volume, be a valuable resource in universities and colleges, government departments, and conservation agencies. It is aimed particularly at senior undergraduate and graduate students in conservation biology and wildlife management and wider ecological and environmental subjects, and those taking Masters degrees in any field relevant to conservation and the environment. Conservation practitioners, policy-makers, and the wider general public eager to understand more about important environmental issues will also find this book invaluable.
The book provides a cross-disciplinary and multi-scale assessment of a world top river, the Changjiang (Yangtze River) and its adjacent marginal environment, the East China Sea. The studies in this volume bridges the watersheds of the river and the marginal sea through a combined approach of hydro-dynamics, geochemistry, sedimentary processes, ecology and fishery. The response of ecosystem to the external driving forces is examined via process-oriented observations, mesocosm experiments and numerical simulations in combination. The lessons learnt from the case studies of Changjiang and East China Sea can be beneficial to those who are doing inter-disciplinary researches in the continuum from watersheds to continental margins.
The oceans cover 70% of the terrestrial surface, and exert a pervasive influence on the Earth's environment but their nature is poorly recognized. Knowing the ocean's role deeply and understanding the complex, physical, biological, chemical and geological systems operating within it represent a major challenge to scientists today. Seafloor observatories offer scientists new opportunites to study multiple, interrelated natural phenomena over time scales ranging from seconds to decades, from episodic to global and long-term processes.
"Seafloor Observatories" poses the important and apparently simple question, "How can continuous and reliable monitoring at the seafloor by means of Seafloor Observatories extend exploration and improve knowledge of our planet?" The book leads the reader through: the present scientific challenges to be addressed with seafloor observatoriesthe technical solutions for their architecturean excursus on worldwide ongoing projects and programmessome relevant scientific multidisciplinary resultsanda presentation of new and interesting long-term perspectives for thecoming years.
Current results will yield significant improvements and exert a strong impact not only on our present knowledge of our planetbut also on human evolution."
This book explores the Sundarbans eco-region from a trans-boundary perspective, examining the cross-country interaction that helps planners to develop more efficient coastal zone planning for the delta. The dynamic ecosystem of the Sundarbans is considered the largest coastal delta in the world. It is located in the Bay of Bengal and spans across Bangladesh and West Bengal (India). Featuring chapters by experts from a range of fields, it addresses (i) risk factor analyses, and the geohydrological, climatic, natural, socio-economic, and anthropological factors related to the Sundarbans; (ii) strategies for sustainability in natural resource management in trans-boundary Sundarbans, cutting across political boundaries; (iii) improved agriculture, fisheries, and forestry practices and their impacts on the socio-economy for livelihood security; and (iv) a future road map for improvements. This book will be of value to those working in academia, as well as to experts and professionals in coastal zone planning and management.
Middle East and Mediterranean region locates at a crossroad of global climatic patterns. The region is under the influence of a convergence of different maritime conditions which together with extensive adjacent land masses marked by extreme differences in topographical features transporting continental air masses lead to a diverse climate. This edited volume is based on the best papers accepted for presentation during the 1st Springer Conference of the Arabian Journal of Geosciences (CAJG-1), Tunisia 2018. It gives new insights on patterns and mechanisms of past, present and future climate/environmental changes mainly on Middle East and Mediterranean region by international researchers. The book is of interest to all researchers in the fields of climate, paleo-climate and paleo-environmental studies. Main topics include: * Spatio-temporal Patterns of Climate Change * Sea Level Variability * Climate Change Impacts and Migration Schemes * Paleoclimate Evolution * Paleoenvironmental Evolution
The second edition of this widely cited textbook continues to provide a concise but comprehensive introduction to cave and subterranean biology, describing this fascinating habitat and its biodiversity. It covers a range of biological processes including ecosystem function, evolution and adaptation, community ecology, biogeography, and conservation. The authors draw on a global range of examples and case studies from both caves and non-cave subterranean habitats. One of the barriers to the study of subterranean biology has been the extraordinarily large number of specialized terms used by researchers; the authors explain these terms clearly and minimize the number that they use. This new edition retains the same 10 chapter structure of the original, but the content has been thoroughly revised and updated throughout to reflect the huge increase in publications concerning subterranean biology over the last decade.
This open access multi-authored book presents a 'state of the science' synthesis of knowledge on the biodiversity of Angola, based on sources in peer-reviewed journals, in books and where appropriate, unpublished official reports. The book identifies Angola as one of the most biologically diverse countries in Africa, but notes that its fauna, flora, habitats and the processes that drive the dynamics of its ecosystems are still very poorly researched and documented. This 'state of the science' synthesis is for the use of all students of Angola's biodiversity, and for those responsible for the planning, development and sustainable management of the country's living resources. The volume brings together the results of expeditions and research undertaken in Angola since the late eighteenth century, with emphasis on work conducted in the four decades since Angola's independence in 1975. The individual chapters have been written by leaders in their fields, and reviewed by peers familiar with the region.
"This user-friendly introduction to likelihood and Bayesian statistical methods for ecology students is set apart by its emphasis on implementation in R. This alone will make it more useful than previous books. In contrast to other texts, Bolker's book explains how to fit models to data in enough detail that even students with little programming experience will be able to follow along. I expect this to become an exceedingly popular textbook."--Stephan B. Munch, Stony Brook University
"Benjamin Bolker is a pioneer in helping ecology students make the leap from a casual understanding of modern statistical methods to a hands-on application of these tools to their own precious data sets. This book shows the lessons learned from teaching this material to several cohorts of graduate students. No other book I've read gives such a good feel for the compromises scientists have to make in searching for good statistical models."--Brian Inouye, Florida State University
"I have no doubt that this book will become a fixture on many ecologists' bookshelves (it certainly will be on mine). With a presentation that is gentle and encouraging rather than jargon-filled and intimidating, it empowers ecologists to develop their own statistical procedures. I strongly recommend it."--Timothy Essington, University of Washington
""What about the twenty-first century? Will we finally accept our responsibilities as guardians of planet Earth, the biological living trust, for the beneficiaries, the children of today, tomorrow, and beyond? Or, will it too be a century of lethal, economic struggle among the polarized positions of the supremely dysfunctional among us? Are they--once again--to be allowed to determine the legacy we, as a society, as a nation, bequeath those who follow us? The choice is ours, the adults of the world. How shall we choose?""
So writes Chris Maser in this compelling study of three interactive spheres of the ecosystem: atmosphere (air), litho-hydrosphere (rock that comprises the restless continents and the water that surrounds them), and biosphere (all life sandwiched in between).
Rich in detail and insightful analogies, "Earth in Our Care" addresses key issues including land-use policies, ecological restoration, forest management, local living, and sustainability thinking. Exploring our interconnectedness with the Earth, Maser examines today's problems and, more importantly, provides solutions for the future.
This textbook presents a comprehensive process-oriented approach to biogeochemistry that is intended to appeal to readers who want to go beyond a general exposure to topics in biogeochemistry, and instead are seeking a holistic understanding of the interplay of biotic and environmental drivers in the cycling of elements in forested watersheds. The book is organized around a core set of ecosystem processes and attributes that collectively help to generate the whole-system structure and function of a terrestrial ecosystem. In the first nine chapters, a conceptual framework is developed based on distinct soil, microbial, plant, atmospheric, hydrologic, and geochemical processes that are integrated in the element cycling behavior of watershed ecosystems. With that conceptual foundation in place, students then proceed to the final three chapters where they are challenged to think critically about integrated element cycling patterns; roles for biogeochemical models; the likely impacts of disturbance, stress, and management on watershed biogeochemistry; and linkages among patterns and processes in watersheds experiencing novel environmental changes. Included with the text are figures, tables of comparative data, extensive literature citations, a glossary of terms, an index, and a set of 24 biogeochemical problems with answers. The problems are intended to support chapter concepts and to demonstrate how critical thinking skills, simple algebra, and thoughtful human logic can be used to solve applied problems in biogeochemistry that might be encountered by a research scientist or a resource manager. Using this book as an introduction to biogeochemistry, students will achieve a level of subject mastery and disciplinary perspective that will permit them to see and to interpret the individual components, interactions, and synergies that are represented in the dynamic element cycling patterns of watershed ecosystems.
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