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Since the early 1980s, governments worldwide have taken many measures to expand the role of markets. Recent political events reflect widespread disenchantment with neoliberal policies, but it remains doubtful whether populist leaders will deliver the market restraints that many of their voters expect. This book explains the resilience of marketization processes by highlighting the role of profiteers- namely those who, like the organizer of a cock fight, benefit from contests regardless of who wins. By setting up shop on the sidelines, profiteers accumulate resources that boost political efforts to maintain and expand the arena of competition. Evidence comes from the evolution of support for shareholder rights relating to takeover bids among key interest groups and political parties in three countries since the late nineteenth century.
First published in 1944 and years ahead of its time, this book became the foundation for many future studies of imperialism and economic development. Binding an economic view of history with strong moral argument, Williams' study of the role of slavery in financing the Industrial Revolution refuted traditional ideas of economic and moral progress, and firmly established the centrality of the African slave trade in European economic development. He also showed that mature industrial capitalism, in turn, helped destroy the slave system. Establishing the exploitation of commercial capitalism and its link to racial attitudes, Williams employed a historicist vision that set the tone for future studies. Collin Palmer assesses the lasting impact of Williams' groundbreaking work and analyses the heated scholarly debate it generated when it first appeared. The late Eric Williams was Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago from 1956 until his death in 1981.
This report is a partial result of the China's Quarterly Macroeconometric Model (CQMM), a project developed and maintained by the Center for Macroeconomic Research (CMR) at Xiamen University. The CMR is one of the Key Research Institutes of Humanities and Social Sciences sponsored by the Ministry of Education of China, focusing on China's economic forecast and macroeconomic policy analysis. The CMR started to develop the CQMM for purpose of short-term forecasting, policy analysis, and simulation in 2005. Based on the CQMM, the CMR and its partners hold press conferences to release forecasts for China' major macroeconomic variables. Since July, 2006, twenty-two quarterly reports on China's macroeconomic outlook have been presented and eleventh annual reports have been published. This 23rd quarterly report is to be presented at the Forum on China's Macroeconomic Outlook and Press Conference of CQMM on October 27, 2017. This conference is jointly held at Oxford University by Oxford Prospects and Global Development Centre, University of Oxford, Center for Macroeconomic Research at Xiamen University, and Economic Information Daily at Xinhua News Agency.
The interventions of crisis management during the 2007 to 2011 financial crisis were not simply responses to a set of given developments in markets, banking or neo-liberal capitalism. Nor can those interventions be adequately explained as the actions of sovereign state officials and institutions. Instead, Langley argues, processes of crisis governance are shown to have established six principal technical problems to be acted upon: liquidity, toxicity, solvency, risk, regulation, and debt and that the governance of these technical problems, is shown to have been strategically assembled in order to secure the continuation of a particular, financialized way of life that depends upon global financial circulations. Contributing to interdisciplinary debates in cultural economy and the social studies of finance, and grounded in extensive empirical research, this book offers an innovative analysis of how the contemporary global financial crisis was governed. Through an exploration of the interventions made by central banks, treasuries, and regulatory authorities in the Anglo-American heartland of the crisis between 2007 and 2011, experimental and strategic apparatuses of crisis governance are shown to have emerged. These discrete apparatuses established the six technical problems to be acted upon, but also shared certain proclivities and preferences. Crisis governance assembled discourses and devices of economy in relation with sovereign monetary, fiscal, and regulatory techniques, and elicited an affective atmosphere of confidence. It also sought to secure the financialized way of life which turns on the opportunities ostensibly afforded by uncertain financial circulations, and gave rise to post-crisis technical fixes designed to advance the resilience of banking and the macro-prudential regulation of financial stability. Thus, the consensus that prevails across economics, political economy, and beyond - wherein sovereign state institutions are cast as coming to the rescue of the markets, banking, or neo-liberal capitalism - conceals a great deal more than it reveals about the governance of the global financial crisis.
This book explains compellingly that, despite common belief, in the early modern period, the intra-East Asian commercial network still functioned sustainably, and within that network, the Sino-Japanese trade can be seen as the most significant part which not only connected the Chinese and Japanese domestic markets but also was linked to the global economy. It is commonly thought that East Asian countries like China and Japan maintained a stance of so-called national isolation during the period from the seventeenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century. It is true that diplomatic relations between Qing China and Tokugawa Japan could have not been established for reasons such as guarantees of security; however, every year merchants in junks voyaged to Nagasaki and carried out transactions with Japanese merchants or business agents. How this kind of trade relation was maintained stably without any diplomatic guarantees and in which way the governments of the two sides edged into the trade and accommodated the trade conflicts and institutional frictions are essential but seldom-emphasized topics. This book aims to shed light on these issues and thereby examine the character of the unique trade order in early modern East Asia as well, by analyzing a large quantity of the seldom-used and unpublished Chinese and Japanese primary and secondary sources.
This book offers an in-depth analysis of China's contemporary securities markets regulatory system, with a focus on regulation in practice. Examining the roles of both the China Securities Regulatory Commission and local governments, He argues that the government has built and developed markets from scratch to address the needs of the state and the economy at large. This book describes the workings of national and sub-national securities markets, and such a comprehensive approach gives insight into the ability of state regulation to guide a financial system. This book also provides a unique practical perspective, explaining of the dynamics of regulation in relation to the operation of the Chinese political system. Finally, it incorporates original empirical studies, including semi-structured interviews of professionals and a survey of retail investors. This book is an unparalleled resource for anyone interested in the regulation of securities markets, as well as finance in China in general.
It is widely believed today that the free market is the best mechanism ever invented to efficiently allocate resources in society. Just as fundamental as faith in the free market is the belief that government has a legitimate and competent role in policing and the punishment arena. This curious incendiary combination of free market efficiency and the Big Brother state has become seemingly obvious, but it hinges on the illusion of a supposedly natural order in the economic realm. The Illusion of Free Markets argues that our faith in "free markets" has severely distorted American politics and punishment practices. Bernard Harcourt traces the birth of the idea of natural order to eighteenth-century economic thought and reveals its gradual evolution through the Chicago School of economics and ultimately into today's myth of the free market. The modern category of "liberty" emerged in reaction to an earlier, integrated vision of punishment and public economy, known in the eighteenth century as "police." This development shaped the dominant belief today that competitive markets are inherently efficient and should be sharply demarcated from a government-run penal sphere. This modern vision rests on a simple but devastating illusion. Superimposing the political categories of "freedom" or "discipline" on forms of market organization has the unfortunate effect of obscuring rather than enlightening. It obscures by making both the free market and the prison system seem natural and necessary. In the process, it facilitated the birth of the penitentiary system in the nineteenth century and its ultimate culmination into mass incarceration today.
This study aims at analyzing the resilience of Indonesia from two aspects: one is was natural disaster and the other is environmental protection. Therefore the study comprises two parts. The first aims at analyzing Palangkaraya City in Central Kalimantan Province by constructing apartial and a general equilibrium models; hence the existence of illegal settlements can be explained systematically. The models demonstrates a new attempt in city analysis by introducing the expected flood damage rate on households' assets. Furthermore, a numerical simulation shows a new finding, namely, that the bid rent by representative low-income households in flood-prone areas canreceive higher than the bid rent by the representative high-income households. The second part examines (1) the provision of public goods such as road construction on the Maros-Watampone Road, and (2) the urban economics of Makassar City. In this second part, the analytic hierarchy process is applied to design efficiency with respect to selecting the best type of road construction in a conservation area. As a result, the elevated bridge is determined to be the most suitable type of construction, followed by cut-and-fill and the tunnel system. The second research approach uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that adds environmental objectives to urban economic objectives in Makassar City. The model examines the impact of the carbon tax based on the 2006 input-output table for Makassar City. The results of all simulations of the CGE model indicates that a carbon tax can reduce the volume of CO2 emissions by 8 %.
You thought capitalism was permanent? Think again. David Harvey unravels the contradictions at the heart of capitalism-its drive, for example, to accumulate capital beyond the means of investing it, it's imperative to use the cheapest methods of production that leads to consumers with no means of consumption, and its compulsion to exploit nature to the point of extinction. These are the tensions which underpin the persistence of mass unemployment, the downward spirals of Europe and Japan, and the unstable lurches forward of China and India. Not that the contradictions of capital are all bad: they can lead to the innovations that make capitalism resilient and, it seems, permanent. Yet appearances can deceive: while many of capital's contradictions can be managed, others will be fatal to our society. This new book is both an incisive guide to the world around us and a manifesto for change.
This book describes and clarifies how certain problems can be resolved in Japan and Asia. For the future, the focus should be on Japan, which can provide "common knowledge" as a public good. The book collects the results of researchers in Japan, China, South Korea, and Indonesia on declining birthrates and aging, rapid technological innovation and societal changes, and recovery from natural disasters.Chapter 1 covers Japanese social welfare system reform and transformation of social governance. Chapter 2 deals with the decreasing birthrate and national security. Chapters 3 to 5 discuss three aspects of the impact of modern technology on Japanese society. Chapter 6 and 7 include the research results on recovery from the earthquake disasters in Indonesia and East Japan. Through reading this book, the increasingly necessity to capture Japanese studies in Asia as a public good can be understood. The authors believe that sharing of knowledge as a public good is of great help in solving problems for the future.
Sneaker Wars is the fascinating true story of the enemy brothers behind Adidas and Puma, two of the biggest global brands of athletic footwear. Adi and Rudi Dassler started their shoe business in their mother's laundry room and achieved almost instantaneous success. But by the end of World War II a vicious feud had torn the Dasslers apart, dividing their company and their family and launching them down separate, often contentious paths. Out of the fires of their animosity, two rival sneaker brands were born, brands that would revolutionize the world of professional sports, sparking astonishing behind-the-scenes deals, fabulous ad campaigns, and multimillion-dollar contracts for pro athletes, from Joe Namath to Muhammad Ali to David Beckham.
What exactly is capitalism, and why do its advocates support it? What are the main objections to capitalism that have been raised by its critics? Are there moral reasons to support capitalism, or to oppose it? In this time of globalization and economic turbulence, these questions could not be more timely or more important. This book provides some answers through seminal readings on the nature, purpose, and effects of capitalism as understood by its most influential expositors, both historical and contemporary. In addition to Adam Smith himself, the selections gathered here include essays and excerpts by thinkers ranging from Locke and Rousseau to Hayek and Cass Sunstein. All are chosen and arranged to highlight the ways that capitalism bears on a set of fundamental human concerns: liberty, equality, social order, virtue and motivation. If you want to develop an informed judgment about whether markets and morality mix, this anthology is a good place to begin.
This book explores the legal implications of China's state-directed economic model for the existing international economic order. It first reveals the close links between the market and the state in contemporary China by profiling an emerging triple role of the state in the economy. It then explores how the domestic legal system underpins the distinctive market-state relationship, before analysing whether essential norms of international economic law, which bracket the international economic order, are able to adapt to China's innovative market-state relationship. The book argues that the international economic order is inherently limited since it tends to adhere to an orthodox dichotomy, with a clear boundary between the market and the state. It also suggests that China's new state-market relationship has challenged the dichotomy - the state does not intend to eliminate the functioning of the market but, conversely, utilises a market mechanism and makes itself more integrated into the market. Lastly the book proposes a fresh perspective to comprehend the `market-state' question, which does not to take for granted that all market-state relationships are mutually exclusive.
This book argues that that the rise of great firms - those with sustainable high return on invested capital (ROIC) - will lay the foundation for China's successful economic transformation. Drawn from the author's research on corporate finance and the Chinese economy, the author maintains that being big could be easy but means little for corporate China, especially in the context of China's transition from an investment-led economy to an efficiency-driven one. The work discusses both internal and external impediments that lead to lack of great companies in China and suggests institutional conditions which foster the rise of great companies in China, including, reversing the government's obsession with GDP, reforming the financial system, and promoting entrepreneurship. Policy makers, investors, corporate executives, and MBA students and scholars will appreciate case studies of Huawei, Alibaba, Xiaomi, and Lenovo, among others, that illustrate the endeavors made by Chinese entrepreneurs at the grassroots level and highlight what makes successful companies in China.
Once torn by ideological conflicts and the dominance of command economies, Southern Africa is now moving towards economic liberalization and openness. In general, the ascendancy of "market economies" is acknowledged by its governments, albeit with different degrees of enthusiasm. Theoretically rich and empirically engaging, this timely book offers a critical insight into the ensuing debate on regionalism and the process of regionalization in region.
Law and Justice in China's New Marketplace provides the first comprehensive multidisciplinary analysis of the jurisprudence and related law underlying the contemporary Chinese transition to the 'socialist market economy'. New 'pluralized jurisprudence' has moved beyond Marxist class analysis to consider a new balance of values relating to economic efficiency and social justice in the marketplace, and yet the interior debates and perspectives concerning these values are virtually unknown in the Western scholarly literature. By analysing the changing Chinese approach in law to the adjustment of social interests in the context of profound economic change , Law and Justice in China's New Marketplace provides a unique reference tool. It outlines the new vocabulary of market jurisprudence and law and examines new legal thinking on rights protection with reference to widely ranging and often hot internal debate over human rights, property law and procedural or judicial justice.
This text examines the effect of post-Soviet transitions on current problem-solving trends with regards to world capitalism. The fall of Soviet communism left liberal capitalism as the dominant blueprint from which to construct economic development policies. Using Central Europe as an example it is shown that the application of the Western liberal capitalist model has not been without its difficulties. This book endeavours to place the changes to the global political economy, since 1989, in a theoretical and historical context.
This book is a compilation of the best papers presented at the 2017 installment of the Asia-Pacific Conference on Economics & Finance (APEF), which is held annually in Singapore. With a great number of submissions, it presents the latest research findings in economics and finance and discusses relevant issues in today's world. The book is a useful resource for readers who want access to economics, finance and business research focusing on the Asia-Pacific region.
This work remains one of the all-time classics of 20th-century intellectual thought. For over half a century, it has inspired politicians and thinkers around the world, and has had a crucial impact on our political and cultural history. Hayek argues that, while socialist ideals may be tempting, they cannot be accomplished except by means that few would approve of. Addressing economics, fascism, history, socialism and the Holocaust, Hayek unwraps the trappings of socialist ideology. He reveals to the world that little can result from such ideas except oppression and tyranny. Today, more than 50 years on, Hayek's warnings are just as valid as when "The Road to Serfdom" was first published.
In the year 1000, the economy of the Middle East was at least as advanced as that of Europe. But by 1800, the region had fallen dramatically behind--in living standards, technology, and economic institutions. In short, the Middle East had failed to modernize economically as the West surged ahead. What caused this long divergence? And why does the Middle East remain drastically underdeveloped compared to the West? In "The Long Divergence," one of the world's leading experts on Islamic economic institutions and the economy of the Middle East provides a new answer to these long-debated questions.
Timur Kuran argues that what slowed the economic development of the Middle East was not colonialism or geography, still less Muslim attitudes or some incompatibility between Islam and capitalism. Rather, starting around the tenth century, Islamic legal institutions, which had benefitted the Middle Eastern economy in the early centuries of Islam, began to act as a drag on development by slowing or blocking the emergence of central features of modern economic life--including private capital accumulation, corporations, large-scale production, and impersonal exchange. By the nineteenth century, modern economic institutions began to be transplanted to the Middle East, but its economy has not caught up. And there is no quick fix today. Low trust, rampant corruption, and weak civil societies--all characteristic of the region's economies today and all legacies of its economic history--will take generations to overcome.
"The Long Divergence" opens up a frank and honest debate on a crucial issue that even some of the most ardent secularists in the Muslim world have hesitated to discuss.
This book is devoted to the analysis of the Six Development Concepts of China titled "Xi Jinping's New Development Philosophy", namely Innovative Development, Coordinated Development, Green Development, Open Development, Sharing Development, and Security Development. The book pursues three major objectives: firstly, to accurately portray the theoretical sources, practical innovation and major contents of these development ideas; secondly, to analyze what are the major relationships among these development ideas and their main common point is "people centered", which is the largest theoretical innovation of this book. Thirdly, through analyzing China's development idea, this book provides development paths, strategy, theories, and practical experiences for other developing countries.
This book provides a detailed and up-to- date analysis of the current and near-future domestic economic situation in China based on the concept of "New Normal", which was first proposed by Chinese President Xi Jinping and which is commonly used in discussions on China's current economy. China's New Normal is the result of the growing pressures on domestic resources, environmental restrictions, and unstable international economic recovery and characterized by a moderate economic increase, a proper increase in commodity pricing, stabilizing new employment and optimizing economic structure. The book argues that while China focuses on stability and quality in macro-control and enhancing reform and innovation, many contradictions and problems in economic operations are gradually being solved, therefore optimizing the economic structure. The book explores many aspects of China's economic development under the "New Normal" while making analysis and policy suggestions for the present economic trends.
A Foreign Affairs Best Book of the Year "An intellectual excursion of a kind rarely offered by modern economics." -Foreign Affairs Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century is the most widely discussed work of economics in recent years. But are its analyses of inequality and economic growth on target? Where should researchers go from there in exploring the ideas Piketty pushed to the forefront of global conversation? A cast of leading economists and other social scientists-including Emmanuel Saez, Branko Milanovic, Laura Tyson, and Michael Spence-tackle these questions in dialogue with Piketty. "A fantastic introduction to Piketty's main argument in Capital, and to some of the main criticisms, including doubt that his key equation...showing that returns on capital grow faster than the economy-will hold true in the long run." -Nature "Piketty's work...laid bare just how ill-equipped our existing frameworks are for understanding, predicting, and changing inequality. This extraordinary collection shows that our most nimble social scientists are responding to the challenge." -Justin Wolfers, University of Michigan
The 2008 financial crisis presented the opportunity to overturn and rethink much of the stale or misguided parts of economic theory and, in so doing, build a rich and empirically meaningful social science. This never happened. By reconsidering the classical-Marxian tradition using modern tools of economic analysis, this book offers an alternative to the mainstream understanding of notions of value, price, and competition, concepts which serve as the foundation for a theoretically and empirically robust economic theory. Providing a unique synthesis of modern input-output analysis and classical political economics, this book combines current economic theory with historical economic thought. In this way, Value, Competition and Exploitation offers a deeper and more nuanced understanding of today's economic problems than can be gained through mainstream approaches. With a rigorous and empirically informed approach to classical theories of value and price, this book demonstrates that Marx's labor theory of value remains a valuable tool in understanding the structure and dynamics of capitalist economies. Written in an accessible style and presented with a clear structure, this book will be invaluable to economics students of all levels. The topics analyzed will also be of interest to scholars of classical and Marxian economics, as well as scholars of economics more widely.
This pioneering book explores the meaning of the term "Black social economy," a self-help sector that remains autonomous from the state and business sectors. With the Western Hemisphere's ignoble history of enslavement and violence towards African peoples, and the strong anti-black racism that still pervades society, the African diaspora in the Americas has turned to alternative practices of socio-economic organization. Conscientious and collective organizing is thus a means of creating meaningful livelihoods. In this volume, fourteen scholars explore the concept of the "Black social economy," bringing together innovative research on the lived experience of Afro-descendants in business and society in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, and the United States. The case studies in this book feature horrific legacies of enslavement, colonization, and racism, and they recount the myriad ways that persons of African heritage have built humane alternatives to the dominant market economy that excludes them. Together, they shed necessary light on the ways in which the Black race has been overlooked in the social economy literature.
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