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With one volume each year, this series keeps scientists and advanced students informed of the latest developments and results in all areas of the plant sciences. The present volume includes reviews on plant physiology, biochemistry, genetics, ecology, and ecosystems.
Forests need apes as much as the apes need the forests. They are the gardeners of the forest - keystone species in the ecology of African and Southeast Asian forests, dispersing seeds, creating light gaps and pruning branch-tips whilst feeding. Their habitat comprises two of the planet"s three major tropical forest blocks that are essential for global climate regulation. But the economic pressures that are destroying ape habitats are much greater than current available conservation finance. This unique case study from the Kibale national park illustrates how biological research has had diverse consequences for conservation. It examines effects on habitat management, community relations, ecotourism and training. Lessons learned from this project over the last 20 years will inspire researchers and conservationists to work together to promote biodiversity through field projects.
Dugongs and manatees, the only fully aquatic herbivorous mammals, live in the coastal waters, rivers and lakes of more than 80 subtropical and tropical countries. Symbols of fierce conservation battles, sirenian populations are threatened by multiple global problems. Providing comparative information on all four surviving species, this book synthesises the ecological and related knowledge pertinent to understanding the biology and conservation of the sirenia. It presents detailed scientific summaries, covering sirenian feeding biology; reproduction and population dynamics; behavioural ecology; habitat requirements and threats to their continued existence. Outlining the current conservation status of the sirenian taxa, this unique study will equip researchers and professionals with the scientific knowledge required to develop proactive, precautionary and achievable strategies to conserve dugongs and manatees. Supplementary material is available online at: www.cambridge.org/9780521888288.
Rising temperatures are affecting organisms in all of Earth's biomes, but the complexity of ecological responses to climate change has hampered the development of a conceptually unified treatment of them. In a remarkably comprehensive synthesis, this book presents past, ongoing, and future ecological responses to climate change in the context of two simplifying hypotheses, facilitation and interference, arguing that biotic interactions may be the primary driver of ecological responses to climate change across all levels of biological organization.
Eric Post's synthesis and analyses of ecological consequences of climate change extend from the Late Pleistocene to the present, and through the next century of projected warming. His investigation is grounded in classic themes of enduring interest in ecology, but developed around novel conceptual and mathematical models of observed and predicted dynamics. Using stability theory as a recurring theme, Post argues that the magnitude of climatic variability may be just as important as the magnitude and direction of change in determining whether populations, communities, and species persist. He urges a more refined consideration of species interactions, emphasizing important distinctions between lateral and vertical interactions and their disparate roles in shaping responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to climate change.
Recent changes in the pattern of agricultural practices from use of hazardous pesticides to natural (organic) cultivation has brought into focus the use of agriculturally important microorganisms for carrying out analogous functions. The reputation of plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPRs) is due to their antagonistic mechanisms against most of the fungal and bacterial phytopathogens. The biocontrol potential of agriculturally important microorganisms is mostly attributed to their bioactive secondary metabolites. However, low shelf life of many potential agriculturally important microorganisms impairs their use in agriculture and adoption by farmers. The focal theme of this book is to highlight the potential of employing biosynthesized secondary metabolites (SMs) from agriculturally important microorganisms for management of notorious phytopathogens, as a substitute of the currently available whole organism formulations and also as alternatives to hazardous synthetic pesticides. Accordingly, we have incorporated a comprehensive rundown of sections which particularly examine the SMs synthesized, secreted and induced by various agriculturally important microorganisms and their applications in agriculture. Section 1 includes discussion on biosynthesized antimicrobial secondary metabolites from fungal biocontrol agents. This section will cover the various issues such as development of formulation of secondary metabolites, genomic basis of metabolic diversity, metabolomic profiling of fungal biocontrol agents, novel classes of antimicrobial peptides. The section 1 will also cover the role of these secondary metabolites in antagonist-host interaction and application of biosynthesized antimicrobial secondary metabolites for management of plant diseases. Section 2 will discuss the biosynthesized secondary metabolites from bacterial PGPRs, strain dependent effects on plant metabolome profile, bio-prospecting various isolates of bacterial PGPRs for potential secondary metabolites and non-target effects of PGPR on microbial community structure and functions. Section 3 encompasses synthesis of antimicrobial secondary metabolites from beneficial endophytes, bio-prospecting medicinal and aromatic hosts and effect of endophytic SMs on plants under biotic and biotic stress conditions.
Cosponsored by the Society for Ecological Restoration International and Island Press, this series offers a foundation of practical knowledge and scientific insight that will help ecological restoration become the powerful reparative and healing tool that the world needs.As scientific understanding about ecological processes has grown, the idea that ecosystem dynamics are complex, non-linear, and often unpredictable has gained prominence. Of particular importance is the idea that rather than following an inevitable progression toward an ultimate endpoint, some ecosystems may occur in a number of states depending on past and present ecological conditions. The emerging idea of 'restoration thresholds' also enables scientists to recognize when ecological systems are likely to recover on their own and when active restoration efforts are needed.Conceptual models based on alternative stable states and restoration thresholds can help inform restoration efforts. "New Models for Ecosystem Dynamics and Restoration" brings together leading experts from around the world to explore how conceptual models of ecosystem dynamics can be applied to the recovery of degraded systems and how recent advances in our understanding of ecosystem and landscape dynamics can be translated into conceptual and practical frameworks for restoration.In the first part of the book, background chapters present and discuss the basic concepts and models and explore the implications of new scientific research on restoration practice. The second part considers the dynamics and restoration of different ecosystems, ranging from arid lands to grasslands, woodlands, and savannahs, to forests and wetlands, to production landscapes. A summary chapter by the editors discusses the implications of theory and practice of the ideas described in preceding chapters."New Models for Ecosystem Dynamics and Restoration aims" to widen the scope and increase the application of threshold models by critiquing their application in a wide range of ecosystem types. It will also help scientists and restorationists correctly diagnose ecosystem damage, identify restoration thresholds, and develop corrective methodologies that can overcome such thresholds.
This book gathers a representative sample of the relevant knowledge related to the ecology, behavior, and conservation of birds in urban Latin America. Latin America is one of the most biodiverse regions of the world, yet it is still understudied. Although it concentrates most of its population in rapidly growing cities under considerable economic, social, and environmental disparity, the study of the effects that urbanization has on biodiversity in Latin America is still insufficient. Among the best-studied wildlife groups, birds have been widely used as bioindicators in urban areas. Going from general to specific information regarding avian communities, populations, behavior, threats, and conservation issues, this book describes the state-of-the-art of avian urban ecology in the region. Such knowledge will hopefully promote the regional consolidation of the field and encourage future mechanistic studies that untangle the recorded patterns in order to have the required information to bridge the gap between evidence-based knowledge and practice in urban systems. Thus, the information included in this document will allow scientists, students, and even decision takers to relate with the current knowledge and gaps related to the topic, providing perspective for future studies and actions.
Introduction to Population Ecology, 2nd Edition is a comprehensive textbook covering all aspects of population ecology. It uses a wide variety of field and laboratory examples, botanical to zoological, from the tropics to the tundra, to illustrate the fundamental laws of population ecology. Controversies in population ecology are brought fully up to date in this edition, with many brand new and revised examples and data. Each chapter provides an overview of how population theory has developed, followed by descriptions of laboratory and field studies that have been inspired by the theory. Topics explored include single-species population growth and self-limitation, life histories, metapopulations and a wide range of interspecific interactions including competition, mutualism, parasite-host, predator-prey and plant-herbivore. An additional final chapter, new for the second edition, considers multi-trophic and other complex interactions among species. Throughout the book, the mathematics involved is explained with a step-by-step approach, and graphs and other visual aids are used to present a clear illustration of how the models work. Such features make this an accessible introduction to population ecology; essential reading for undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in population ecology, applied ecology, conservation ecology, and conservation biology, including those with little mathematical experience.
This book provides up-to-date multidisciplinary information regarding microbial physiological groups in terms of their role in the Antarctic ecology. How do microorganisms shape the Antarctic environment? The book presents a thorough overview of the most important physiological microbial groups or microbial systems that shape the Antarctic environment. Each microbial model is described in terms of their physiology and metabolism, and their role in the Antarctic environmental sustainability. The individual chapters prepare readers for understanding the relevance of the microbial models from both an historical perspective, and considering the latest developments. This book will appeal to researchers and teachers interested in the Antarctic science, but also to students who want to understand the role of microbes in the ecology of extreme environments.
This monograph is devoted to full-scale geoecological risk assessment in gas industry impacted polar areas and the relevant risk management options using innovative nature-like biogeochemical technologies. Readers will discover more about geoecological risks during gas production, transportation, storage and refining. Chapters discuss in detail the geodynamic dangers associated with the designing and building of main gas pipelines. The book has interdisciplinary appeal, and specialists and practitioners in environmental sciences, ecology, biogeochemistry and those within the energy sector who are interested in understanding ecosystems affected by anthropogenic impacts in severe climatic conditions will find it particularly engaging. Through this book, readers will learn more about recultivation of contaminated soils as well as health risk assessments of chemical substances associated with the gas industry.
This book consolidates the information, results, experience and perspectives of different research groups working on Chilean Saltmarshes. Some aspects of these ecosystems such as their bio-geographical connectivity, flora and faunal components, the interaction between ecosystem components and especially the response of this kind of ecosystems to human and natural perturbations defines the Chilean Saltmarshes as an attractive systems for future studies, focused into test the theoretical and experimental aspects of saltmarshes and general ecology.
This book describes the latest advances in systems biology in four plant-based marine ecosystems: seaweeds, seagrasses, microalgae, and corals. Marine organisms that inhabit the oceanic environment experience a diverse range of environmental fluctuations, anthropogenic stress, and threats from invasive species and pathogens. System biology integrates physiology, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics into numerical models and is emerging as an important approach to elucidate the functional adaptations of marine organisms to adverse environmental conditions. This book focuses on how ecophysiology, omics platforms, their integration (a systems biology perspective), and next generation sequencing tools are being used to address the stress response of marine seaweeds, seagrasses, corals, marine microbe diversity, and micro-and macroalgae/corals-bacterial interactions to global climate change and anthropogenic activities. The contents of the book are of special interest to graduate and postgraduate marine biology students and marine biology researchers, particularly those interested in marine ecology, stress physiology of marine macrophytes/corals/phytoplankton, and environmental microbiology. This book would also be of interest to marine engineers engaged in the management and conservation of our valuable marine resources.
The 3rd edition of this popular textbook introduces the reader to the investigation of vegetation systems with an emphasis on data analysis. The book succinctly illustrates the various paths leading to high quality data suitable for pattern recognition, pattern testing, static and dynamic modelling and model testing including spatial and temporal aspects of ecosystems. Step-by-step introductions using small examples lead to more demanding approaches illustrated by real world examples aimed at explaining interpretations. All data sets and examples described in the book are available online and are written using the freely available statistical package R. This book will be of particular value to beginning graduate students and postdoctoral researchers of vegetation ecology, ecological data analysis, and ecological modelling, and experienced researchers needing a guide to new methods. A completely revised and updated edition of this popular introduction to data analysis in vegetation ecology. Includes practical step-by-step examples using the freely available statistical package R. Complex concepts and operations are explained using clear illustrations and case studies relating to real world phenomena. Emphasizes method selection rather than just giving a set of recipes.
Historically, tropical ecology has been a science often content with descriptive and demographic approaches, which is understandable given the difficulty of studying these ecosystems and the need for basic demographic information. Nonetheless, over the last several years, tropical ecologists have begun to test more sophisticated ecological theory and are now beginning to address a broad array of questions that are of particular importance to tropical systems, and ecology in general. Why are there are so many species in tropical forests and what mechanisms are responsible for the maintenance of that vast species diversity? What factors control species coexistence? Are there common patterns of species abundance and distribution across broad geographic scales? What is the role of trophic interactions in these complex ecosystems? How can these fragile ecosystems be conserved?
Containing contributions from some of the world's leading tropical ecologists, "Tropical Forest Community Ecology" provides a summary of the key issues in the discipline of tropical ecology: Includes contributions from some of the world's leading tropical ecologists Covers patterns of species distribution, the maintenance of species diversity, the community ecology of tropical animals, forest regeneration and conservation of tropical ecosystems
This book comprehensively introduces recent important studies on coral reefs from various research fields including biology, ecology, chemistry, the earth sciences, and conservation studies. Coral reef is one of the important ecosystems characterized by high biodiversity and the beauty. Coral reefs around Japan are located at the northern limit, composed by mainly fringing reefs along archipelago, and easily impacted by human activities. Thus, coral reef studies around Japan have provided important knowledge on basic sciences and conservation studies regarding coral reef ecosystem. This book would contribute to systematic understanding of vulnerable coral reef ecosystems due to human activities in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean regions. The conservation efforts provide good reference to graduate and undergraduate students, and researchers in marine sciences, as well as those who are involved in coral reef studies.
This book explores basic and applied aspects of microorganisms, which have a unique ability to cope with abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity and changing climate, as well as biodegrader microorganisms and their functional roles. Further, readers will find detailed information on all aspects that are required to make a microbe "agriculturally beneficial." The book's primary focus is on microbes that are essentially "hidden miniature packages of nature" that influence agro-ecosystems. Inviting papers by prominent national and international scientists working in the field of agricultural microbiology, it addresses the biogdegrader group of microbial inoculants. Each chapter covers the respective mechanism of action and recent advances in agricultural microbiology. In addition, the book especially highlights innovations involving agriculturally beneficial microorganisms, including strategies for coping with a changing climate, and methods for developing microbial inoculants and promoting climate-smart agriculture. The information presented here is based on the authors' extensive experience in the subject area, gathered in the course of their careers in the field of agricultural microbiology. The book offers a valuable resource for all readers who are actively involved in research on agriculturally beneficial microorganisms. In addition, it will help prepare readers for the future challenges that climate change will pose for agriculture and will help to bridge the current gaps between different scientific communities.
Unprecedented habitat loss, species declines, climate warming, and pollution are culminating in an environmental crisis that needs to be addressed with innovative and radical solutions. The crisis runs deep in the tropics, where two-thirds of the biodiversity exists in the backdrop of massive loss of native habitats and environmental neglect. Environmental apathy, corruption, poor natural resource governance, poverty, and lack of conservation funding remain formidable challenges to tangible conservation in the tropics. Ultimately, our ability to ride the current environmental crisis will depend on whether we are able to drastically improve the management of natural resources in tropical countries. There have been numerous strategies proposed, mainly by western scientists, to conserve native ecosystems such as preserving critical areas (i.e., protected areas set aside for biodiversity), balancing conservation and human livelihoods (e.g., through conservation payment or employment schemes), and creating human support for conservation by highlighting the value of nature (i.e., preservation of natural capital). However views of tropical biologists regarding biodiversity conservation are rarely sought and discussed. Prominent conservation journals rarely publish editorials by tropical conservation biologists. This we feel may be a major faux pas of conservation science. Undoubtedly, these scientists have novel views that may enhance conservation knowledge and outcomes. To address this critical failure of conservation science, we will invite 30 key tropical biologists and they will be asked to respond to two questions. What do they think are the major conservation issues in their country and/or region? What would be their recommendations to mitigate these conservation challenges? Their returned opinion pieces (maximum 3000 words) will be published in the proposed book. Tropical biologists will also be asked to illustrate their opinions using examples of conservation successes as well as failures, where possible.
This book discusses the historic range of variation (HRV) in the types, frequencies, severities and scales of natural disturbances, and explores how they create heterogeneous structure within upland hardwood forests of the Central Hardwood Region (CHR). The book was written in response to a 2012 forest planning rule which requires that national forests to be managed to sustain `ecological integrity' and within the `natural range of variation' of natural disturbances and vegetation structure. Synthesizing information on HRV of natural disturbance types, and their impacts on forest structure, has been identified as a top need.
Sir Arthur Tansley was the leading figure in ecology for the first half of the 20th century, founding the field, and forming its first professional societies. He was the first President of the British Ecological Society and the first chair of the Field Studies Council. His work as a botanist is considered seminal and he is recognized as one of the giants of ecology throughout the world.
Ecology underpins the principles and practices of modern conservation and the maintenance of biodiversity. It explains the causes of, and offers solutions to, problems of climate change. Yet ecology is a young science, barely 100 years old. Its origins lie in phytogeography, the naming and mapping of plants.
"Shaping Ecology" is a book about a multi-faceted man whose friends included Bertrand Russell, Marie Stopes, Julian Huxley, GM Trevelyan, and Solly Zuckerman. Historical context is provided by Tansley's family for his parents moved in the Fabian-socialist world of John Ruskin and Octavia Hill, both instrumental in the foundation of the National Trust. While Britain was relatively slow to protect its green spaces and wildlife, it did establish in 1913 the first professional Ecological Society in the world. Tansley was its President. Organising the British Vegetation Committee and initiating a series of International Phytogeographic Excursions, he changed phytogeography into ecology.
Despite their often dangerous and unpredictable nature, landslides provide fascinating templates for studying how soil organisms, plants and animals respond to such destruction. The emerging field of landslide ecology helps us understand these responses, aiding slope stabilisation and restoration and contributing to the progress made in geological approaches to landslide prediction and mitigation. Summarising the growing body of literature on the ecological consequences of landslides, this book provides a framework for the promotion of ecological tools in predicting, stabilising, and restoring biodiversity to landslide scars at both local and landscape scales. It explores nutrient cycling; soil development; and how soil organisms disperse, colonise and interact in what is often an inhospitable environment. Recognising the role that these processes play in providing solutions to the problem of unstable slopes, the authors present ecological approaches as useful, economical and resilient supplements to landslide management.
This unique book brings together high-quality research contributions on ecological aspects of urbanization, water quality concerns in an urban environment, and climate change issues with a strong Indian focus under one umbrella. It includes several case studies that discuss urban water management, particularly highlighting the quality aspects. Urbanization is an ecological disturbance that the modern world accepts as essential in the absence of a better alternative that could provide an equal level of comfort. The prohibitive costs of eco-friendly production technologies are forcing the developing world to generate industrial waste that is detrimental to the environment. At the same time, the availability of adequate fresh water is another challenge for our climate-change impacted world. The scientific community is, therefore, searching for ways towards ecologically sustainable urban development. Discussing all these issues, this book offers a useful guide for academicians, researchers, practicing engineers, and managers dealing with diverse water-related problems in urban areas.
This edited volume is devoted to the examination of the implications of the inevitable changes wrought by global change on the welfare and livelihoods of tens of millions of people who live in dryland regions. Global change is more than just climate change and the ramifications of changing trade patterns (geopolitical and economic aspects), the shift to the market economy, demographic factors (population growth, urbanization and re-settlement), receive attention here. Land use change specialists, policy makers and natural resource management agencies will find the book very useful. Chapters focus on examples that are drawn from a number of sources including previously unpublished studies on the impact of climate change, markets and economics on pastoralist and dryland farming households. The key focus is to provide readers with insights into the real world implications of change (including an analysis of the drivers of change) on these vulnerable groups within dryland societies. The role of humans as agents of these changes is canvassed. A regional analysis of the world's drylands is also performed including those in Australia, Argentina, India, North America, China, North Africa, Central Asia and Southern Africa.
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