Your cart is empty
As humans have come to dominate the earth, the ideal of studying and teaching ecology in pristine ecosystems has become impossible to achieve. Our planet is now a mosaic of ecosystems ranging from the relatively undisturbed to the completely built, with the majority of people living in urban environments. This accessible introduction to the principles of urban ecology provides students with the tools they need to understand these increasingly important urban ecosystems. It builds upon the themes of habitat modification and resource use to demonstrate how multiple ecological processes interact in cities and how human activity initiates chains of unpredictable unintended ecological consequences. Broad principles are supported throughout by detailed examples from around the world and a comprehensive list of readings from the primary literature. Questions, exercises and laboratories at the end of each chapter encourage discussion, hands-on study, active learning, and engagement with the world outside the classroom window.
Over half of the world's population now lives in urban areas. Few who live in cities understand that cities, too, are ecosystems, as beholden to the laws and principles of ecology as are natural ecosystems. Understanding Urban Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Systems Approach introduces students at the college undergraduate level, or those in advanced-standing college credit high school courses, to cities as ecosystems. For graduate students it provides an overview and rich literature base. Urban planners, educators, and decision makers can use this book to help in designing a more sustainable or "green" future. The authors use a systems approach to explore the complexity and interactions of different components of a city's ecology with an emphasis on the energy and materials required to maintain such concentrated centers of human activity and consumption. The book is written by seventeen specialized contributors and includes ten accompanying detailed field exercises to promote hands-on experience, observation, and quantification of urban ecosystem structure and function.The chapters describe one by one the different subsystems of the urban environment, their individual components and functions, and the interactions among them that create the social-ecological environments in which we live. The book's emphasis on social-ecological metabolism provides students with the knowledge and methods needed to evaluate proposed policies for urban sustainability in terms of ecosystem capacity, potential positive and negative feedbacks, the laws of thermo-dynamics, and socio-cultural perception and adaptability.
Ecological Models and Dynamics uses mathematical models and computer simulations to study the dynamics of ecosystems, both natural and in response to disturbances. As an electronic 'pop-up' textbook, it features functional software programs deliberately placed to enhance learning. Links throughout the text jump to relevant parts of the book and to files in Microsoft Excel(r), Mathcad(r), Adobe Acrobat(r), and LabVIEW . Students can run simulations and models in immediate proximity to the concepts being explained and can work through exercises, cross reference concepts, read data tables in adjoining windows, and navigate the text instantaneously.
The text starts with basic concepts and from there builds in complexity. Instructors can integrate additional research and data into the interactive examples and narrative, thereby customizing the coverage to suit their course needs. Exercises are included at the end of each chapter and hyperlinked to relevant concepts in the text. The book is written for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students in ecology, evolutionary biology, chemistry, and engineering; the book can also be used for graduate students in biology and as a self-tutorial.
Solutions to all exercises throughout the book will be provided to qualified adopters of the text. Entries to the book's subject index will be hyperlinked to relevant chapters. The textbook is accompanied by a booklet containing the prologue, introduction, conceptual table of contents, subject index, and instructions for Mathcad and navigation throughout the book.
This book describes selected microbial genera from the perspective of their environmentally and commercially sustainable use. By focusing on their physiology and metabolism and combining historical information with the latest developments, it presents a multidisciplinary portrait of microbial sustainability. The chapters provide readers descriptions of each genus in the form of microbial models that move us closer to the goal of sustainability; selected chapters also include worldwide market information and lists of corresponding patents.
The book provides an up-to-date account of mangrove forests from Asia, together with restoration techniques, and the management requirements of these ecosystems to ensure their sustainability and conservation. All aspects of mangroves and their conservation are critically re-examined. The book is divided into three sections presenting the distribution and status of mangrove ecosystems in Asia, the challenges they are facing, their issues and opportunities, and the management strategies for their conservation.
Water is an essential element in the future of cities. It shapes cities' locations, form, ecology, prosperity and health. The changing nature of urbanisation, climate change, water scarcity, environmental values, globalisation and social justice mean that the models of provision of water services and infrastructure that have dominated for the past two centuries are increasingly infeasible. Conventional arrangements for understanding and managing water in cities are being subverted by a range of natural, technological, political, economic and social changes. The prognosis for water in cities remains unclear, and multiple visions and discourses are emerging to fill the space left by the certainty of nineteenth century urban water planning and engineering.This book documents a sample of those different trajectories, in terms of water transformations, option, services and politics. Water is a key element shaping urban form, economies and lifestyles, part of the ongoing transformation of cities. Cities are faced with a range of technical and policy options for future water systems. Water is an essential urban service, but models of provision remain highly contested with different visions for ownership of infrastructure, the scale of provision, and the level of service demanded by users. Water is a contentious political issue in the future of cities, serving different urban interests as power and water seem to flow in the same direction. Cities in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and South America provide case studies and emerging water challenges and responses. Comparison across different contexts demonstrates how the particular and the universal intersect in complex ways to generate new trajectories for urban water.
This book offers a comprehensive guide to microcosms (N-systems) in multiple-species testing and aquatic ecosystem risk assessment. It provides standardized methods for creating the microbial ecosystem, and proposes a standardized microcosm system for environmental impact risk assessments. The book will be of interest to students and educators, researchers, government authorities, developers and manufacturers engaged in ecosystem preservation, water quality management personnel at sewage treatment or industrial effluent treatment facilities, and anyone involved in education, management and analysis evaluation for environmental standards and waste water quality standards.
This Encyclopedia comprises the current knowledge in marine geosciences whereby not only basic but also applied and technical sciences are covered. Through this concept a broad scale of users in the field of marine sciences and techniques is addressed, from students and scholars in academia to engineers and decision makers in industry and politics. Globally growing demand of energy and mineral resources, reliable future projection of climate processes and the protection of coasts to mitigate the threats of disasters and hazards require a comprehensive understanding of the structure, ongoing processes and genesis of the marine geosphere. Beyond the "classical" research fields in marine geology in current time more general concepts have been evolved integrating marine geophysics, hydrography, marine biology, climatology and ecology. As an umbrella the term "marine geosciences" has been broadly accepted for this new complex field of research and the solutions of practical tasks in the marine realm.
Building on the successful Analysing Ecological Data (2007) by Zuur, Ieno and Smith, the authors now provide an expanded introduction to using regression and its extensions in analysing ecological data. As with the earlier book, real data sets from postgraduate ecological studies or research projects are used throughout. The first part of the book is a largely non-mathematical introduction to linear mixed effects modelling, GLM and GAM, zero inflated models, GEE, GLMM and GAMM. The second part provides ten case studies that range from koalas to deep sea research. These chapters provide an invaluable insight into analysing complex ecological datasets, including comparisons of different approaches to the same problem. By matching ecological questions and data structure to a case study, these chapters provide an excellent starting point to analysing your own data. Data and R code from all chapters are available from www.highstat.com.
Meta-analysis is a powerful statistical methodology for synthesizing research evidence across independent studies. This is the first comprehensive handbook of meta-analysis written specifically for ecologists and evolutionary biologists, and it provides an invaluable introduction for beginners as well as an up-to-date guide for experienced meta-analysts.
The chapters, written by renowned experts, walk readers through every step of meta-analysis, from problem formulation to the presentation of the results. The handbook identifies both the advantages of using meta-analysis for research synthesis and the potential pitfalls and limitations of meta-analysis (including when it should not be used). Different approaches to carrying out a meta-analysis are described, and include moment and least-square, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, all illustrated using worked examples based on real biological datasets. This one-of-a-kind resource is uniquely tailored to the biological sciences, and will provide an invaluable text for practitioners from graduate students and senior scientists to policymakers in conservation and environmental management.Walks you through every step of carrying out a meta-analysis in ecology and evolutionary biology, from problem formulation to result presentation Brings together experts from a broad range of fields Shows how to avoid, minimize, or resolve pitfalls such as missing data, publication bias, varying data quality, nonindependence of observations, and phylogenetic dependencies among species Helps you choose the right software Draws on numerous examples based on real biological datasets
The book examines ecological issues such as climate change and biodiversity, articulating local and global scales, and short and long term perspectives, questioning what "development" and "progress" are. The goal is to show how diverging points of view are conflictingly articulated to one another, in a political ideology perspective. This perspective, which is close to the main actor's point of view, allows displacement of the usual analysis, and offers a new synthesis.
Droughts are a major hazard to both natural and human-dominated environments and those, especially of long duration and high intensity, can be highly damaging and leave long-lasting effects. This book describes the climatic conditions that give rise to droughts, and their various forms and chief attributes. Past droughts are described including those that had severe impacts on human societies. As a disturbance, droughts can be thought of as "ramps" in that they usually build slowly and take time to become evident. As precipitation is reduced, flows from catchments into aquatic systems decline. As water declines in water bodies, ecological processes are changed and the biota can be drastically reduced, though species and populations may survive by using refuges. Recovery from drought varies in both rates and in degrees of completeness and may be a function of both refuge availability and connectivity. For the first time, this book reviews the available rather scattered literature on the impacts of drought on the flora, fauna and ecological processes of aquatic ecosystems ranging from small ponds to lakes and from streams to estuaries. The effects of drought on the biota of standing waters and flowing waters and of temporary waters and perennial systems are described and compared. In addition, the ways in which human activity can exacerbate droughts are outlined. In many parts of the world especially in the mid latitudes, global warming may result in increases in the duration and intensity of droughts. Drought and Aquatic Ecosystems is essential reading for freshwater ecologists, water resource managers and advanced students.
In the new edition of this highly successful book, Malcolm Hunter
and new co-author James Gibbs offer a thorough introduction to the
fascinating and important field of conservation biology, focusing
on what can be done to maintain biodiversity through management of
ecosystems and populations.
Artwork from the book is available to instructors online at www.blackwellpublishing.com/hunter and by request on CD-ROM.
Phylogenies in Ecology is the first book to critically review the application of phylogenetic methods in ecology, and it serves as a primer to working ecologists and students of ecology wishing to understand these methods. This book demonstrates how phylogenetic information is transforming ecology by offering fresh ways to estimate the similarities and differences among species, and by providing deeper, evolutionary-based insights on species distributions, coexistence, and niche partitioning. Marc Cadotte and Jonathan Davies examine this emerging area's explosive growth, allowing for this new body of hypotheses testing. Cadotte and Davies systematically look at all the main areas of current ecophylogenetic methodology, testing, and inference. Each chapter of their book covers a unique topic, emphasizes key assumptions, and introduces the appropriate statistical methods and null models required for testing phylogenetically informed hypotheses. The applications presented throughout are supported and connected by examples relying on real-world data that have been analyzed using the open-source programming language, R. Showing how phylogenetic methods are shedding light on fundamental ecological questions related to species coexistence, conservation, and global change, Phylogenies in Ecology will interest anyone who thinks that evolution might be important in their data.
Community ecology has undergone a transformation in recent years, from a discipline largely focused on processes occurring within a local area to a discipline encompassing a much richer domain of study, including the linkages between communities separated in space (metacommunity dynamics), niche and neutral theory, the interplay between ecology and evolution (eco-evolutionary dynamics), and the influence of historical and regional processes in shaping patterns of biodiversity. To fully understand these new developments, however, students continue to need a strong foundation in the study of species interactions and how these interactions are assembled into food webs and other ecological networks. This new edition fulfils the book's original aims, both as a much-needed up-to-date and accessible introduction to modern community ecology, and in identifying the important questions that are yet to be answered. This research-driven textbook introduces state-of-the-art community ecology to a new generation of students, adopting reasoned and balanced perspectives on as-yet-unresolved issues.
This book gathers the most recent knowledge of microbial ecology of saline habitats, plant-microbe interactions under saline conditions and saline soils reclamation for agricultural use. It is organized in four main parts: I: Definition, genesis and impact of salinity & microbial diversity in saline habitats; II. The impact of salinity on microbial and plant life/health; III. Plant-microbe interactions in saline environments; IV. Strategies for reclamation of saline soils. The salinization of arable land is increasing steadily in many parts of the world. Excessive concentration of soluble salts (salinity) in soils, or irrigation water adversely affects growth and survival of plants. This problem exaggerates further in arid and semiarid areas due to low precipitation and high evaporation rates. Poor management practices and policies for using rivers water for irrigation of agriculture crops often induce secondary salinization of soils. Considering the growing demands of an ever increasing population, the understanding of microbial ecology and interactions under saline conditions and their implications for sustainable agriculture is of utmost importance. This book reviews the status quo of the field and also gives a future outlook. It is written for researchers, environmentalists and students working in microbiology and agricultiry.
Wetlands - swamp, marsh, bayou, tundra and bog - are places that are rarely visited and often misunderstood but they have, in fact, conspicuous roles in the physical, biological and cultural geography of the world.? They are intrinsically beautiful environments where one may see the natural and essential values in the interaction of water, soil, vegetation, wildlife, and humans.? Wetlands occur at the confluence of unique terrestrial, hydrological and climatic conditions that give rise to some of the most biodiverse regions of the world.? They also play vital roles in the cycling and storage of key nutrients, materials and energy through the Earth's system.
A complete study of wetland environments requires the assessment of their physical and biological attributes, properties and functions of these ecosystems, and the economic, political and social aspects that mediate their use globally.? A systems approach is taken throughout this book which emphasizes the interactions between these elements of wetland ecosystems.? Moreover, selected case studies from across the world are used to illustrate wetland characteristics and circumstances.?
This book is intended to foster a greater awareness and appreciation of wetlands, promote a culture of conservation and wise management, and spread the knowledge that wetlands are important, indeed crucial, elements of the global environment.? Our attempts to understand, manage and enhance wetlands in the twenty-first century are part of the larger effort to maintain a sustainable Earth.
"Readership: " Introductory or intermediate level undergraduates taking courses on wetland environments
Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/aber/wetland.
Invasion ecology is the study of the causes and consequences of the introduction of organisms to areas outside their native range. Interest in this field has exploded in the past few decades. Explaining why and how organisms are moved around the world, how and why some become established and invade, and how best to manage invasive species in the face of global change are all crucial issues that interest biogeographers, ecologists and environmental managers in all parts of the world. This book brings together the insights of more than 50 authors to examine the origins, foundations, current dimensions and potential trajectories of invasion ecology. It revisits key tenets of the foundations of invasion ecology, including contributions of pioneering naturalists of the 19 th century, including Charles Darwin and British ecologist Charles Elton, whose 1958 monograph on invasive species is widely acknowledged as having focussed scientific attention on biological invasions.
A majority of the world's population lives in cities. Urban areas have largely been disconnected from the processes associated with producing food. A broad range of community efforts have emerged to reconnect people in urban areas to fresh foods with expected benefits for public health. These efforts can be found in cities across the country and cross both economic and ethnic lines. They have been led by the non- scientific community and are best characterized as social movements. Expansion of agriculture to non- traditional areas including community or kitchen gardens in urban or peri- urban environments has the potential to provide a range of ecosystem services as well as reduce stressors on non- urban environments. These services/benefits include improved public health, improved human nutrition and diet, large-scale production of renewable resources, increased food security with less resilience on traditional agricultural landscapes and seascapes, enhanced ecosystem function in urban areas, and increased public appreciation for and understanding of ecosystem services.
This textbook offers a detailed overview of the current state of knowledge concerning the ecology and management of compositionally and structurally diverse forests. It provides answers to central questions such as: What are the scientific concepts used to assess the growth, dynamics and functioning of mixed-species forests, how generalizable are they, and what kind of experiments are necessary to develop them further? How do mixed-species stands compare with monocultures in relation to productivity, wood quality, and ecological stability in the face of stress and disturbances? How are the effects of species mixtures on ecosystem functioning influenced by the particular species composition, site conditions, and stand structure? How does any over- or underyielding at the forest-stand level emerge from the tree and organ level, and what are the main mechanisms behind mixing effects? How can our current scientific understanding of mixed-species forests be integrated into silvicultural concepts as well as practical forest management and planning? Do the ecological characteristics of mixed-species stands also translate into economic differences between mixtures and monocultures? In addition, the book addresses experimental designs and analytical approaches to study mixed-species forests and provides extensive empirical information, general concepts, models, and management approaches for mixed-species forests. As such, it offers a valuable resource for students, scientists and educators, as well as professional forest planners, managers, and consultants.
This book provides a state-of-art overview of the significant advances in understanding the impacts of wind energy on wildlife. However, many challenges remain regarding planning and policy, assessment of direct and indirect effects on wildlife, methodological approaches, technology development, and mitigation strategies and their effectiveness. The book comprises a selection of the best contributions presented at the 4th Conference on Wind energy and Wildlife impacts, held in Estoril, Portugal, 2017. The contents promote the international cooperation among researchers, developers, regulators and stakeholders that have contributed to building knowledge on this topic.
One of the most serious consequences of global climate change for coral reefs is the increased frequency and severity of mass coral bleaching events and, since the first edition of this volume was published in 2009, there have been additional mass coral bleaching events. This book provides comprehensive information on the causes and consequences of coral bleaching for coral reef ecosystems, from the genes and microbes involved in the bleaching response, to individual coral colonies and whole reef systems. It presents detailed analyses of how coral bleaching can be detected and quantified and reviews future scenarios based on modeling efforts and the potential mechanisms of acclimatisation and adaptation. It also briefly discusses emerging research areas that focus on the development of innovative interventions aiming to increase coral climate resilience and restore reefs.
This book documents the effects of natural hazards on coastal ecosystems in detail. The sea is an indispensable component of the Earth system, and human societies obtain many goods and services from the marine environment. Global warming threatens marine ecosystems through seawater temperature rise, acidification, sea-level rise and the increased frequency of severe storms. The repeated effects of tsunamis also have major impacts on coastal ecosystems. Increases in population and industry activities along the coast cause the degradation of coastal ecosystems through direct and indirect uses of the environment such as reclamation, overexploitation of bioresources, and pollution. Given these facts, we need to improve our understanding of the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms characterizing marine ecosystems, in order to better measure the effects of anthropogenic and natural impacts on the sea and its ecosystems. Equipped with a comprehensive understanding of the sea, including the effects of the main pressures on it, we will have a better idea of the future state of the sea based on several scenarios of global warming. The 16th France-Japan Symposium on Marine Science focused on using advances in oceanography to better understand the current status of the sea from physical, chemical, biological and ecological perspectives, including fishery sciences and integrated approaches.
This book integrates a variety of issues such as regional settings of productivity and nutrient cycling; plankton of coastal and shelf systems; plankton, climate change and human-induced changes; harmful algae and their impacts; and gelatinous zooplankton. This book explores the intriguing marine plankton communities of the SWA region of South America encompassing low to high latitude environments, framed by a complex hydrographic background and global climate change. This vast and iconic region has been largely under-recognized and under-studied. However, in recent years a strong interest has emerged along with the acknowledgment of its high biological productivity. The book concludes by discussing conservation in the region, highlighting regional biodiversity hotspots where the challenges of climate change, habitat loss, and other threats to biodiversity may be particularly acute. Plankton Ecology of the Southwestern Atlantic is a timely synthesis of the field, setting a new baseline for future research. It will be important reading for both researchers and graduate students, and will also be of interest and use to a professional audience of oceanographers, conservation biologists, stake holders and educated science enthusiasts
You may like...
Vittorio Ingegnoli Hardcover
Novacene - The Coming Age of…
James Lovelock Hardcover (1)
Planning for Ecosystem Services in…
Blal Adem Esmail Paperback
Liquid - The Delightful and Dangerous…
Mark A Miodownik Hardcover (1)
Europe - A Natural History
Tim Flannery Paperback (1)
Land Of Contrast: Southern Africa's…
Heinrich van den Berg Hardcover
Liquid - The Delightful and Dangerous…
Mark A Miodownik Paperback (1)
Cave Life of Oklahoma and Arkansas…
G. O. Graening, Dante B. Fenolio, … Paperback R763 Discovery Miles 7 630
Encyclopedia of Coastal Science
Charles W. Finkl, Christopher Makowski Hardcover
The Evolution Underground - Burrows…
Anthony J. Martin Hardcover