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This book tells the story of how the way in which we conduct elections has changed after the Florida recount litigation of 2000. Some of the nation's leading experts look at various aspects of election administration, including issues of ballot format, changes in registration procedures, the growth in the availability of absentee ballot rules and other forms of convenience voting, and changes in the technology used to record our votes. They also look at how the Bush v. Gore decision has been used by courts that monitor the election process and at the consequences of changes in practice for levels of invalid ballots, magnitude of racial disparities in voting, voter turnout, and access to the ballot by those living outside the United States. The editors, in their introduction, also consider the normative question of exactly what we want a voting system to do. An epilogue by two leading election law specialists looks at how election administration and election contest issues played out in the 2012 presidential election."
Among all Indian states, economic and social development in Tamil Nadu has been uniquely characterized by the political ideologies of the Dravidian parties that have ruled the state from 1967. Starting from a platform of social reform and social justice, the parties have effectively transformed institutions and structures in the state to deliver a social welfare agenda, with the full support of the bureaucracy. The book chronicles the history of the social reform movement, and how these ideas were implemented in policy and through programmes to bring about fundamental changes in institutions of governance and delivery of welfare. Case studies of selected programmes illustrate this development. The author was part of the administration and a witness as well as a participant of these developments. The book is an intimate narrative from the point of view of an insider into the DMK and AIADMK regimes and the iconic leaders of these parties like MGR, M. Karunanidhi, and Jayalalitha.
The authority to regulate U.S. elections is shared by federal, state, and local officials. Congress has addressed major functional areas in the voting process, such as voter registration. However, the responsibility for administration of state and federal elections resides at the state level. In 2002 Congress passed the Help America Vote Act (HAVA), which requires states to request ID from first time voters who register by mail, when they register to vote or cast a ballot for the first time, and to permit individuals to vote a provisional ballot if they do not have the requisite ID. Numerous states have enacted additional laws to address how an individual may register to vote or cast a ballot. As of June 2014, 33 states had enacted requirements for all eligible voters to show ID before casting a ballot at the polls on Election Day. This book reviews what available literature indicates about voter ownership of and direct costs to obtain select IDs; what available literature and analyses of available data indicate about how, if at all, voter ID laws have affected turnout in select states; to what extent provisional ballots were cast due to ID reasons in select states; and what challenges may exist in using available information to estimate the incidence of in-person voter fraud.
Being concerned with representation, this book is about an idea, a concept, a word. It is primarily a conceptual analysis, not a historical study of the way in which representative government has evolved, nor yet an empirical investigation of the behavior of contemporary representatives or the expectations voters have about them. Yet, although the book is about a word, it is not about mere words, not merely about words. For the social philosopher, for the social scientist, words are not "mere"; they are the tools of his trade and a vital part of his subject matter. Since human beings are not merely political animals but also language-using animals, their behavior is shaped by their ideas. What they do and how they do it depends upon how they see themselves and their world, and this in turn depends upon the concepts through which they see. Learning what "representation" means and learning how to represent are intimately connected. But even beyond this, the social theorist sees the world through a network of concepts. Our words define and delimit our world in important ways, and this is particularly true of the world of human and social things. For a zoologist may capture a rare specimen and simply observe it; but who can capture an instance of representation (or of power, or of interest)? Such things, too, can be observed, but the observation always presupposes at least a rudimentary conception of what representation (or power, or interest) is, what counts as representation, where it leaves off and some other phenomenon begins. Questions about what representation is, or is like, are not fully separable from the question of what "representation" means. This book approaches the former questions by way of the latter.
"1960 aims to take us deeper into the campaign than Theodore White's famous The Making of the President, 1960. And it does." -Chicago Sun-Times Award-winning historian David Pietrusza's hard-edged account of the 1960 Presidential Campaign-the bare-knuckle politics of the primaries, the party conventions' backroom dealings, the unprecedented television debates, along with hot-button issues of race, religion, and foreign policy. And, at the center of it all, three future presidents-LBJ, JFK, and Nixon. "Terrific!" -Robert A. Caro, winner of two Pulitzer Prizes and the National Book Award It was the election that ultimately gave America "Camelot" and its tragic aftermath. 1960 is a stunning recreation of the bare-knuckle politics of the primaries, the party conventions' backroom dealings, the unprecedented television debates, along with hot-button issues of race, religion, and foreign policy. And, at the center of it all, three future presidents-Lyndon Johnson, John F. Kennedy, and Richard Nixon. In this essential work of history, David Pietrusza chronicles 1960's struggle for power by bringing to life its towering events and personalities, unlocking its secrets, and turning expert scholarship into rich, human storytelling. "A stirring, hard-edged political saga... An outstanding reexamination." -Booklist "1960 provides new insights into that year's hard-fought, pivotal election, but, more than that, 1960 is great storytelling-a fascinating, can't-put-it-down account of how American politics really works." -Former United States Attorney General Richard Thornburgh "Pietrusza's 1960 is essential for understanding the political forces that in many ways shaped the world we live in today." -David Mark, journalist, political analyst, and author of Going Dirty: The Art of Negative Campaigning
After the Revolution, Americans faced the challenge of expanding representative government throughout an extensive territory. The complex process of adapting republicanism to a vast area generated many conflicts over representation in both states and the nation conflicts that produced a division between the large states and the small states. Using concepts of historical geography, Rosemarie Zagarri examines how Americans' notions about space influenced the writing of the U.S. Constitution and the shaping of the nation's political institutions.
In The Politics of Size, Zagarri offers a bold explanation of political alignments in the early republic. The split between large and small states emerged, she asserts, not at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 but in the years before, during debates over the relocation of state capitals and the reapportionment of state legislatures. The local conflicts culminated in the fierce struggle between the two factions at the federal convention. Far from ending there, the division persisted well into the nineteenth century, resurfacing when Congress discussed such controversial issues as congressional redistricting, the selection of presidential electors, and the reapportionment of the House of Representatives. Only in 1850 did the conflict based on state size merge with, and become subsumed by, the growing controversy between North and South."
The impact of religion on the 2004 presidential election results provoked widespread consternation and surprise. Given the results' intensity and closeness, however, the role of religion should not have come as a shock. In fact, religion and faith have long played a vital role in American elections, and here, John C. Green explores the link and how it has gradually changed. He concludes that an "old religion gap"- that is, the long-standing political differences among religious communities-has been supplanted by a "new religion gap" of political divisions based on religious behavior and belief. Green puts the differences into context and documents the changing role of religion in politics over the last sixty years. Covering three areas of religion that tend to influence election outcomes, Green illuminates the meaning of religious belonging, behaving, and believing in current political context. Each of these aspects of religion affects the way people vote and their views of issues, ideology, and partisanship. He reviews the importance of"moral values" in the major parties' coalitions and discusses the role religious appeals have in presidential campaigns. Given the emphasis on religion's influence on American politics and elections in recent years, this book serves as a cogent reminder that the situation is not new and offers a careful analysis of the role faith plays in electing government officials.
The Electoral College has played an important role in presidential
politics since our nation's founding, but surprisingly little
information exists about precisely how it affects campaign
strategy. Daron R. Shaw, a scholar who also worked as a strategist
in both Bush-Cheney campaigns, has written the first book to go
inside the past two presidential elections and reveal how the race
to 270 was won--and lost.
Luke Perry's inaugural Pivot in the Palgrave Studies in US Elections series examines the impact of Donald Trump on the 2018 midterm campaigns in Central New York, particularly competitive campaigns for NY-19, NY-22, and NY-24. Providing a contextual foundation for these races-considering factors such as incumbency advantage, history of party control of the seat, registered party members, statewide electoral norms, fundraising, and polling-Donald Trump and the 2018 Midterm Battle for Central New York then analyzes the positions and rhetoric of these GOP reelection campaigns, paying particular attention to the continuity and variance in relation to Trump's personal, populist, and negative campaign style. When examined alongside the results of the midterm election, the outcomes illustrated how the president hurt more than helped House GOP incumbents, revealed the quality of candidates, proved how campaigns and grassroots organizing matter, and demonstrated that moderate Democrats were more successful than progressive ones.
Senator Bernie Sanders shocked the political establishment by winning 13 million votes and a majority of young voters in the 2016 Democratic primary. He emerged from the contest against Hillary Clinton as the most popular politician in the US, despite being a 75-year-old self-professed "democratic socialist." What lessons can be drawn from this surprising but-in the end-losing campaign? Vermont native Heather Gautney was a legislative fellow in Sanders's Washington office and a senior researcher on his presidential campaign. The author and editor of several books on social movements and American politics, she brings her academic expertise and left politics to bear on the scenes and conflicts she witnessed from inside the campaign. In reviewing what enabled Sanders to reach out to an unprecedented number of people with a socialist message-and what stalled his progress and radical punch-she draws lessons about the prospects and perils of building a leftist movement in the United States. Gautney's reflections on the role that race and class played in this election cycle and analysis of where Democrats stand following Trump's victory will serve as a useful starting point for many newly aware of the limitations of the Democratic party and the challenges ahead.
On 23rd June 2016 the United Kingdom shocked the world by voting to leave the European Union. In this clear and concise book, Graham Taylor argues that the result is the most visible tip of an iceberg of social change that has been decades in the making. Hidden from view are a matrix of economic, socio-cultural and political dynamics that have wrought fundamental changes to the British state and society and the relationship between the UK and the rest of the world. These dynamics include the development of an increasingly financialized economy, de-industrialization and an increasing polarization of power and wealth, the resurgence of nationalism and sub-nationalisms and the realignment of electoral politics and emergence of political populism. This book highlights the historical and multifaceted nature of Brexit and its significance for Britain's future, providing a rigorous and forensic analysis of the most dramatic event to confront contemporary British society since the Second World War.
The 2000 U.S. presidential election was not the first in American history that was exceptionally close or that produced highly disputed results. In 1801 Thomas Jefferson became president after an electoral gridlock, but only after Congress voted three dozen times to select the president. Charles Hughes lost in 1916 to Woodrow Wilson by losing in California by some 3,000 votes. In 1960 John F. Kennedy defeated Richard Nixon by only a fraction of a percentage point in a very controversial election.What would have happened if Aaron Burr, rather than Jefferson, had become president? What if Nixon had defeated Kennedy in 1960? What if Al Gore had become president in 2001 instead of George W. Bush? Using six cases, political scientists Robert Dudley and Eric Shiraev argue that engaging in this counterfactual exercise provides an excellent opportunity to revisit history, learn from its lessons, and relate to contemporary elections.The authors' aim is not to prove that their suggested scenarios would have certainly happened, but merely to show that they might have, and therein lies the importance of voting. Every vote counts, and the consequences can be enormous.
"Overall, a first-rate resource, and yes, pleasantly readable." School Library JournalThe Encyclopedia of U.S. Campaigns, Elections, and Electoral Behavior covers virtually everything one would want to know about American political campaigns. With more than 450 entries, these two comprehensive volumes present a significant array topics of campaigns, elections, and electoral behavior. The encyclopedia s diverse content shows that although the subject matter of campaigns, elections, and electoral behavior is inherently related, each topic has a distinct focus.
Key FeaturesPresents topics in a straightforward, easy-to-understand manner, intentionally avoiding unnecessary technical languageIncludes entries written by electoral behavior scholars from around the countryFocuses on American campaigns, elections, and electoral behavior but also provides a culturally and politically diverse perspective of American democratic practices and institutionsOffers a rich campaign history by looking at many colorful candidates, corrupt yet intriguing political machines, rapidly changing technologies, campaign organizations, and strategiesProvides a description and scholarly analysis for all presidential elections, including state and general electionsPresents and simplifies complicated election laws that govern federal, state, and local electionsExamines various efforts throughout the decades to reform elections, especially from social upheaval and the resulting political realignmentsIncludes extensive electoral research into the development of political opinions, attitudes, and ideologies in American voters
Key ThemesBallot Issue CampaignsCampaigns, Elections and the LawCorruption in American Campaigns and ElectionsElectoral Behavior of Various GroupsLocal Campaigns and ElectionsMedia s Role in American Campaigns and ElectionsPeoplePolitical Parties, Interest Groups, and American Campaigns and ElectionsPolitical Theory and Democratic Elections in AmericaPolls, Public Opinion, and Campaigns and ElectionsPresidential Campaigns and ElectionsReforming American Campaigns and ElectionsRunning Political Campaigns: Management, Organization, and StrategiesSocial and Psychological Dynamics of Electoral BehaviorState and Congressional Campaigns and Elections: History and State Profiles
The Encyclopedia of U.S. Campaigns, Elections, and Electoral Behavior is an especially useful reference, published to coincide with the 2008 presidential election. This informative yet intriguing resource is a welcome addition to any academic or public library.
This volume analyses how the use of referendums affects the central functions and characteristics of representative democracy. It provides a balanced account of the interaction between referendums and representative institutions and actors, seeking to evaluate whether referendums supplement or undermine representative democracy. Considering both normative and empirical questions, the volume also examines the particular circumstances under which referendums strengthen or weaken representative democracy. Providing a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches used in the study of referendums, this book is divided into three sections: Referendums and the Models of Democracy, The Demand of Referendums: Party Ideologies and Strategies, and Referendum Campaigns and Voter Behaviour. It features case studies on Ireland, Israel, Canada, California, Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, the Nordic Countries, the Netherlands, Spain and the EU Constitutional Treaty. In addition to system-level evaluations of referendums, studies on the ideological attitudes of political actors and strategic use of referendums, the volume also provides analyses of referendum campaigns and voters' choices in referendums. Covering referendums on European integration, the volume also demonstrates how supra-national governance gives rise to the demand of referendums. This volume will be of interest to students and scholars of political science, political theory, comparative politics, and European studies.
Providing a unique resource for readers seeking to understand the relationship between presidents, parties, and Congress, this book offers a new explanation of the motivations, strategies, and impacts of presidential midterm campaigns. * Examines all presidential midterm campaigning from 1954 (the inception of the "imperial" presidency) through 2014 * Includes case studies of nine presidents as midterm campaigners: Johnson, Taft, FDR, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Nixon, Clinton, Bush, and Obama * Shows that presidents use campaigns not to aid their own party but to reshape it around their own ideological preferences * Explains the relationship between presidential midterm campaigning and the U.S. party system * Explores how presidential midterm campaigning affects subsequent Congressional behavior and federal elections
Because of its extraordinary consequences and because of Abraham Lincoln's place in the American pantheon, the presidential election of 1860 is probably the most studied in our history. But perhaps for the same reasons, historians have focused on the contest of Lincoln versus Stephen Douglas in the northern free states and John Bell versus John C. Breckinridge in the slaveholding South. In The Election of 1860 a preeminent scholar of American history disrupts this familiar narrative with a clearer and more comprehensive account of how the election unfolded and what it was actually about. Most critically, the book counters the common interpretation of the election as a referendum on slavery and the Republican Party's purported threat to it. However significantly slavery figured in the election, The Election of 1860 reveals the key importance of widespread opposition to the Republican Party because of its overtly anti-southern rhetoric and seemingly unstoppable rise to power in the North after its emergence in 1854. Also of critical importance was the corruption of the incumbent administration of Democrat James Buchanan-and a nationwide revulsion against party. Grounding his history in a nuanced retelling of the pre-1860 story, Michael F. Holt explores the sectional politics that permeated the election and foreshadowed the coming Civil War. He brings to light how the campaigns of the Republican Party and the National (Northern) Democrats and the Constitutional (Southern) Democrats and the newly formed Constitutional Union Party were not exclusively regional. His attention to the little-studied role of the Buchanan Administration, and of perceived threats to the preservation of the Union, clarifies the true dynamic of the 1860 presidential election, particularly in its early stages.
Using a discourse analysis, Dustin Harp investigates media during the 2016 US presidential election to explore how traditional (patriarchal) and feminist ideas about gender played out during the campaign. The book illustrates how these two ideologies competed for space and struggled for discursive authority. A broad range of media texts is examined, and "gender moments," where gender became a dominant part of the political conversation, are identified. These include the "nasty woman" and "grab them by the pussy" comments of Donald Trump and the "woman card" played by, and against, Hillary Clinton. Furthermore, Harp reveals how binary notions of gender and stereotypical ideas of how men and women should behave, look, and sound structured the ways Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton were talked about in the media. As a counterpoint, the research also shows the ways feminist ideologies worked against the sexism and misogyny and became mainstream in media discourse during the campaign. Students and researchers of Gender Studies will find that the "gender moments" in Gender in the 2016 US Presidential Election tell a broader story about women, gender expectations, and power. They offer important and timely insights about misogyny and sexual harassment in contemporary US culture and feminist resistance in a mediated public sphere.
The 2016 election of Donald J. Trump exposed a deep divide in American politics and culture, one that pollsters and pundits didn't seem to realize was there. But Trump did, and he used it to his advantage in ways that surprised nearly everyone, even those who voted for him. Perhaps the biggest question on many people's minds is how, exactly, did a crass, unrepentant reality TV star and cutthroat business tycoon secure the majority of the religious conservative vote? Now the New York Times bestselling author of The Faith of George W. Bush and The Faith of Barack Obama turns his pen toward the Trump phenomenon. Through meticulous research and personal interviews, Stephen Mansfield uncovers who Trump's spiritual influences have been and explains why Christian conservatives were attracted to this unlikely candidate. The book ends with a reflection on the vital role of prophetic distance, both historically and now.
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