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For almost four billion years, microbes had the primordial oceans all to themselves. The stewards of Earth, these organisms transformed the chemistry of our planet to make it habitable for plants, animals, and us. Life's Engines takes readers deep into the microscopic world to explore how these marvelous creatures made life on Earth possible--and how human life today would cease to exist without them. Paul Falkowski looks "under the hood" of microbes to find the engines of life, the actual working parts that do the biochemical heavy lifting for every living organism on Earth. With insight and humor, he explains how these miniature engines are built--and how they have been appropriated by and assembled like Lego sets within every creature that walks, swims, or flies. Falkowski shows how evolution works to maintain this core machinery of life, and how we and other animals are veritable conglomerations of microbes. A vibrantly entertaining book about the microbes that support our very existence, Life's Engines will inspire wonder about these elegantly complex nanomachines that have driven life since its origin. It also issues a timely warning about the dangers of tinkering with that machinery to make it more "efficient" at meeting the ever-growing demands of humans in the coming century.
SEAFOOD Ecolabelling Principles and Practice
Edited by Trevor Ward and Bruce Phillips
In recent years there have been some major developments and a greatly increased recognition of the importance of more sustainable and environmentally-friendly fishing and fish-farming methods. Various types of seafood eco-endorsements have been introduced, and these initiatives have now blossomed into an extensive range of types of product endorsement labels and systems.
This volume comprehensively reviews the current eco-endorsement systems for seafood products, described in four main sections with contributions by leading experts from around the globe:
- A full description of the background and history of ecolabels, ratings, guides and choice systems- Seafood evaluation and certification, including issues of quality, costs and benefits- Highly significant case studies in the use of ecolabels, including details of programs undertaken with species such as Pollock, Baja Red Spiny Lobster, and Patagonian Toothfish - The future of sustainable seafood
Seafood Ecolabelling is an essential purchase for all those involved in fisheries and aquaculture management and product certification and ecolabelling throughout the world. Professionals including fishery scientists and managers, fish farm managers, marine biologists, environmental biologists, conservation biologists, ecologists, natural resource managers, civil society and sustainability governance practitioners, and resource and environmental economists will find this book to be extremely valuable. Professionals involved in the seafood trade, including those in production, packaging, reselling and seafood product labelling, will find a great deal of commercial interest within this book. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological sciences, food science and fisheries are studied and taught should have copies of this important book on their shelves.
Also available from Wiley-BlackwellEco-labelling in FisheriesEdited by B. Phillips et al.9780632064229
Environmental Best Practices for AquacultureEdited by C. Tucker & J. Hargreaves9780813820279
Advances in Fisheries ScienceEdited by A. Payne et al.9781405170833
Fisheries Management and EcologyJournal published bi-monthlyPrint 0969-997X, Online 1385-2400
Forests need apes as much as the apes need the forests. They are the gardeners of the forest - keystone species in the ecology of African and Southeast Asian forests, dispersing seeds, creating light gaps and pruning branch-tips whilst feeding. Their habitat comprises two of the planet's three major tropical forest blocks that are essential for global climate regulation. But the economic pressures that are destroying ape habitats are much greater than current available conservation finance. This unique case study from the Kibale national park illustrates how biological research has had diverse consequences for conservation. It examines effects on habitat management, community relations, ecotourism and training. Lessons learned from this project over the last 20 years will inspire researchers and conservationists to work together to promote biodiversity through field projects.
The theme of this book is the ecological development of Zhejiang province under the guidance of "China Dream" policy. It reviews the policy and strategy for environmental protection and transition from the extensive economic growth model to ecological economy. The author explores ecological theories and practices in areas such as traditional culture, economic development, environmental protection, rural reconstruction, green urban development and the ecological civilization system in Zhejiang. As Zhejiang is one of the first economically well-off regions in China, the challenges faced by the government and its solutions under the guidance of the statecraft shall be of interest to scholars and policy makers worldwide.
The present book highlights importance of mycorrhiza in soil genesis wherein it reflects mycorrhizal occurrence and diversity, various tools to characterize them and its impact on soil formation/health together with crop productivity. The edited compendium provides glimpses on the mycorrhizal fungi and their prominent role in nutrient transfer into host plants, and presenting view on application of mycorrhiza for crop biofortification. It focuses on the mechanisms involve in weathering process employed by mycorrhiza with highlighting the current and advanced molecular approaches for studying mycorrhizal diversity. Further, book emphasizes following aspects in details: significance of AMF in phytoremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites, the role of mycorrhiza in soil genesis using scientometric approach, the concept of mycorrhizosphere, xenobiotic metabolism, molecular approaches for detoxifying the organic xenobiotics and the role of mycorrhizosphere in stabilizing the environment in an eco-friendly way. In addition, the book will be benign to researchers that involved in mycorrhiza characterization especially by deploying metagenomics/PCR based and non PCR based molecular techniques that may be utilized to study the microbial diversity and structure within the mycorrhizosphere.
From the time Europeans first came to the New World until the closing of the frontier, the benefits of abundant wild animals-from beavers and wolves to fish, deer, and bison-appeared as a recurring theme in colonizing discourses. Explorers, travelers, surveyors, naturalists, and other promoters routinely advertised the richness of the American faunal environment and speculated about the ways in which animals could be made to serve their colonial projects. In practice, however, American animals proved far less malleable to colonizers' designs. Their behaviors constrained an English colonial vision of a reinvented and rationalized American landscape. In Wild by Nature, Andrea L. Smalley argues that Anglo-American authorities' unceasing efforts to convert indigenous beasts into colonized creatures frequently produced unsettling results that threatened colonizers' control over the land and the people. Not simply acted upon by being commodified, harvested, and exterminated, wild animals were active subjects in the colonial story, altering its outcome in unanticipated ways. These creatures became legal actors-subjects of statutes, issues in court cases, and parties to treaties-in a centuries-long colonizing process that was reenacted on successive wild animal frontiers. Following a trail of human-animal encounters from the seventeenth-century Chesapeake to the Civil War-era southern plains, Smalley shows how wild beasts and their human pursuers repeatedly transgressed the lines lawmakers drew to demarcate colonial sovereignty and control, confounding attempts to enclose both people and animals inside a legal frame. She also explores how, to possess the land, colonizers had to find new ways to contain animals without destroying the wildness that made those creatures valuable to English settler societies in the first place. Offering fresh perspectives on colonial, legal, environmental, and Native American history, Wild by Nature reenvisions the familiar stories of early America as animal tales.
Many biologists and ecologists have developed models that find widespread use in theoretical investigations and in applications to organism behavior, disease control, population and metapopulation theory, ecosystem dynamics, and environmental management. This book captures and extends the process of model development by concentrating on the dynamic aspects of these processes and by providing the tools such that virtually anyone with basic knowledge in the Life Sciences can develop meaningful dynamic models. Examples of the systems modeled in the book range from models of cell development, the beating heart, the growth and spread of insects, spatial competition and extinction, to the spread and control of epidemics, including the conditions for the development of chaos. Key features: - easy-to-learn and easy-to-use software - examples from many subdisciplines of biology, covering models of cells, organisms, populations, and metapopulations - no prior computer or programming experience required Key benefits: - learn how to develop modeling skills and system thinking on your own rather than use models developed by others - be able to easily run models under alternative assumptions and investigate the implications of these assumptions for the dynamics of the biological system being modeled - develop skills to assess the dynamics of biological systems
Due to the complexity and non-linearity of most ecological problems, artificial neural networks (ANNs) have attracted attention from ecologists and environmental scientists in recent years. As these networks are increasingly being used in ecology for modeling, simulation, function approximation, prediction, classification and data mining, this unique and self-contained book will be the first comprehensive treatment of this subject, by providing readers with overall and in-depth knowledge on algorithms, programs, and applications of ANNs in ecology. Moreover, a new area of ecology, i.e., computational ecology, is proposed and its scopes and objectives are defined and discussed.Computational Ecology consists of two parts: the first describes the methods and algorithms of ANNs, interpretability and mathematical generalization of neural networks, Matlab neural network toolkit, etc., while the second provides case studies of applications of ANNs in ecology, Matlab codes, and comparisons of ANNs with conventional methods. This publication will be a valuable reference for research scientists, university teachers, graduate students and high-level undergraduates in the areas of ecology, environmental sciences, and computational science.
The Earth's ecosystems are in the midst of an unprecedented period of change as a result of human action. Many habitats have been completely destroyed or divided into tiny fragments, others have been transformed through the introduction of new species, or the extinction of native plants and animals, while anthropogenic climate change now threatens to completely redraw the geographic map of life on this planet. The urgent need to understand and prescribe solutions to this complicated and interlinked set of pressing conservation issues has lead to the transformation of the venerable academic discipline of biogeography - the study of the geographic distribution of animals and plants. The newly emerged sub-discipline of conservation biogeography uses the conceptual tools and methods of biogeography to address real world conservation problems and to provide predictions about the fate of key species and ecosystems over the next century. This book provides the first comprehensive review of the field in a series of closely interlinked chapters addressing the central issues within this exciting and important subject.
View www.wiley.com/go/ladle/biogeography yo access the figures from the book.
To assess the social processes of globalization that are changing the way in which we co-inhabit the world today, this book invites the reader to essay the diversity of worldviews, with the diversity of ways to sustainably co-inhabit the planet. With a biocultural perspective that highlights planetary ecological and cultural heterogeneity, this book examines three interrelated themes: (1) biocultural homogenization, a global, but little perceived, driver of biological and cultural diversity loss that frequently entail social and environmental injustices; (2) biocultural ethics that considers -ontologically and axiologically- the complex interrelationships between habits, habitats, and co-inhabitants that shape their identity and well-being; (3) biocultural conservation that seeks social and ecological well-being through the conservation of biological and cultural diversity and their interrelationships.
This volume will discuss the state of the art of different observation and measurement techniques useful for ecohydrological studies. The techniques cover the entire spectrum of the water-soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. And the other volumes are "Water and Ecosystems", "Water-Limited Environments" and "Integrated Ecohydrological Modeling" etc.
"Biosphere 2" rises from southern Arizonas high desert like a bizarre hybrid spaceship and greenhouse. Packed with more than 3,800 carefully selected plant, animal, and insect species, this mega-terrarium is one of the world's most biodiverse, lush, and artificial wildernesses. Only recently transformed from an abandoned ghost dome to a University of Arizona research center, the site was the setting of a grand drama about humans and ecology at the end of the twentieth century. The seeds of Biosphere 2 sprouted in the 1970s at Synergia, a desert ranch in New Mexico where John Allen and a handful of dreamers united to create a self-reliant utopia centered on ecological work, study, and their traveling experimental theater troupe, "The Theater of All Possibilities." At a time of growing tensions in the American environmental consciousness, the Synergians took on varied projects around the world that sought to mend the rift between humans and nature. In 1984, they bought a piece of desert to build Biosphere 2. Eco-enthusiasts competed to become the eight "biospherians" who would lock themselves inside the giant greenhouse world for two years to live in harmony with their wilderness, grow their own food, and recycle all their air, water, and wastes. Thin and short on oxygen, the biospherians stoically completed their survival mission, but the communal spirit surrounding Biosphere 2 eventually dissolved into conflict--ultimately the facility would be seized by armed U.S. Marshals. Yet for all the story's strangeness, perhaps strangest of all was how normal Biosphere 2 actually was. The story of this grand eco-utopian adventure (and misadventure) becomes a parable about the relationship between humans and nature in postmodern America.
As researchers try to predict the effects of human modification at all trophic levels and mediate the impact of rapid environmental change, it has become clear it is no longer a matter of agreeing that both bottom-up and top-down forces play important roles in diverse ecosystems. Rather, the question is: how do these forces interact across aquatic and terrestrial systems? Written by leading experts in the field, this book presents a unique synthesis of trophic relationships within and across ecosystems that is a valuable foundation for the development of cross-system, multidisciplinary research. It also provides new insights into population biology and community ecology and examines the interactive effects of bottom-up and top-down forces on biodiversity at each trophic level. A one-stop resource for learning about bottom-up and top-down interactions, this book encourages discussion and collaboration among researchers to identify similarities and differences in trophic interactions across aquatic and terrestrial systems.
The book , `An Introduction to Phytoplanktons - Diversity and Ecology' is very useful as it covers wide aspects of phytoplankton study including the general idea about cyanobacteria and algal kingdom. It contains different topics related to very basic idea of phytoplanktons such as, types ,taxonomic description and the key for identification etc. Together with it, very modern aspects of phytoplankton study including different methodologies needed for research students of botany, ecology, limnology and environmental biology are also included. The first chapter is very basic and informative and describes algal and phytoplankton classification, algal pigments, algal bloom and their control, algal toxins, wetlands algae, ecological significance of phytoplanktons etc. A general key for identification of common phytoplankton genera is also included for students who will be able to identify these genera based on the light microscopic characters. In Chapters 2-4, different aspects of phytoplankton research like primary productivity, community pattern analysis and their ecological parameter analysis have been discussed with detailed procedures. Statistical analysis is also discussed in detail. Chapter 5 includes case studies related to review, phytoplankton diversity and dynamics.
India has 7,500 km of coastline with diverse habitats and rich biota. Coastal ecosystems, unfortunately, are experiencing wide range of pressures due to siltation, eutrophication, coastal development, aquaculture and climate change. Those species that adapt to these pressures will expand their living boundaries while others may fade away. Accordingly, the study of coastal biodiversity is of great concern globally and constitutes an important element of global change research. Gujarat has 1,600 km of coastline, reportedly with rich diversity of seaweeds. Previously published accounts on seaweed biodiversity were mainly in the form of checklists, the earliest among these being the checklist of Krishnamurthy and Joshi prepared in the early 1970s. The more recent checklists are based almost entirely on secondary information. The present book entitled Seaweeds of India - The Diversity and Distribution of Seaweeds of Gujarat Coast is a timely publication based wholly on primary data. Data were collected through extensive and systematic ? eld studies conducted by the authors during different seasons over a three year period. The authors collected nearly 200 species of seaweeds belonging to 100 genera of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Twenty-four of the species are new to Gujarat coast and three are new to Indian waters. The book contains high-quality images of the different species in their existing habitats. Brief taxonomical descriptions, together with information on ecology, distribution, seasonality and abundance, are covered for each of the species.
This book brings together many of the world s leading experts in the fields of Antarctic terrestrial soil ecology, providing a comprehensive and completely up-to-date analysis of the status of Antarctic soil microbiology.
Antarctic terrestrial soils represent one of the most extreme environments on Earth.Once thought to be largely sterile, it is now known that these diverse and often specialized extreme habitats harbor a very wide range of different microorganisms.
Antarctic soil communities are relatively simple, but not unsophisticated. Recent phylogenetic and microscopic studies have demonstrated that these communities have well established trophic structuring and play a significant role in nutrient cycling in these cold and often dry desert ecosystems. They are surprisingly responsive to change and potentially sensitive to climatic perturbation.
Antarctic terrestrial soils also harbor specialized refuge habitats, where microbial communities develop under (and within) translucent rocks. These cryptic habitats offer unique models for understanding the physical and biological drivers of community development, function and evolution."
This unique book covers a broad diversity of fungal systems and provides unique insight into the functions of those fungi in various ecosystems from soil, to plant, to human. Bringing together fungal genomic information on a variety of lifestyles and traits, the book covers saprotrophism, pathogenesis (including biotrophs, hemibiotrophs, necrotrophs) and symbiosis. Advances in high-throughput sequencing now offer unprecedented opportunities for identification of novel key molecular mechanisms controlling plant-microbe interactions, evolution of fungi and developmentally- and ecologically-relevant traits, this book explores how these massive streams of fungal sequences can be exploited to gain a deeper understanding of the evolution of fungi and their ecological role. Although tremendous progress has been made in recent years in fungal genomics, thanks to the sequencing of over one hundred fungal genomes, until now no book has used this information to bridge fungal genomics, molecular ecology and ecology. Edited by a recognized leader in fungal genomics and soil metagenomics with over a decade of experience, Genomics & Metagenomics for Harnessing the Ecology of Fungi will be a useful resource for the experienced as well as the new researchers entering the field.
Since the publication of the 2nd edition, there have been substantial developments in the field of litter decomposition. This fully revised and updated 3rd edition of "Plant Litter" reflects and discusses new findings and re-evaluates earlier ones in light of recent research and with regard to current areas of investigation.
The availability of several long-term studies allows a more in-depth approach to decomposition patterns and to the later stages of decomposition, as well as to humus formation and accumulation.
The latest information focuses on three fields:
-the effects of manganese on decomposition and possibly on carbon sequestration,
-new findings on decomposition dynamics, and
- the new analytical technique using 13C-NMR.
Laurens Baas Becking was a pioneer in the field of microbial ecology and the father of Geobiology. This is the first English translation of Baas Becking s Geobiologie: of Inleiding tot de Millieukunde published in Dutch in 1934. This book provides a fascinating view of how organisms have both adapted to and shaped their environment, from all types of settings ranging from lakes to the oceans, to acidic peats and salt ponds, drawing heavily on Baas Becking s own keen observations. Although written 80 years ago, Baas Becking s insights feel surprisingly modern and provide a unique insight into the fields of evolution of microbial ecology and geobiology. This book should appeal to anyone interested in microbial ecology, geobiology, biogeochemistry and the history of science. The translated text is accompanied by extensive footnotes and by an Editor s summary at the end of each chapter placing Baas Becking s writing in the context of modern developments in the field.
Cold adaptation includes a complex range of structural and functional adaptations at the level of all cellular constituents, and these adaptations render cold-adapted organisms particularly useful for biotechnological applications. This book presents the most recent knowledge of (i) boundary conditions for microbial life in the cold, (ii) microbial diversity in various cold ecosystems, (iii) molecular cold adaptation mechanisms and (iv) the resulting biotechnological perspectives.
To provide useful and meaningful information, long-term ecological programs need to implement solid and efficient statistical approaches for collecting and analyzing data. This volume provides rigorous guidance on quantitative issues in monitoring, with contributions from world experts in the field. These experts have extensive experience in teaching fundamental and advanced ideas and methods to natural resource managers, scientists and students. The chapters present a range of tools and approaches, including detailed coverage of variance component estimation and quantitative selection among alternative designs; spatially balanced sampling; sampling strategies integrating design- and model-based approaches; and advanced analytical approaches such as hierarchical and structural equation modelling. Making these tools more accessible to ecologists and other monitoring practitioners across numerous disciplines, this is a valuable resource for any professional whose work deals with ecological monitoring. Supplementary example software code is available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521191548.
Coastal ecosystems are centres of high biological productivity, but their conservation is often threatened by numerous and complex environmental factors. Citing examples from the major littoral habitats worldwide, such as sandy beaches, salt marshes and mangrove swamps, this text characterises the biodiversity of coastline environments and highlights important aspects of their maintenance and preservation, aided by the analysis of key representative species. Leaders in the field provide reviews of the foremost threats to coastal networks, including the effects of climate change, invasive species and major pollution incidents such as oil spills. Further discussion underscores the intricacies of measuring and managing coastline species in the field, taking into account the difficulties in quantifying biodiversity loss due to indirect cascading effects and trophic skew. Synthesising the current state of species richness with present and projected environmental pressures, the book ultimately establishes a research agenda for implementing and improving conservation practices moving forward.
Pollution doesn't make for easy sonnets or flowing, romantic narratives. And that's what this title is about - pollution. Not the everyday sort of pollution that we recognise so easily, the type which piles up into stinking heaps of litter or that clogs the sky with filthy smoke. No, this is a form of pollution which is so subtle and insidious that many people do not realise it is there. Invaded is about biological pollution, the kind that comes in dense hedges of lush greenery, blooming fields of heady petals or gracefully draped creepers. It may spread incognito on the wings of a bird, tug on the end of an angler's line or scurry unnoticed through the undergrowth. These pages explore plants and animals that have traversed the borders and boundaries of their natural habitats and made their way into South Africa over the past 300 years and more. Unhindered by the predators and diseases which once kept their populations in check, many have come to outnumber and out-compete the species they encounter in their adopted homes. Invaded provides an overview of the different species that have arrived in our country during the past three centuries, and the threats they pose (or have the potential to become). Ultimately, the book attempts to quantify how these species have changed systems, disrupted the natural environment and threatened the future of the country's many unique plants, animals and habitats.
This book presents the results of an interdisciplinary research project that was set up to introduce Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) at the Zayandeh Rud, Central Iran's most important river. As a result of climate change and a missing overall concept for sustainably managing water resources, the river has repeatedly dried up in recent years. Not only has water stress led to severe conflicts among the water using sectors and neighboring provinces, it also threatens important ecosystems in the region. Thus, the joint development of an IWRM concept for the Zayandeh Rud catchment was the main objective of the project. Comprehensive technological and non-technological measures - ranging from wastewater reuse to capacity development - were adjusted to local conditions and implemented in order to initiate an integrated, iterative IWRM process. The design of a technology-based Water Management Tool (WMT) served as the connective link to create trust, cooperation and coordination among the stakeholders and institutions.
This book develops and applies an integrated socio-economic assessment of multi-use offshore platforms in European marine locations. The sites assessed regard infrastructures in the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic coast. The assessment uses the results from the natural and engineering sciences as inputs, boundaries and constraints to the socio-economic analysis. The content of the book develops in a step-by-step, coherent and integrated manner. The presentation and the discussion on the methodology are followed by the detailed assessment of specific multi-use offshore platforms. A detailed risk analysis follows in which the results of the socio-economic assessment are integrated. This is complemented with sensitivity analysis. The book, offers insights that result from a multi-disciplinary approach which combines a broad range of expertise in hydraulics, wind engineering, aquaculture, renewable energy, marine environment, project management, socio-economics and governance. The analysis follows views and assessment of world experts from all relevant disciplines from academia, big companies and potential investors that have joined forces in the MERMAID project (vliz.be/projects/mermaidproject). The book is a valuable reading for academics, technicians, policy-makers and relevant stakeholders.
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