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A diverse body of research exists to explain why eligible voters don't go to the polls on election day. Theories span from the psychological (nonvoters have limited emotional engagement with politics and therefore lack motivation), to the social (politics is inherently social and nonvoters have limited networks), and the personal (nonvoters tend to be young, less educated, poor, and highly mobile). Other scholars suggest that people don't vote because campaigns are uninspiring. This book poses a new theory: uncertainty about the national context at the time of the election. During times of national crisis, when uncertainty is high, citizens are motivated to sort through information about each candidate to figure out which would best mitigate their uncertainty. When external uncertainty is low, however, citizens spend less time learning about candidates and are equally unmotivated to vote. The American Nonvoter examines how uncertainty regarding changing economic conditions, dramatic national events, and U.S. international interventions influences people's decisions whether to vote or not. Using rigorous statistical tools and rich historical stories, Lyn Ragsdale and Jerrold G. Rusk test this theory on aggregate nonvoting patterns in the United States across presidential and midterm elections from 1920 to 2012. The authors also challenge the stereotype of nonvoters as poor, uneducated and apathetic. Instead, the book shows that nonvoters are, by and large, as politically knowledgeable as voters, but see no difference between candidates or view them negatively.
This book explores how national identity has been negotiated and (re)imagined through the political symbols that embody it in post-conflict Timor-Leste. It develops a Modernist approach to nations and nationalism by incorporating Bourdieusian theories of symbolic capital and conflict, to examine how national identity has been constructed and represented in political symbols. Taking case studies of flags, monuments, national heroes, and street art, it critically analyses how a diverse population has interpreted and (re)constructed its national identity throughout the first decade of independence, and how the transition from a context of conflict to peace has influenced such popular imaginings. By examining these processes of identification with a wide range of symbols, the book discusses the numerous challenges that this young nation-state still faces, including victimhood and recognition, democratization and electoral politics, the political role of cosmology and spirituality, and post-colonial generational differences and divisions.
India's over 200 million Dalits, once called "untouchables," have been mobilized by social movements and political parties, but the outcomes of this mobilization are puzzling. Dalits' ethnic parties have performed poorly in elections in states where movements demanding social equality have been strong while they have succeeded in states where such movements have been entirely absent or weak. In Mobilizing the Marginalized, Amit Ahuja demonstrates that the collective action of marginalized groups-those that are historically stigmatized and disproportionately poor - is distinct. Drawing on extensive original research conducted across four of India's largest states, he shows, for the marginalized, social mobilization undermines the bloc voting their ethnic parties' rely on for electoral triumph and increases multi-ethnic political parties' competition for marginalized votes. He presents evidence showing that a marginalized group gains more from participating in a social movement and dividing support among parties than from voting as a bloc for an ethnic party.
It was June 14, 1916, a warm, sticky Wednesday morning. The Democratic Convention would soon meet in St. Louis. Inside the Jefferson Hotel, the men ate breakfast and met with their committees. Outside the hotel, thousands of women quietly took their places along both sides of Locust Street. They stood shoulder-to-shoulder, each one in a dress that brushed the pavement, shading herself with a yellow parasol, wearing a yellow sash that said "Votes for Women." The all-male delegations may not have had a comfortable walk down The Golden Lane, but they were moved to add women's suffrage to the national platform. Join Margot McMillen for an accessible history of a privilege too often taken for granted.
Charles L. Dodgson's publications on political subjects offer a very different view of Lewis Carroll, the man made famous by his "Alice" books. Better known for whimsical and nonsense writings, Dodgson wrote on the entire spectrum of voting theory, applying it to issues of local governance at Christ Church College in the University of Oxford, where he was employed all of his professional life -- mainly as Mathematical Lecturer -- and to issues of national politics. Yet this work remained largely unknown at his death.
This third volume of a planned series of six is a comprehensive account of Dodgson's publications on voting theory. Francine F. Abeles offers a fresh perspective on his contributions to what was then an embryonic school of politics. Drawing together all of Dodgson's pamphlets, letters, diary entries, and other pieces on this subject, Abeles traces the development of Dodgson's theory of voting from its beginnings in his participation in the academic affairs of the University of Oxford to his attempts to influence the outcome of bills before the British Parliament affecting the extension of the voting franchise and the redistribution of seats in the House of Commons.
Collected together for the first time, these writings deal with such topics as ranking methods, voting anomalies, sophisticated voting, proportional representation, apportionment, and applications of game theory to voting strategies. Dodgson's commitment to objectivity and fairness also led him to employ his methods in such sports applications as horse racing wagers and tennis tournament schedules.
Each chapter of this book is preceded by an introductory essay providing background information and analyses to assist both the general reader and the specialist. The Pamphlets of Lewis Carroll will be of interest to students and scholars of Carroll's work, to political scientists, historians, and mathematicians, and to readers concerned with Victorian studies.
Administering Elections provides a digest of contemporary American election administration using a systems perspective. The authors provide insight into the interconnected nature of all components of elections administration, and sheds like on the potential consequences of reforms that fail to account for this.
Most theories of elections assume that voters and political actors are fully rational. While these formulations produce many insights, they also generate anomalies--most famously, about turnout. The rise of behavioral economics has posed new challenges to the premise of rationality. This groundbreaking book provides a behavioral theory of elections based on the notion that all actors--politicians as well as voters--are only boundedly rational. The theory posits learning via trial and error: actions that surpass an actor's aspiration level are more likely to be used in the future, while those that fall short are less likely to be tried later.
Based on this idea of adaptation, the authors construct formal models of party competition, turnout, and voters' choices of candidates. These models predict substantial turnout levels, voters sorting into parties, and winning parties adopting centrist platforms. In multiparty elections, voters are able to coordinate vote choices on majority-preferred candidates, while all candidates garner significant vote shares. Overall, the behavioral theory and its models produce macroimplications consistent with the data on elections, and they use plausible microassumptions about the cognitive capacities of politicians and voters. A computational model accompanies the book and can be used as a tool for further research.
This book presents a comparative perspective on the new dynamics of electoral competition following devolution to Scotland and Wales. It brings together leading experts on elections, political parties and regional politics from Britain, Europe and North America to explore the dynamics and interactions of national and regional arenas of electoral competition. Chapters include theoretical reflections on the relationship between regional and national elections, and a range of country case studies. The aim of the non-British case studies is to establish both empirical benchmarks and a framework for analysis for exploring the dynamics of electoral competition, the adaptation of party strategies and the nuances of voting behaviour that the UK is likely to encounter in a situation where new Welsh and Scottish elections flank general elections to Westminster. The final section of the book offers detailed discussion of these multi-level electoral dynamics now at play in the UK. -- .
Why did election monitoring become an international norm? Why do pseudo-democrats-undemocratic leaders who present themselves as democratic-invite international observers, even when they are likely to be caught manipulating elections? Is election observation an effective tool of democracy promotion, or is it simply a way to legitimize electoral autocracies? In The Pseudo-Democrat's Dilemma, Susan D. Hyde explains international election monitoring with a new theory of international norm formation. Hyde argues that election observation was initiated by states seeking international support. International benefits tied to democracy give some governments an incentive to signal their commitment to democratization without having to give up power. Invitations to nonpartisan foreigners to monitor elections, and avoiding their criticism, became a widely recognized and imitated signal of a government's purported commitment to democratic elections.Hyde draws on cross-national data on the global spread of election observation between 1960 and 2006, detailed descriptions of the characteristics of countries that do and do not invite observers, and evidence of three ways that election monitoring is costly to pseudo-democrats: micro-level experimental tests from elections in Armenia and Indonesia showing that observers can deter election-day fraud and otherwise improve the quality of elections; illustrative cases demonstrating that international benefits are contingent on democracy in countries like Haiti, Peru, Togo, and Zimbabwe; and qualitative evidence documenting the escalating game of strategic manipulation among pseudo-democrats, international monitors, and pro-democracy forces.
Reactive Voting in Danish General Elections 1971-1979
Unprecedented's second printing features a new cover for the inauguration, with an exclusive portrait of the president-elect. Packed with exclusive photojournalism and new revelations straight from the front lines, Unprecedented: The Election That Changed Everything chronicles the most hard- fought and newsworthy election of our time. The book tells the full story of the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign, as a Republican field of seventeen candidates battled it out until one remained: a blustery billionaire and reality TV star with no respect for the rules of politics and no fear of offending people. Across the aisle, Democrats witnessed a showdown between an unlikely populist hero in Sen. Bernie Sanders and the more well-known establishment candidate, Hillary Clinton, who was hobbled by scandal in her second attempt to become America's first woman president. The first-ever book from CNN Politics, Unprecedented unleashes new reporting on every jab between a major party's first female presidential nominee and a political neophyte who many discounted. Featuring a foreword by CNN's chief Washington correspondent, Jake Tapper, and an introduction by historian Douglas Brinkley, Unprecedented reveals new insight and emotion while telling a story that will change America forever. Authored by top CNN writer Thomas Lake and edited by award-winning veteran political reporter Jodi Enda, Unprecedented is filled with exclusive photos, commentary and insights from some of CNN's greatest contributors, including author Carl Bernstein, correspondent Brian Stelter and Pulitzer Prize--winning photographer David Hume Kennerly. Together, their work makes this book the ultimate way to feel and understand the epic event it chronicles, an election like no other.
One of the easiest ways to increase public cynicism about elections
is to change the rule book to make the laws governing how we vote
more vague and less rigorous. "Reforms" have been passed amid
claims they would increase voter turnout. They haven't - but they
have made it easier to commit absentee ballot and other fraud.
Following one of the most contentious and surprising elections in US history, the new edition of this classic text demonstrates unequivocally: Campaigns matter. With new and revised chapters throughout, Campaigns and Elections American Style provides a real education in contemporary campaign politics. In the fifth edition, academics and campaign professionals explain how Trump won the presidency, comparing his sometimes novel tactics with tried and true strategies including how campaign themes and strategies are developed and communicated, the changes in campaign tactics as a result of changing technology, new techniques to target and mobilize voters, the evolving landscape of campaign finance and election laws, and the increasing diversity of the role of media in elections. Offering a unique and careful mix of Democrat and Republican, academic and practitioner, and male and female campaign perspectives, this volume scrutinizes national and local-level campaigns with a special focus on the 2016 presidential and congressional elections and what those elections might tell us about 2018 and 2020. Students, citizens, candidates, and campaign managers will learn not only how to win elections but also why it is imperative to do so in an ethical way. Perfect for a variety of courses in American government, this book is essential reading for political junkies of any stripe and serious students of campaigns and elections. Highlights of the Fifth Edition Covers the 2016 elections with an eye to 2018 and 2020. Explains how Trump won the presidency, the changes in campaign tactics as a result of changing technology, new techniques to target and mobilize voters, the evolving landscape of campaign finance and election laws, and the increasing diversity of the role of media. Includes a new part structure and the addition of part introductions to help students contextualize the major issues and trends in campaigns and elections.
Uncovering the psychological and sociological reasons for the gender gap in American politics, this fascinating volume explores how such factors influence women and lead to their political beliefs and behaviors. * Provides readers with an in-depth explanation for the gender gap in American politics while also addressing key differences between women voters * Explores such intriguing topics as whether women prefer female or male candidates * Utilizes original, empirical research and theory on group identification to explain specific political beliefs and behaviors * Couples academic theory with clear, accessible examples and explanations * Draws from numerous disciplines, including political science, communication studies, sociology, and psychology * Offers advice for candidates looking to engage and persuade women
This book deals with 20 voting procedures used or proposed for use in elections resulting in the choice of a single winner. These procedures are evaluated in terms of their ability to avoid five important paradoxes in a restricted domain, viz., when a Condorcet winner exists and is elected in the initial profile. Together with the two companion volumes by the same authors, published by Springer in 2017 and 2018, this book aims at giving a comprehensive overview of the most important advantages and disadvantages of voting procedures thereby assisting decision makers in the choice of a voting procedure that would best suit their purposes.
The 2016 elections are over, but the debate over the fairness and accuracy of our electoral process has never been more contentious. Hacking, fake news, a 'rigged system,' voter ID challenges, Super PACs, and an Electoral College defying the popular vote count all lead to a common question and concern: Is this any way to run a democratic election? New to the Sixth Edition New data and timely illustrations from the 2016 elections. Social media (Facebook, YouTube, Twitter) and their impact. Fake news vs. more objective and traditional election news coverage. Election integrity in the face of hacking, rumoring, and instantaneous news. Money-the role of Super PACs and billionaire donors as well as candidates. Updates and refinements to pedagogical features including chapter introductions, end of chapter exercises, and online references in the suggested readings.
Substantially revised throughout, the third edition of Political Marketing continues to offer students the most comprehensive introduction to this rapidly growing field. It provides an accessible but in-depth guide to what political marketing is and how it is used in practice and encourages reflection on how it should be used in the future. New Features and benefits of the third edition: Fully updated throughout with new research on emerging practices in the field and ethical implications such as the use of big data, authenticity and the limitations of voters as consumers in light of Brexit; A new employability section on political marketing in the workplace; Extensive pedagogical features including new peer-reviewed case studies, democratic debates, and fully updated practitioner perspectives, best practice guides, and class discussion points and assessments. Led by a leading expert in the field and including contributions from other key academics in the field, this textbook is essential reading for all students of political marketing, parties and elections, and comparative politics.
The study of voting behaviour remains a vibrant sub-discipline of political science. The Handbook of Electoral Behaviour is an authoritative and wide ranging survey of this dynamic field, drawing together a team of the world's leading scholars to provide a state-of-the-art review that sets the agenda for future study. Taking an interdisciplinary approach and focusing on a range of countries, the handbook is composed of eight parts. The first five cover the principal theoretical paradigms, establishing the state of the art in their conceptualisation and application, and followed by chapters on their specific challenges and innovative applications in contemporary voting studies. The remaining three parts explore elements of the voting process to understand their different effects on vote outcomes. The SAGE Handbook of Electoral Behaviour is an essential benchmark publication for advanced students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of politics, sociology, psychology and research methods.
Do the mainstream media have a liberal bias? Sure they do, says CBS
veteran and "New York Times" bestselling author Bernard Goldberg.
But the media crossed an important line in the 2008 presidential
race, moving from their usual unthinking liberal bias to crass
partisanship of the crudest kind, practically acting as spin
doctors for the presidential campaign of Barack Obama. In "A
Slobbering Love Affair," his most provocative book yet, Goldberg
demonstrates how the media launched an unparalleled effort to
ensure the election of the man they regarded as the One. From the
thrill Obama sent up Chris Matthews's leg to the outrageously
slanted "news" reports of the "New York Times," Goldberg shows in
exacting detail how the media, abandoning even the pretense of
objectivity, moved from media bias to media activism. With his
trademark blunt, honest insider's perspective, Goldberg reveals:
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