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This book applies a multiparadigmatic philosophical frame of analysis to the global political economy. Crossing two disciplines and lines of literature-social philosophy and global political economy-this book considers seven aspects of global political economy and discusses each aspect from four diverse paradigmatic viewpoints: functionalist, interpretive, radical humanist, and radical structuralist. The four paradigms are founded upon different assumptions about the nature of social science and the nature of society. Each paradigm generates theories, concepts, and analytical tools which are different from those of other paradigms; developing an understanding of the different paradigms leads to a better understanding of the multi-faceted nature of the subject matter. In this book, the first chapter reviews the four paradigms. Each of the next seven chapters provides four paradigmatic explanations for each of the seven aspects of the global political economy. The final chapter concludes by recommending further paradigmatic diversity. This book will be of particular interest to students and researchers interested in political economy, heterodox economics, political science and international relations.
The aim of this book is to re-establish custom in economics. Current economic theorizing largely neglects the forces of custom that underpin market exchange. Economic sociologists have stressed this repeatedly by referring to the 'embeddedness' of all kinds of economic processes. However, while it is true that market transactions hinge critically on elements of custom, economic processes shape shape custom in turn. This other causal direction needs more attention than it has hitherto received. The way modern institutional economics has developed points to the same deficiency. Institutional economics initially tried to analyse economic institutions as arising from market processes and competition while avoiding reference to all elements of custom, but it became increasingly clear that the answers so obtained were critically dependent on tacit assumptions about the customary infrastructure. One aim of the book is to provide the necessary link between customary elements and market processes. A current strand of thought, notably originating with game theory, has tried to understand the emergence of customs by interpreting them as routines that have been adopted because they were competitively successful. This approach takes customs essentially as conventions that solve coordination problems. It is driven by the economic paradigm that interprets behaviour as fully reducible to the interplay of (given) preferences and constraints while neglecting the direct motivational impact of custom. A second aim of the book is thus to systematically harmonize the motivational significance of custom with institutional theorizing in a systematic way. The re-establishment of custom in economics will provide foundations for institutional thinking and will help in reducing the arbitrariness of current thought.
This book uses facts and data to prove that socialist public sectors are still in a predominant position in China. Based on previous research and studies, a set of methods for measuring the structure of public or non-public owned economy is offered in this book. As is remarked by the authors, China's basic economic system, namely the system with the public sector remaining dominant and diverse sectors of the economy developing side by side, represents an efficient approach towards mutual benefit, common prosperity and peaceful co-existence.
This groundbreaking collection explores the profound power of Social Reproduction Theory to deepen our understanding of everyday life under capitalism. While many Marxists tend to focus on the productive economy, this book focuses on issues such as child care, health care, education, family life and the roles of gender, race and sexuality, all of which are central to understanding the relationship between economic exploitation and social oppression. In this book, leading writers such as Lise Vogel, Nancy Fraser, David McNally and Susan Ferguson reveal the ways in which daily and generational reproductive labour, found in households, schools, hospitals and prisons, also sustains the drive for accumulation. Presenting a more sophisticated alternative to intersectionality, these essays provide ideas which have important strategic implications for anti-capitalists, anti-racists and feminists attempting to find a path through the seemingly ever more complex world we live in.
Good Capitalism, Bad Capitalism? The role of business in South Africa offers an insightful and balanced account of how the business sector – and particularly organised business – has influenced South Africa’s political and socio-economic trajectory over the years, and what it will take for the key actors – politicians and business and labour leaders – to find a new sense of (common) purpose in the post-Zuma era. Recent years have seen organised business in South Africa (represented by organisations such as Business Unity South Africa (BUSA), Business Leadership South Africa (BLSA) and the Black Business Council (BBC)) become fragmented and unnecessarily competitive, with national, provincial and/or local multi-sectoral bodies often having overlapping or conflicting interests and mandates. In the process, the once powerful ‘voice of business’ has become considerably weaker. What has gone wrong, and can order be re-established?
This book provides expert advice on the practical implementation of the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and systematically analyses its various provisions. Examples, tables, a checklist etc. showcase the practical consequences of the new legislation. The handbook examines the GDPR's scope of application, the organizational and material requirements for data protection, the rights of data subjects, the role of the Supervisory Authorities, enforcement and fines under the GDPR, and national particularities. In addition, it supplies a brief outlook on the legal consequences for seminal data processing areas, such as Cloud Computing, Big Data and the Internet of Things.Adopted in 2016, the General Data Protection Regulation will come into force in May 2018. It provides for numerous new and intensified data protection obligations, as well as a significant increase in fines (up to 20 million euros). As a result, not only companies located within the European Union will have to change their approach to data security; due to the GDPR's broad, transnational scope of application, it will affect numerous companies worldwide.
The blueprint for an inspiring regenerative economy that avoids collapse and works for people and the planet. Humanity is in a race with catastrophe. Is the future one of global warming, 65 million migrants fleeing failed states, soaring inequality, and grid-locked politics? Or one of empowered entrepreneurs and innovators building a world that works for everyone? While the specter of collapse looms large, A Finer Future demonstrates that humanity has a chance - just - to thread the needle of sustainability and build a regenerative economy through a powerful combination of enlightened entrepreneurialism, technology, and innovative policy. The authors - world leaders in business, economics, and sustainability - gather the evidence, outline the principles of a regenerative economy, and detail a policy roadmap to achieving it, including: Transforming finance and corporations Reimagining energy, agriculture, and the nature of how we work Enhancing human well-being Delivering a world that respects ecosystems and human community. Charting the course to a regenerative economy is the most important work facing humanity and A Finer Future provides the essential blueprint for business leaders, entrepreneurs, environmentalists, politicians, policymakers, and others working to create a world that works for people and the planet.
This book provides an assessment of the megatrends that are reshaping the emerging markets landscape. With developing countries already accounting for 40% of world GDP, emerging markets consumption growth will be an increasingly important growth engine for the world economy over the next two decades. However, emerging markets in many parts of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America are still facing tremendous economic challenges such as poverty, inequality, weak governance and inadequate infrastructure. The developed nations are no longer insulated from the economic shockwaves impacting developing countries, as globalisation and economic integration have also amplified the transmission effects to the West through immigration flows, cross-border crime and the proliferation of international terrorism. Emerging Markets Megatrends is an essential read for government policymakers, corporate executives, international investors and analysts wishing to understand more about the economic drivers and long-term outlook for emerging markets.
This monograph presents potential remedies for some of the current environmental issues in developed countries in a theoretical or empirical manner with the interdisciplinary approaches of economics, statistics, and engineering. The book illustrates effective economic and environmental policies for environmental challenges and factors where corrective policies to date may have failed. The importance of this essential book has is related to the transition in the major concerns of the people or governments in developed countries shifting from economic growth to the stability of life and environmental preservation as their economies have matured. The environmental issues dealt with here include forest environment tax introduced as part of local taxes, air pollution reduction policies for mobile emission sources, introduction of renewable energies and power fuel cell technology, the mechanism of city agglomeration and dispersion, and measurement of environmental sustainability. In analytical methods, some research employs theoretical approaches such as the mathematical economic model or nonlinear dynamic model. Other analyses are implemented with empirical or statistical tools such as the long-run general equilibrium model, the input-output model, and the dynamic optimization model, among others.
One of the most striking phenomena in all of economics is the absence of a deep tradition of criticism focused on Keynesian economic theory. There have been critics but they are few and far between, even though Keynesian demand management has been at the centre of some of the worst economic outcomes in history, from the great stagflation of the 1970s to the twenty-year `lost decade' in Japan that has been ongoing since the 1990s, and now, once again, the dismal recoveries that have followed the Global Financial Crisis. This book brings together some of the most vocal critics of Keynesian economics of the present time. Each author attempts to explain what is wrong with Keynesian theory for those seeking guidance on where to turn for a more accurate explanation of the business cycle and what to do when recessions occur. The contributions are by scholars from a wide number of schools of economics, which include but are not restricted to Austrian, monetarist and classical perspectives. Written not just for economists, this accessible book is one of the few anti-Keynesian texts available and explains the inability of public spending and lower interest rates to have restored robust economic growth and full employment after the GFC. The collection offers an antidote to contemporary macroeconomic theory. It is an essential text for anyone wishing to understand why no stimulus has been able to bring recovery to any economy in which it has been tried.
Recent surveys reveal a large portion of the British population to have a dim view of capitalism. And many on the political left, including the current leadership of the Labour Party, are committed to overthrowing it. That would be a disaster because, as Eamonn Butler argues in this introduction to capitalism, it is the foundation of our prosperity and of our liberal, cooperative and dynamic society. Many criticisms of capitalism are based on common misunderstandings of it, some of them even shared by supporters of capitalism. Written in plain English and assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this book helps readers overcome these confusions. It explains the nature of capital - its creation, preservation and destruction - and the roles played by markets and property rights in making capitalism work.
In this addition to the award-winning Church and Postmodern Culture
series, respected theologian Daniel Bell compares and contrasts
capitalism and Christianity, showing how Christianity provides
resources for faithfully navigating the postmodern global economy.
Great Britain, France, Germany, and Japan. Surveying the development of the steel, automobile, and semiconductor industries in each of these countries, Jeffrey A. Hart illuminates the role of national policy in a changing world. Hart describes the global structure of production and consumption in the five major capitalist countries and offers a rich comparative history of their industrial policymaking. He concludes that variations in statesocietal arrangements-and the impact these differences have on the creation and diffusion of new technologies-provide the best explanation for divergences in international competitiveness. In Japan, state and business are allied, but labor is marginalized, whereas in Germany, labor and business are allied, and the state is decentralized. Yet both countries have become increasingly competitive because they have developed institutional mechanisms for technology diffusion. France's state-led system, in contrast, is linked with only moderate competitiveness. The decline of competitiveness in the United States and Britain, Hart concludes, may be attributed to state-societal arrangements that have allowed one actor-labor in Britain, business in the United States-to dominate policymaking. Rival Capitalists will be an invaluable source for policymakers and business analysts as well as scholars and students of political economy, international relations, industrial organization, industrial sociology, and comparative politics.
The report was written by senior scholars of international studies and Indian Ocean studies and focuses on international relations in Indian Ocean region and covers many aspects of "Indo-Pacific". The report includes both strategic review and major events and related data in this region. This book also includes the origin, the aims, frameworks and regional and global impact of "Indo-Pacific". The book includes the authors from 5 different institutes in China which provide readers with a full and authentic picture of "Indo-Pacific" most recent development. This year's Annual Report is the Sixth of this kind and the only one which covers exclusive on the Indian Ocean region in China.
CAPITALISM UNDER ATTACK explains the single biggest threat to the free enterprise system: the demonization of the profit motive. It demonstrates the urgent need to educate all Americans - but especially the next generation - about profit's vital role in our nation.
CAPITALISM UNDER ATTACK traces how the path of human economic history has led to an era where making money, owning property, and trying to maximize profits are seen by a large segment of the world population as selfish and even anti-societal aims. Ironically, data shows these anti-capitalist sentiments are most prevalent - and spreading at troubling rates - in the societies that have benefited most from capitalism over the last century. Places like the United States and Western Europe are today proving remarkably susceptible to neo-Marxist and redistributive socialist ideology - among academics in America's premiere institutions, among historians, and among politicians who continually rail against corporate profits or the evil "One Percent."
ANDY PUZDER reminds readers that the pursuit of profit was a lynchpin to America's success as a nation - and led to the creation of a middle class of shopkeepers, merchants, and entrepreneurs who could finally earn a living, succeed and fail, based on their own abilities.
Puzder briefly traces the history of profit from ancient times, to its golden age after liberal philosophers like John Locke and Adam Smith defended the idea of individual rights and private property. He explains how their ideas reached their purest form in practice when they were given new life as the basis for the creation of the new United States of America.
The world, led by that grand experiment in profit - the U.S. - has decided to reject and shame the idea of making money, and the consequences this shift could have in the future.
This report is a partial result of the China's Quarterly Macroeconometric Model (CQMM), a project developed and maintained by the Center for Macroeconomic Research (CMR) at Xiamen University. The CMR is one of the Key Research Institutes of Humanities and Social Sciences sponsored by the Ministry of Education of China, focusing on China's economic growth and macroeconomic policy. The CMR started to develop the CQMM for purpose of short-term forecasting, policy analysis, and simulation in 2005.Based on the CQMM, the CMR and its partners hold press conferences to release forecasts for China' major macroeconomic variables. Since July 2006, twenty-four quarterly reports on China's macroeconomic outlook have been presented and eleven annual reports have been published.This 25th quarterly report was presented at the Forum on China's Macroeconomic Outlook and Press Conference of CQMM on October 25, 2018. This conference was jointly held by SOAS London University, Xiamen University, and Economic Information Daily in London, UK.
This book provides the analysis on capital markets in China, focusing attention upon (1) the bubble phenomena (whether or not a Chinese bubble really exists and might burst), (2) foreign direct investment and (3) integration, through all of which we could recognize the current situation and the future prospects of Chinese marketization. As regards to the bubble phenomena, particularly 'early warning indicator' of the bubble, this book attempts to utilize the Grubbs-Smirnov Test to discover the 'abnormal value' in several asset markets. Investigations of this book suggest that the distinctive features of the Chinese market have been significantly different from the markets of capitalist countries such as the United States and Japan. As far as Japan's foreign direct investments in China are concerned, this book tries to reveal the Chinese characteristics on FDI phenomena with FDI-trade ratio. The analysis of this book suggests that Chinese FDI from Japan has undoubtedly revealed the distortions caused by non-economic factors, which also mean that the distinctive features of the Chinese market have been different from the markets of the United States and Japan etc. Regarding integration, this book provides the analysis on the 'G2' system between the United States and China (cooperation or conflict between them). The considerations of this book conclude that it might be difficult to have good cooperation between them because of significant differences between the Chinese system and the US system.
This book is the first comprehensive assessment of the state of low-carbon investments in Asia, analyzing the rationales, mandates and public-private financing activities. Based on the experiences of several regional initiatives wherein public financing is catalyzing private investments in low-carbon infrastructure, this book proposes a framework that can be used as a tool to identify factors that influence private investment decisions and policy instruments that can scale up the private capital. Placing the Asian economies onto a low-carbon development pathway requires an unprecedented shift in investments. This book addresses this situation by asking questions such as: * What is the central role of private finance in achieving the Paris Agreement targets? * What key policy levers and risk mitigation can governments use in an effort to unlock the potentials of private capital? * How can regionally coordinated actions hold significant promise for scaling up private investments?
The Great Financial Crisis that began in 2007 reminds us with devastating force that financial instability and crises are endemic to capitalist economies, and that it is only strong and dynamically-changing financial regulations that can keep the damage caused by these crises within bounds. The international financial system and individual national economies, including that of the United States, are suffering from the aftermath of the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. Economists are struggling to understand the origins and implications of the crisis. The Handbook of the Political Economy of Financial Crises uses a political economy theoretical framework to analyze the crisis. After an opening chapter that describes the dimensions of the current crisis, the next section provides relevant theoretical frameworks. Subsequent sections apply these theoretical frameworks to analyze the background, dimensions, and implications of the crisis for the world economy. Leading scholars push forward our understanding of how and why our international and domestic economies are susceptible to financial breakdown and what can be done to mitigate this problem in the future. The methodology throughout applies theoretical concepts in the context of an historical and institutional understanding of the real world. By emphasizing the historical and institutional aspects of financial crises, the authors advance economic knowledge and provide insights into how we can manage our financial system to improve the lives of ordinary people.
The twenty-first century workplace compels Americans to be more flexible. To embrace change, work with unpredictable schedules, be available 24/7, and take charge of one's own career. What are the wider implications of these pressures for workers' lives? How do they conceive of good work and a good life amid such incessant change? In The Disrupted Workplace, Benjamin Snyder examines how three groups of American workers-financial professionals, truck drivers, and unemployed job seekers-construct moral order in a capitalist system that demands flexibility. Based on seventy in-depth interviews and three years of participant observation, he argues that the flexible economy transforms how workers experience time. New scheduling techniques, employment strategies, and technologies disrupt the flow and trajectory of working life, which makes the workplace a site of perplexing moral dilemmas. Work can feel both liberating and terrorizing, engrossing in the short term but unsustainable in the long term. Through a vivid portrait of real workers' struggles to adapt their lives to constant disruption, Benjamin Snyder mounts a compelling critique of the costs of the flexible economy.
One of the world's leading economists of inequality, Branko Milanovic presents a bold new account of the dynamics that drive inequality on a global scale. Drawing on vast data sets and cutting-edge research, he explains the benign and malign forces that make inequality rise and fall within and among nations. He also reveals who has been helped the most by globalization, who has been held back, and what policies might tilt the balance toward economic justice.Global Inequality takes us back hundreds of years, and as far around the world as data allow, to show that inequality moves in cycles, fueled by war and disease, technological disruption, access to education, and redistribution. The recent surge of inequality in the West has been driven by the revolution in technology, just as the Industrial Revolution drove inequality 150 years ago. But even as inequality has soared within nations, it has fallen dramatically among nations, as middle-class incomes in China and India have drawn closer to the stagnating incomes of the middle classes in the developed world. A more open migration policy would reduce global inequality even further.Both American and Chinese inequality seems well entrenched and self-reproducing, though it is difficult to predict if current trends will be derailed by emerging plutocracy, populism, or war. For those who want to understand how we got where we are, where we may be heading, and what policies might help reverse that course, Milanovic's compelling explanation is the ideal place to start.
Modern-day markets do not arise spontaneously or evolve naturally. Rather they are crafted by individuals, firms, and most of all, by governments. Thus "marketcraft" represents a core function of government comparable to statecraft and requires considerable artistry to govern markets effectively. Just as real-world statecraft can be masterful or muddled, so it is with marketcraft. In Marketcraft, Steven Vogel builds his argument upon the recognition that all markets are crafted then systematically explores the implications for analysis and policy. In modern societies, there is no such thing as a free market. Markets are institutions, and contemporary markets are all heavily regulated. The "free market revolution" that began in the 1980s did not see a deregulation of markets, but rather a re-regulation. Vogel looks at a wide range of policy issues to support this concept, focusing in particular on the US and Japan. He examines how the US, the "freest" market economy, is actually among the most heavily regulated advanced economies, while Japan's effort to liberalize its economy counterintuitively expanded the government's role in practice. Marketcraft demonstrates that market institutions need government to function, and in increasingly complex economies, governance itself must feature equally complex policy tools if it is to meet the task. In our era-and despite what anti-government ideologues contend-governmental officials, regardless of party affiliation, should be trained in marketcraft just as much as in statecraft.
This book provides an assessment of the evolution and dynamics of regional innovation systems (RISs) and the economic and social impact of resulting knowledge spillovers, presenting comparative case studies on the regions of several Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries (Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, Lithuania and Estonia). It analyses RISs on the basis of several dimensions, such as absorption capacity and intellectual capital, and using several methods such as data envelopment analysis, patent network analysis, and weighted sum approach. Further, by looking at the economic and social impact of knowledge spillovers in RISs and networking, it identifies key distinguishing factors, including foreign direct investments, still prevalent centralized decision-making, EU-driven innovation policies and public financing of innovations. Sectoral case studies, e.g. from the automobile, chemical and other hi-tech manufacturing industries, are presented to help readers understand the different types of knowledge spillovers in CEE countries and the evolution and dynamics of RISs, and provide a multifaceted overview of the CEE regions.
Essential for students of international business, this unique textbook arrives at a time when the Nordic model has become globally envied for its competitiveness and success.It is based on extensive research from a number of prominent Nordic institutions, edited by a highly regarded, expert team. This is the first book to examine and explain the development of a Nordic model of capitalism.Creating the Model of Nordic Capitalism illuminates how the economies of five small North European countries; Denmark, Finland, Norway, Iceland and Sweden, became so competitive during the twentieth century. Through rigorous analysis the authors propose and describe the defining features of Nordic capitalism.
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