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The last two decades have seen a reshaping of the international economy together with a radical weakening in the conditions of the working class. New productive techniques and methods in the organization of labour have been implemented on a world-wide scale partly as a consequence of the financialization of capital. The geographical diffusion of market relations has continued and with it the dominance of capital in all realms of social reproduction. In charting this change, the book offers an alternative view of contemporary capitalism. It has been suggested that we are entering a new phase where the `globalization' of economic activities is fully achieved, where `post-Fordist' regulation has overcome the crisis of Keynesian capitalism, and where the dominant tendency is towards the `end of work'. In contrast to this view, the authors of this book argue that current internationalization is not a structure, but a contradictory process and that new patterns in the division of labour while successful in increasing the pressure over workers have not been able to supersede Fordism entirely. They conclude that the slow growth of the economies, caused by neoliberal economic policies, is a crucial factor in explaining unemployment and the fragmentation of labour.
Despite the fact that Western governments have provided Ukraine with over $10 billion in foreign aid, little is known of Ukraine's economy since it declared independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. In this book, Professor Banaian describes the halting steps towards transition that Ukraine has taken and analyses their effects. Ukraine is an example of how slow or gradual reform was attempted and stopped. The author argues that this has been the result of several political and economic factors, and that the resulting `arrested transition' may continue indefinitely. Backed by extensive econometric analysis, the book provides insight into its hyperinflationary experience, the causes of continued economic contraction, Ukraine's experience with exchange rate regime changes, its large underground economy and the prospects for long run growth. The Ukrainian Economy since Independence will be of interest to scholars of the economics and political science of transition as well as policymakers in the area.
This book sheds new light on the political economy of public management reform. It examines the new forms of economic decentralization and macroeconomic adjustment, and discusses their implications for policy design and regulation. The authors discuss leading-edge research on public management reform, privatization and decentralization in both industrialized and aid-dependent countries, concentrating on the meso-level of institutional response. Combining theory, case studies and institutional analysis, they focus on issues including public/private partnerships, public finance and aid allocation. The authors also present new ideas on the design of a regulatory framework. This book will be welcomed by academics and researchers working in the fields of development studies, development economics, political economy and international public management as well as policymakers working for government agencies and NGOs in developing countries.
This insightful book focuses on the economic consequences of structural reform policies in the economies at the cutting edge of reform: Denmark, The Netherlands, New Zealand and Norway. The contributors examine policies aimed at improving the underlying path of growth, employment and saving-investment balances of the economy and apply state of the art methods to measure and model structural reforms. They examine the areas of competition policy, regulation of entry barriers, non-tariff trade barriers and employment protection rules as well as the quality of education and training, the efficiency of various public sector agencies and labour supply effects of care for children and the elderly. Special attention is paid to two 'success stories': New Zealand's 'Kiwi-model' and the Dutch 'Polder-model'. The book provides a welcome addition to the scarce evidence on both the costs and the benefits of structural reform and identifies the policy problems and the analytical issues at stake. This book will be indispensable to policymakers and academics with an interest in structural reform and macroeconomic policy.
This book presents a biographical history of the field of systems thinking, by examining the life and work of thirty of its major thinkers. It discusses each thinker's key contributions, the way this contribution was expressed in practice and the relationship between their life and ideas. This discussion is supported by an extract from the thinker's own writing, to give a flavour of their work and to give readers a sense of which thinkers are most relevant to their own interests.
In conducting a rational analysis of public policy, it is very important to quantify the extent of costs and benefits to individuals resulting from changes in taxes and the price level. Economists seek to provide a money measure of the changing welfare facing different types of individuals. There has been a great deal of research activity in this central area of economics in recent years. Economic Welfare: Concepts and Measurement is a two volume collection of the most important previously published papers on economic welfare, supplemented by a lengthy introduction by the editor which defines the basic concepts and places the contributions in context. Topics covered include: the basic concepts of welfare change and excess burden; approximations and marginal changes; marginal welfare cost and cost of funds; empirical measurement.
This important and original dictionary presents for the first time in an easily accessible form a wide range of terms and concepts used in free-market economics. It includes entries on theories of the market economy, as well as empirical studies of economic freedom and informative biographies of free-market economists. Standard dictionaries in economics often omit many terms used in free-market economics, and also place a different interpretation on some terms and concepts, such as `intervention', `regulation', `ownership and `public goods'. In addition, they often do not include references on important and controversial topics such as free banking. This Dictionary includes definitive entries that are not covered elsewhere, as well as explaining key terms and concepts from the Austrian, Chicago, Virginia Public Choice, Law and Economics and Georgists schools of thought. It also incorporates the essential points of a particular topic, concept or term used in law, finance and classical liberal philosophy as well as many basic terms used in economics. Sorted alphabetically, with extensive cross-referencing this dictionary provides concise and clear definitions of common as well as less well known concepts used in free-market economics. This Dictionary will be an essential source of reference for all those in the public choice and Austrian schools as well as those with an interest in free-market economics.
The Great Financial Crisis that began in 2007 reminds us with devastating force that financial instability and crises are endemic to capitalist economies, and that it is only strong and dynamically-changing financial regulations that can keep the damage caused by these crises within bounds. The international financial system and individual national economies, including that of the United States, are suffering from the aftermath of the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. Economists are struggling to understand the origins and implications of the crisis. The Handbook of the Political Economy of Financial Crises uses a political economy theoretical framework to analyze the crisis. After an opening chapter that describes the dimensions of the current crisis, the next section provides relevant theoretical frameworks. Subsequent sections apply these theoretical frameworks to analyze the background, dimensions, and implications of the crisis for the world economy. Leading scholars push forward our understanding of how and why our international and domestic economies are susceptible to financial breakdown and what can be done to mitigate this problem in the future. The methodology throughout applies theoretical concepts in the context of an historical and institutional understanding of the real world. By emphasizing the historical and institutional aspects of financial crises, the authors advance economic knowledge and provide insights into how we can manage our financial system to improve the lives of ordinary people.
The great demonstrations at Seattle and Genoa have shown that we
are in a new era of protest. The neo-liberal economic policies
pursued by the Group of Seven leading industrial countries and the
international institutions they control are provoking widespread
resistance. Growing numbers of people in all five continents are
rejecting the values of the market and the vision of a world made
safe for the multinational corporations.
But what does the anti-globalization movement stand for? Is it,
as its most common name suggests, against globalization itself? Is
it opposed merely to the neo-liberal Washington Consensus that
became dominant in the 1980s and 1990s, or is its real enemy the
capitalist system itself? The World Social Forum at Porto Alegre
has popularized the slogan 'Another World is Possible'. But what is
Alex Callinicos seeks to answer these questions in "An Anti-Capitalist Manifesto," He analyses the development of the movement, distinguishes between the different political forces within it, and explores the strategic dilemmas - notably over violence and the nation-state - that it increasingly confronts. He argues that the movement is directed against capitalism itself. The logic of competitive accumulation that drives this system is not only increasing global inequality and economic instability, but threatens ecological catastrophe and appalling conflict. To meet the challenge of global capitalism the new protest movement requires, according to Callinicos, a creative synthesis of its own inclusive and dynamic style and the best of the classical Marxist tradition.
This highly original new book examines the scientific status of economics from the perspective of practising economists. It studies how they evaluate their theories, the relationship between those theories and the phenomena they are intended to represent, and the philosophy, methodology and scientific credentials of economics. It examines the tension between economics as the logic of rational choice and as a predictive science, that is reason and reality respectively. It surveys the five most influential schools of thought in the methodology of economics, with special emphasis on theory appraisal: logical positivism, instrumentalism, a priorism, scientific realism and rhetorical analysis. Professor Fox assesses the extent to which economists have followed the precepts and consequences of their methodological position. He extends the discussion to consider the purpose of such economic inquiry, the scope of application and the appropriate structure of economic theory, as the legitimate sources of economic knowledge. In conclusion he argues that a resolution of existing and emerging methodological controversies in economics must begin with a better understanding of the various voices within the discipline. Intended as an introduction to the major schools of thought in economics, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of economics, philosophy and economic methodology.
Successful Transformations? contrasts the recent experience of economic development in Eastern Germany and the Czech Republic. It provides a comparative up-to-date account critically assessing the transition from central planning to a free market economy. The book highlights the very different paths that these two economies have taken. Eastern Germany has been absorbed almost entirely into the political and economic framework of West Germany. In contrast the Czech Republic - which is widely acclaimed to have made the speediest transition - has from the outset adopted an independent line. The book illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of these two different paths and addresses the key question as to whether the relative success of these two economies can point to a special policy regime which might aid economic transition in other former communist countries.
The wide-ranging implications of the shift to a sharing economy, a new model of organizing economic activity that may supplant traditional corporations. Sharing isn't new. Giving someone a ride, having a guest in your spare room, running errands for someone, participating in a supper club-these are not revolutionary concepts. What is new, in the "sharing economy," is that you are not helping a friend for free; you are providing these services to a stranger for money. In this book, Arun Sundararajan, an expert on the sharing economy, explains the transition to what he describes as "crowd-based capitalism"-a new way of organizing economic activity that may supplant the traditional corporate-centered model. As peer-to-peer commercial exchange blurs the lines between the personal and the professional, how will the economy, government regulation, what it means to have a job, and our social fabric be affected? Drawing on extensive research and numerous real-world examples-including Airbnb, Lyft, Uber, Etsy, TaskRabbit, France's BlaBlaCar, China's Didi Kuaidi, and India's Ola, Sundararajan explains the basics of crowd-based capitalism. He describes the intriguing mix of "gift" and "market" in its transactions, demystifies emerging blockchain technologies, and clarifies the dizzying array of emerging on-demand platforms. He considers how this new paradigm changes economic growth and the future of work. Will we live in a world of empowered entrepreneurs who enjoy professional flexibility and independence? Or will we become disenfranchised digital laborers scurrying between platforms in search of the next wedge of piecework? Sundararajan highlights the important policy choices and suggests possible new directions for self-regulatory organizations, labor law, and funding our social safety net.
Almost all European pundits believe that, while the U.S. economy may create more growth, Europeans have it better when it comes to job security, income equality, and other factors. Olaf Gersemann, found the reality quite different. He found that what almost everyone in Europe "knows" is wrong: the greater market freedoms in America create a more flexible, adaptable, and prosperous system than the declining welfare states of "old Europe." Cowboy Capitalism presents statistical data in extensive and accessible charts and graphs.
For more than 20 years, William Lazonick has been one of the world's leading analysts of the dynamics of industrial development and change in international economic leadership. This impressive volume presents a coherent selection of Professor Lazonick's most important work on industrial development in Britain and the United States. The first part of the book contains articles on the decline of the British economy, including a recent summary of the debates on the British cotton textile industry and international competition. The second part focuses on labour, management and technology in the rise and recent decline of the US economy, and includes an up-to-date summary essay on organizational capabilities in American industry. Professor Lazonick's essays make historical analysis relevant to the present and put economic analysis back in touch with evolving reality. This approach, together with his unique combination of historical, statistical and theoretical methodologies, will ensure that this volume proves invaluable to economists and historians alike.
In this book, economist Jean-Philippe Platteau addresses the question: does Islam, the religion of Muslims, bear some responsibility for a lack of economic development in the countries in which it dominates? In his nuanced approach, Platteau challenges the widespread view that the doctrine of Islam is reactionary in the sense that it defends tradition against modernity and individual freedom. He also questions the view that fusion between religion and politics is characteristic of Islam and predisposes it to theocracy. He disagrees with the substantivist view that Islam is a major obstacle to modern development because of a merging of religion and the state, or a fusion between the spiritual and political domains. But he also identifies how Islam's decentralized organization, in the context of autocratic regimes, may cause political instability and make reforms costly.
What can prosperity possibly mean in a world of environmental and social limits? The publication of Prosperity without Growth was a landmark in the sustainability debate. Tim Jackson's piercing challenge to conventional economics openly questioned the most highly prized goal of politicians and economists alike: the continued pursuit of exponential economic growth. Its findings provoked controversy, inspired debate and led to a new wave of research building on its arguments and conclusions. This substantially revised and re-written edition updates those arguments and considerably expands upon them. Jackson demonstrates that building a `post-growth' economy is a precise, definable and meaningful task. Starting from clear first principles, he sets out the dimensions of that task: the nature of enterprise; the quality of our working lives; the structure of investment; and the role of the money supply. He shows how the economy of tomorrow may be transformed in ways that protect employment, facilitate social investment, reduce inequality and deliver both ecological and financial stability. Seven years after it was first published, Prosperity without Growth is no longer a radical narrative whispered by a marginal fringe, but an essential vision of social progress in a post-crisis world. Fulfilling that vision is simply the most urgent task of our times.
Society needs whistleblowers, yet to speak up and expose wrongdoing often results in professional and personal ruin. Kate Kenny draws on the stories of whistleblowers to explain why this is, and what must be done to protect those who have the courage to expose the truth. Despite their substantial contribution to society, whistleblowers are considered martyrs more than heroes. When people expose serious wrongdoing in their organizations, they are often punished or ignored. Many end up isolated by colleagues, their professional careers destroyed. The financial industry, rife with scandals, is the focus of Kate Kenny's penetrating global study. Introducing whistleblowers from the United States, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and Ireland working at companies like Wachovia, Halifax Bank of Scotland, and Countrywide-Bank of America, Whistleblowing suggests practices that would make it less perilous to hold the powerful to account and would leave us all better off. Kenny interviewed the men and women who reported unethical and illegal conduct at major corporations in the run up to the 2008 financial crisis. Many were compliance officers working in influential organizations that claimed to follow the rules. Using the concept of affective recognition to explain how the norms at work powerfully influence our understandings of right and wrong, she reframes whistleblowing as a collective phenomenon, not just a personal choice but a vital public service.
Financial regulation has dramatically evolved and strengthened since the crisis on both sides of the Atlantic, with enhanced international coordination through the G-20 and the Financial Stability Board and, at the regional level, a definite contribution from the European Union. However the new regulatory environment has its critics, with many divergent voices arguing that over-regulation has become a root cause of our current economic stagnation. This book provides a bigger picture view of the impact and future of financial regulation in the EU, exploring the relationship between microeconomic incentives and macroeconomic growth, regulation and financial integration, and the changes required in economic policy to further European integration. Bringing together contributions from law, economics and management science, it offers readers an accessible but rigorous understanding of the current state of play of the regulatory environment, and on the future challenges. Coverage will include: * A review of the recent regulatory changes from a legal and economic perspective * Analysis of how the economic model of financial institutions and entities is impacted by the new frameworks * How to improve securitization and new instruments under MIFID II * Issues in the enhanced supervision under delegated acts for AIFMD, CRR-CRD IV and Solvency II * How long term funding can be supplied in lieu of the non-conventional monetary policies * A new architecture for a safer and more efficient European financial system Financial Regulation in the EU provides much needed clarity on the impact of new financial regulation and the future of the economy, and will prove a must have reference for all those working in, researching and affected by these changes.
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