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This book combines economic theory and design to create tools that economists can use to apply in social, political and institutional application. This book seeks to provide the necessary stepping stones in order to facilitate the diffusion and adoption of this powerful tool for studying incentive structures in economics. The book presents a number of examples, both theoretical and real-life. It also has a chapter that samples the literature that tests mechanisms away from the blackboard, in laboratories and the real world.
This book provides readers (students and applied economists) with the tools to design the rules of economics to harness the power of incentives.
Economists address key challenges facing the EU, including financial instability, welfare state reform, inadequate institutional framework, and global economic integration. The European Union began with efforts in the Cold War era to foster economic integration among a few Western European countries. Today's EU constitutes an upper tier of government that affects almost every level of policymaking in each of its twenty-seven member states. The recent financial and economic crises have tested this still-evolving institutional framework, and this book surveys key economic challenges faced by the EU. Prominent European economists examine such topics as the stability of the financial markets and possible policy options to reduce future vulnerability to crises, including Glass-Steagull-style narrow banking; the effect of emerging economies such as China and India on Europe's economic position; the protection of national interests in industrial policy; reforming and preserving the welfare state in the face of unemployment, population aging, and worker mobility within the EU; and improving the EU's institutional framework by reassigning responsibilities among supranational, national, and local governments. Among the conclusions that emerge from these analyses are the necessity for banking regulation as well as budgetary discipline; the need to consider global as well as European integration; and the idea that an environment that fosters internal competition will increase Europe's competitiveness internationally.
This book presents recent research on probabilistic methods in economics, from machine learning to statistical analysis. Economics is a very important - and at the same a very difficult discipline. It is not easy to predict how an economy will evolve or to identify the measures needed to make an economy prosper. One of the main reasons for this is the high level of uncertainty: different difficult-to-predict events can influence the future economic behavior. To make good predictions and reasonable recommendations, this uncertainty has to be taken into account. In the past, most related research results were based on using traditional techniques from probability and statistics, such as p-value-based hypothesis testing. These techniques led to numerous successful applications, but in the last decades, several examples have emerged showing that these techniques often lead to unreliable and inaccurate predictions. It is therefore necessary to come up with new techniques for processing the corresponding uncertainty that go beyond the traditional probabilistic techniques. This book focuses on such techniques, their economic applications and the remaining challenges, presenting both related theoretical developments and their practical applications.
Issues linking climate change and economic growth are now at the centre of discussions regarding development strategies especially in the context of developing countries. This book contributes by analyzing the relationship between economic growth and GHG emissions in India with explicit reference to all major economic sectors. One of the most popular tools for macroeconomic policy analysis is Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). The book presents the methods and estimates of the latest Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for India, which provides a major data base describing the complete circular flow of income and input-output transactions among the sectors of the economy. The novelty of the book lies in the fact that for the first time a SAM has been prepared for the Indian economy with environmental indicators. A detailed methodology for constructing such an extended SAM is also presented in the book. The environmental social accounting matrix (ESAM) based analysis has been included to show direct and indirect links between economic growth and GHG emissions. The book also includes analysis of factors affecting historical GHG emissions trends in India. The book goes beyond SAM and applies computable general equilibrium (CGE) modelling to derive climate-change policy analysis and simulations. This CGE-based analysis is an important contribution to the current debate surrounding carbon tax and its possible impact on macroeconomic growth.
Updated to textbook form by popular demand, this second edition discusses diverse mathematical models used in economics, ecology, and the environmental sciences with emphasis on control and optimization. It is intended for graduate and upper-undergraduate course use, however, applied mathematicians, industry practitioners, and a vast number of interdisciplinary academics will find the presentation highly useful. Core topics of this text are: * Economic growth and technological development * Population dynamics and human impact on the environment * Resource extraction and scarcity * Air and water contamination * Rational management of the economy and environment * Climate change and global dynamics The step-by-step approach taken is problem-based and easy to follow. The authors aptly demonstrate that the same models may be used to describe different economic and environmental processes and that similar investigation techniques are applicable to analyze various models. Instructors will appreciate the substantial flexibility that this text allows while designing their own syllabus. Chapters are essentially self-contained and may be covered in full, in part, and in any order. Appropriate one- and two-semester courses include, but are not limited to, Applied Mathematical Modeling, Mathematical Methods in Economics and Environment, Models of Biological Systems, Applied Optimization Models, and Environmental Models. Prerequisites for the courses are Calculus and, preferably, Differential Equations.
In the light of better and more detailed administrative databases, this open access book provides statistical tools for evaluating the effects of public policies advocated by governments and public institutions. Experts from academia, national statistics offices and various research centers present modern econometric methods for an efficient data-driven policy evaluation and monitoring, assess the causal effects of policy measures and report on best practices of successful data management and usage. Topics include data confidentiality, data linkage, and national practices in policy areas such as public health, education and employment. It offers scholars as well as practitioners from public administrations, consultancy firms and nongovernmental organizations insights into counterfactual impact evaluation methods and the potential of data-based policy and program evaluation.
In recent years nonlinearities have gained increasing importance in economic and econometric research, particularly after the financial crisis and the economic downturn after 2007. This book contains theoretical, computational and empirical papers that incorporate nonlinearities in econometric models and apply them to real economic problems. It intends to serve as an inspiration for researchers to take potential nonlinearities in account. Researchers should be aware of applying linear model-types spuriously to problems which include non-linear features. It is indispensable to use the correct model type in order to avoid biased recommendations for economic policy.
This outstanding text by a foremost econometrician combines instruction in probability and statistics with econometrics in a rigorous but relatively nontechnical manner. Unlike many statistics texts, it discusses regression analysis in depth. And unlike many econometrics texts, it offers a thorough treatment of statistics. Although its only mathematical requirement is multivariate calculus, it challenges the student to think deeply about basic concepts.
The coverage of probability and statistics includes best prediction and best linear prediction, the joint distribution of a continuous and discrete random variable, large sample theory, and the properties of the maximum likelihood estimator. Exercises at the end of each chapter reinforce the many illustrative examples and diagrams. Believing that students should acquire the habit of questioning conventional statistical techniques, Takeshi Amemiya discusses the problem of choosing estimators and compares various criteria for ranking them. He also evaluates classical hypothesis testing critically, giving the realistic case of testing a composite null against a composite alternative. He frequently adopts a Bayesian approach because it provides a useful pedagogical framework for discussing many fundamental issues in statistical inference.
Turning to regression, Amemiya presents the classical bivariate model in the conventional summation notation. He follows with a brief introduction to matrix analysis and multiple regression in matrix notation. Finally, he describes various generalizations of the classical regression model and certain other statistical models extensively used in econometrics and other applications in social science.
'Experiments in Organizational Economics' highlights the importance of replicating previous economic experiments. Replication enables experimental findings to be subjected to rigorous scrutiny. Despite this obvious advantage, direct replication remains relatively scant in economics. One possible explanation for this situation is that publication outlets favor novel work over tests of robustness. Readers will gain a better understanding of the role that replication plays in economic discovery as well as valuable insights into the robustness of previously reported findings.
Herbert Scarf is a highly esteemed distinguished American economist. He is internationally famous for his early epoch-making work on optimal inventory policies and his highly influential study with Andrew Clark on optimal policies for a multi-echelon inventory problem, which initiated the important and flourishing field of supply chain management. Equally, he has gained world recognition for his classic study on the stability of the Walrasian price adjustment processes and his fundamental analysis on the relationship between the core and the set of competitive equilibria (the so-called Edgeworth conjecture). Further achievements include his remarkable sufficient condition for the existence of a core in non-transferable utility games and general exchange economies, his seminal paper with Lloyd Shapley on housing markets, and his pioneering study on increasing returns and models of production in the presence of indivisibilities. All in all, however, the name of Scarf is always remembered as a synonym for the computation of economic equilibria and fixed points. In the early 1960s he invented a path-breaking technique for computing equilibrium prices. This work has generated a major research field in economics termed Applied General Equilibrium Analysis and a corresponding area in operations research known as Simplicial Fixed Point Methods. This book comprises all his research articles and consists of four volumes. This volume collects Herbert Scarf's papers in the area of Economics and Game Theory.
Herbert Scarf is a highly esteemed distinguished American economist. He is internationally famous for his early epoch-making work on optimal inventory policies and his highly influential study with Andrew Clark on optimal policies for a multi-echelon inventory problem, which initiated the important and flourishing field of supply chain management. Equally, he has gained world recognition for his classic study on the stability of the Walrasian price adjustment processes and his fundamental analysis on the relationship between the core and the set of competitive equilibria (the so-called Edgeworth conjecture). Further achievements include his remarkable sufficient condition for the existence of a core in non-transferable utility games and general exchange economies, his seminal paper with Lloyd Shapley on housing markets, and his pioneering study on increasing returns and models of production in the presence of indivisibilities. All in all, however, the name of Scarf is always remembered as a synonym for the computation of economic equilibria and fixed points. In the early 1960s he invented a path-breaking technique for computing equilibrium prices.This work has generated a major research field in economics termed Applied General Equilibrium Analysis and a corresponding area in operations research known as Simplicial Fixed Point Methods. This book comprises all his research articles and consists of four volumes. This volume collects Herbert Scarf's papers in the area of Operations Research and Management.
Advances in Econometrics is a research annual whose editorial policy is to publish original research articles that contain enough details so that economists and econometricians who are not experts in the topics will find them accessible and useful in their research. Volume 37 exemplifies this focus by highlighting key research from new developments in econometrics.
From an internationally acclaimed economist, a provocative call to jump-start economic growth by aggressively overhauling liberal democracy
Around the world, people who are angry at stagnant wages and growing inequality have rebelled against established governments and turned to political extremes. Liberal democracy, history's greatest engine of growth, now struggles to overcome unprecedented economic headwinds--from aging populations to scarce resources to unsustainable debt burdens. Hobbled by short-term thinking and ideological dogma, democracies risk falling prey to nationalism and protectionism that will deliver declining living standards.
In Edge Of Chaos, Dambisa Moyo shows why economic growth is essential to global stability, and why liberal democracies are failing to produce it today. Rather than turning away from democracy, she argues, we must fundamentally reform it. Edge Of Chaos presents a radical blueprint for change in order to galvanize growth and ensure the survival of democracy in the twenty-first century.
Since the first edition of this book published, Bayesian networks have become even more important for applications in a vast array of fields. This second edition includes new material on influence diagrams, learning from data, value of information, cybersecurity, debunking bad statistics, and much more. Focusing on practical real-world problem-solving and model building, as opposed to algorithms and theory, it explains how to incorporate knowledge with data to develop and use (Bayesian) causal models of risk that provide more powerful insights and better decision making than is possible from purely data-driven solutions. Features Provides all tools necessary to build and run realistic Bayesian network models Supplies extensive example models based on real risk assessment problems in a wide range of application domains provided; for example, finance, safety, systems reliability, law, forensics, cybersecurity and more Introduces all necessary mathematics, probability, and statistics as needed Establishes the basics of probability, risk, and building and using Bayesian network models, before going into the detailed applications A dedicated website contains exercises and worked solutions for all chapters along with numerous other resources. The AgenaRisk software contains a model library with executable versions of all of the models in the book. Lecture slides are freely available to accredited academic teachers adopting the book on their course.
This book provides a rigorous introduction to the principles of econometrics and gives students and practitioners the tools they need to effectively and accurately analyze real data. Thoroughly updated to address the developments in the field that have occurred since the original publication of this classic text, the second edition has been expanded to include two chapters on time series analysis and one on nonparametric methods. Discussions on covariance (including GMM), partial identification, and empirical likelihood have also been added. The selection of topics and the level of discourse give sufficient variety so that the book can serve as the basis for several types of courses. This book is intended for upper undergraduate and first year graduate courses in economics and statistics and also has applications in mathematics and some social sciences where a reasonable knowledge of matrix algebra and probability theory is common. It is also ideally suited for practicing professionals who want to deepen their understanding of the methods they employ. Also available for the new edition is a solutions manual, containing answers to the end-of-chapter exercises.
Introduction to Econometrics provides students with clear and simple mathematics notation and step-by-step explanations of mathematical proofs, to give them a thorough understanding of the subject. Extensive exercises throughout build confidence by encouraging students to apply econometric techniques. Retaining its student-friendly approach, Introduction to Econometrics has a comprehensive revision guide to all the essential statistical concepts needed to study econometrics, additional Monte Carlo simulations, new summaries, and non-technical introductions to more advanced topics at the end of chapters. This book is supported by an Online Resource Centre, which includes: For lecturers: * Instructor's manual for the text and data sets, detailing the exercises and their solutions. * Customizable PowerPoint slides. For students: * Data sets referred to in the book. * A comprehensive study guide offers students the opportunity to gain experience with econometrics through practice with exercises. * Software manual. * PowerPoint slides with explanations.
A review of the Heckscher-Ohlin framework prompts a noted economist to consider the methodology of economics. In this spirited and provocative book, Edward Leamer turns an examination of the Heckscher-Ohlin framework for global competition into an opportunity to consider the craft of economics: what economists do, what they should do, and what they shouldn't do. Claiming "a lifetime relationship with Heckscher-Ohlin," Leamer argues that Bertil Ohlin's original idea offered something useful though vague and not necessarily valid; the economists who later translated his ideas into mathematical theorems offered something precise and valid but not necessarily useful. He argues further that the best economists keep formal and informal thinking in balance. An Ohlinesque mostly prose style can let in faulty thinking and fuzzy communication; a mostly math style allows misplaced emphasis and opaque communication. Leamer writes that today's model- and math-driven economics needs more prose and less math. Leamer shows that the Heckscher-Ohlin framework is still useful, and that there is still much work to be done with it. But he issues a caveat about economists: "What we do is not science, it's fiction and journalism." Economic theory, he writes, is fiction (stories, loosely connected to the facts); data analysis is journalism (facts, loosely connected to the stories). Rather than titling the two sections of his book Theory and Evidence, he calls them Economic Fiction and Econometric Journalism, explaining, "If you find that startling, that's good. I am trying to keep you awake."
This book is designed for self study. The reader can apply the theoretical concepts directly within R by following the examples.
This book examines conventional time series in the context of stationary data prior to a discussion of cointegration, with a focus on multivariate models. The authors provide a detailed and extensive study of impulse responses and forecasting in the stationary and non-stationary context, considering small sample correction, volatility and the impact of different orders of integration. Models with expectations are considered along with alternate methods such as Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), the Kalman Filter and Structural Time Series, all in relation to cointegration. Using single equations methods to develop topics, and as examples of the notion of cointegration, Burke, Hunter, and Canepa provide direction and guidance to the now vast literature facing students and graduate economists.
This book offers the representative macroeconometric models and their applications for the Japanese economy in different development stages throughout the postwar years up to the present. It presents a summary of three types of macroeconometric models and analyses: Social accounting analyses of national income and related indices following the tradition of C Clark, S Kuznets, R Stone and World Bank Development Reports; Inter-industrial and inter-regional analyses of the Japanese economy a la W Leontief and the CGE (computable general equilibrium) type of applications to Comprehensive Development Plans; Macroeconometric model building for the Japanese economy and its applications with a survey of various models in Japan, including the historic Osaka University ISER (Institute of Social and Economic Research) model and present day Government models. As many Asian economies are going through the stages of development that Japan has experienced over the past few decades, this book will be extremely relevant to them and other developing countries as a reference for years to come.
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