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The UK model of incentive regulation of power grids was at one time the most advanced, and elements of it were adopted throughout the EU. This model worked well, particularly in the context of limited investment and innovation, a single and strong regulatory authority, and limited coordination between foreign grid operators. This enlightening book demonstrates how the landscape has changed markedly since 2010 and that regulation has had to work hard to catch up and evolve. As the EU enters a wave of investment and an era of new services and innovation, this has created growing tensions between national regulatory authorities in terms of coordinating technical standards and distribution systems. This is being played out against an increasingly disruptive backdrop of digitization, new market platforms and novel business models. Electricity Network Regulation in the EU adopts a truly European approach to the complex issues surrounding the topic, focusing on the grey areas and critical questions that have traditionally been difficult to answer. Incentive regulation and grids are addressed simultaneously at the theoretical and practical level, providing the reader with fundamental concepts and concrete examples. This timely book is an invaluable read for energy practitioners working in utility companies, regulators and other public bodies. It will also appeal to academics involved in the world of electricity regulation. The book utilizes language that would make it suitable for interdisciplinary students, including engineering and law scholars.
No country has managed to develop beyond a subsistence economy without ensuring at least minimum access to electricity for the majority of its population. Yet many sub-Saharan African countries struggle to meet demand. Why is this, and what can be done to reduce energy poverty and further Africa's development? Examining the politics and processes surrounding electricity infrastructure, provision and reform, the author provides an overview of historical and contemporary debates about access in the sub-continent, and explores the shifting role and influence of national governments and of multilateral agencies in energy reform decisions. He describes a challenging political environment for electricity supply, with African governments becoming increasingly frustrated with the rules and the processes of multilateral donors. Civil society also began to question reform choices, and governments in turn looked to new development partners, such as China, to chart a fresh path of energy transformation. Drawing on over fifteen years of research on Uganda, which has one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in Africa and has struggled to construct several, large hydroelectric dams on the Nile, Gore argues that there is a critical need to recognize how the changing political and social context in African countries, and globally, has affected the capacity to fulfil national energy goals, minimize energy poverty and transform economies. Christopher Gore is Associate Professor, Department of Politics and Public Administration, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
Market Building through Antitrust investigates the role of antitrust policy in the building of competitive energy markets in Europe. By looking at the specific problem of long-term supply and access contracts in the electricity sector, the book questions the suitability of antitrust policy as a market building tool. It shows that the institutional infrastructure that pre-dated competitive reform and the politics of liberalization have largely shaped the current dynamics at work in European energy regulatory practice. In particular, antitrust law has increasingly been used as a quasi-ex ante regulatory tool, thereby raising problems in terms of economic efficiency, legal certainty and political legitimacy. By mixing legal, political and economic perspectives, this book will appeal to a wide range of readers from academia in law, economics and political science, regulatory and competition authorities, as well as legal and consulting practices and business economists.
Examining the reform and restructuring of the electricity industry in China, India and Russia, this book explores the way that local conditions and institutions shape the commitment, direction and speed of public utility reform in the three countries. It questions the validity of the argument that one model for electricity reforms will work in all countries, on the grounds that the industry is the same everywhere, by examining the World Bank's involvement in economic reforms in developing and transition economies. The author asks how the template developed by the World Bank has affected the three countries and seeks to explain why changes took place, how effectively they have been proceeding, and what the consequences are for these countries. In so doing, Electricity Reform in China, India and Russia challenges both the assumption behind the new reform paradigm - that market competition is the panacea for all the ills of the electricity industry - and the oft-cited belief that a single template can work in different environments. China, India and Russia have different political and economic systems and at different development stages. Xu Yi-chong uses the experience of the three countries to illustrate the complications created by the use of a single template, a policy encouraged by the World Bank, to direct reform and the need to appreciate the different problems that each had to overcome. Academics and students who are interested in comparative politics, comparative economics, public policy and particularly the reform of public utilities will find this work of great interest, as will practitioners and those who are involved in restructuring the electricity industry worldwide.
Suitable for self-study or for in-company one-to-one or group teaching, this title presents an essential resource for improving communication in English within the gas and electricity industries.
This book fills a gap in the existing literature by dealing with several issues linked to long-term contracts and the efficiency of electricity markets. These include the impact of long-term contracts and vertical integration on effective competition, generation investment in risky markets, and the challenges for competition policy principles. On the one hand, long-term contracts may contribute to lasting generation capability by allowing for a more efficient allocation of risk. On the other hand, they can create conditions for imperfect competition and thus impair short-term efficiency. The contributors - prominent academics and policy experts with inter-disciplinary perspectives - develop fresh theoretical and practical insights on this important concern for current electricity markets. This highly accessible book will strongly appeal to both academic and professional audiences including scholars of industrial, organizational and public sector economics, and competition and antitrust law. It will also be of value to regulatory and antitrust authorities, governmental policymakers, and consultants in electricity law and economics.
Peak oil - energy - tesla - solar
In the thirty years after the end of the Second World War, the construction schemes of the North of Scotland Hydro-Electic Board changed the face of the Highlands and brought electricity to almost the whole of the country north of the Highland Line. Nothing on such a scale had been attempted before. Fired by the idealism of Tom Johnston, the Board's founder and Secretary of State for Scotland, the schemes brought regeneration and hope. The names of the schemes - Loch Sloy, Glen Shira, Tummel-Garry, the Conon valley, Glen Affric, Strathfarrar-Kilmorack, Glenmoriston-Garry, Shin, Breadalbane, Ben Cruchan - are vivid in the memories of all who worked on them, in an epic of hard physical labour in a beautiful landscape. By the time the last scheme was opened in Foyers in 1975, the engineers had built some fifty major dams and power stations, almost 200 miles of tunnel, 400 miles of road, and over 20,000 miles of power line. The Board had to overcome adverse weather and thrawn geology, as well as political opposition. At the peak of construction the workforce numbered around 12,000 and included men from Ireland and many parts of Europe as well as indigenous Scots. The Dam Builders: Power From the Glens is a vivid account of the schemes and includes eyewitness stories from many of the workers who made the elecrification of the Highlands a reality.
As the electric power industry faces the challenges of climate change, technological disruption, new market imperatives, and changing policies, a renowned energy expert offers a roadmap to the future of this essential sector. As the damaging and costly impacts of climate change increase, the rapid development of sustainable energy has taken on great urgency. The electricity industry has responded with necessary but wrenching shifts toward renewables, even as it faces unprecedented challenges and disruption brought on by new technologies, new competitors, and policy changes. The result is a collision course between a grid that must provide abundant, secure, flexible, and affordable power, and an industry facing enormous demands for power and rapid, systemic change. The fashionable solution is to think small: smart buildings, small-scale renewables, and locally distributed green energy. But Peter Fox-Penner makes clear that these will not be enough to meet our increasing needs for electricity. He points instead to the indispensability of large power systems, battery storage, and scalable carbon-free power technologies, along with the grids and markets that will integrate them. The electric power industry and its regulators will have to provide all of these, even as they grapple with changing business models for local electric utilities, political instability, and technological change. Power after Carbon makes sense of all the moving parts, providing actionable recommendations for anyone involved with or relying on the electric power system.
* Exposes the effects that IMF- and World Bank-sponsored reform of the electricity sector will have on poor communities* Compares international experience in electricity supply liberalization across the globeThe International Monetary Fund and World Bank-sponsored reform package for Sri Lanka's electricity industry could threaten services and projects specifically aimed at or managed by poor communities. This book explains the nature of that threat, taking community-run electricity schemes in Sri Lanka as an example. It will help to galvanize support for a pro-poor agenda in future negotiations by illustrating the dangers if the concerns of poor communities are not taken into account.Twenty years of privatization and liberalization have weakened poor communities throughout the developing world, while strengthening business and the private sector. Civil society groups and service user groups have struggled to ensure that their legitimate concerns are heard. Now international pressure through the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) negotiations could threaten the survival of even those projects which have focused on poor communities, such as the off-grid micro-hydro power schemes that are widespread in Sri Lanka.This book explains the background to the GATS negotiations and the international context across the globe, and looks in detail at the case of Sri Lanka, just embarking on the liberalization of its electricity sector."Turning Off the Lights" will provide valuable ammunition to campaigners for a fairer approach to GATS, and to energy policy planners and researchers.Countries featured are Sri Lanka, U.S. (California), New Zealand, India, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Brazil.
Featuring an original introduction by the editors, these carefully-selected essays explore the main issues surrounding competition and regulation in electricity markets. The industry is experiencing irresistible forces of change, driven by energy policy objectives; a reassessment of market regulation in the face of high-energy prices; and the response to consumer pressure to agree on what constitutes a fair price for energy. This volume identifies the key articles that underpin the debate across the industries supply chain (generation, supply and networks) from a regulatory perspective (including market power and incentive regulation). The collection then considers the overall impact of liberalisation and future developments. This timely collection will be an invaluable source of reference for academics, practitioners, students and researchers interested in the field of competition and regulation in electricity markets.
This book provides students and practicing engineers with a comprehensive guide to off-grid electrification: from microgrids and energy kiosks to solar home systems and solar lanterns. As the off-grid electrification industry grows, universities are starting and expanding courses and programs in humanitarian engineering and appropriate technology. However, there is no textbook that serves this growing market. This book fills that gap by providing a technical foundation of off-grid electrical systems, putting into context the technical aspects for developing countries, and discussing best practices by utilizing real-world data. Chapters expertly integrate the technical aspects of off-grid systems with lessons learned from industry-practitioners taking a pragmatic, data-driven perspective. A variety of off-grid systems and technologies are discussed, including solar, wind, hydro, generator sets, biomass systems, battery storage and converters. Realistic examples, case studies and practical considerations from actual systems highlight the interaction of off-grid systems with the economic, environmental, social and broader development aspects of rural electrification. Whole chapters are dedicated to the operation and control of mini-grids, load and resource estimation, and design of off-grid systems. Special topics focused on electricity access in developing countries are included, such as energy use in rural communities, technical and economic considerations of grid extension, electricity theft, metering, and best practices devoted to common problems. Each chapter is instructor friendly and contains illustrative examples and problems that reinforce key concepts. Complex, open-ended design problems throughout the book challenge the reader to think critically and deeply. The book is appropriate for use in advanced undergraduate and graduate courses related to electrical and energy engineering, humanitarian engineering, and appropriate technology. Provides a technical foundation of off-grid electrical systems; Contextualizes the technical aspects for developing countries; Captures the current and state-of-the art in this rapidly developing field.
Electricity is a basic requirement for a modern economy, and transmission grids at the center of transition to a low-carbon power system. They are the principal means to integrate large shares of wind and solar power and they are essential to ensuring a secure and reliable electricity supply. Grid companies around the world are struggling to find their niche in this transition. The State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) is one of the principal players in this round of global competition. Central state-owned enterprise (SOEs), such as SGCC, continue to hold the 'commanding heights' of the Chinese economy. Their relationship with the Party-state is crucial to understanding the questions of whether SOEs take orders from, and do the bidding of, the Chinese Communist Party, and how they operate under the state ownership and with a wide range of operational autonomy and expectation that they are profit-maximazing corporations. This book examines the origin, development and expansion of SGCC, the world's largest utility company and the 7th largest corporation. By telling both the electricity story and the SOE story, it provides insights into the challenges facing the grids and their possible futures. It challenges the orthodox account of Chinese politics that portrays SOEs as little more than puppets, jumping to every demand of the Party-state. It shows that SGCC has been built into a modern corporation by entrepreneurial managers. By extending its operation to four continents, SGCC is now a global player, competing with its peers and also having its input in the future low-carbon electricity system. This book challenges the popular interpretation of Chinese government. Piling detail on detail, it provides a comprehensive picture of Chinese political economy that is both new and utterly convincing.
Electric Drives is meant for undergraduate and postgraduate students in electrical, electrical & electronics, power electronics and automation industries courses (B.E./B.Tech./M.E./M.Tech./Ph.D.) engineering. This book presents a unique self study material on electrical drives, solid state drives, industrial drives power semiconductor drives.
Bridges the knowledge gap between engineering and economics in a complex and evolving deregulated electricity industry, enabling readers to understand, operate, plan and design a modern power system
With an accessible and progressive style written in straight-forward language, this book covers everything an engineer or economist needs to know to understand, operate within, plan and design an effective liberalized electricity industry, thus serving as both a useful teaching text and a valuable reference. The book focuses on principles and theory which are independent of any one market design. It outlines where the theory is not implemented in practice, perhaps due to other over-riding concerns. The book covers the basic modelling of electricity markets, including the impact of uncertainty (an integral part of generation investment decisions and transmission cost-benefit analysis). It draws out the parallels to the Nordpool market (an important point of reference for Europe). Written from the perspective of the policy-maker, the first part provides the introductory background knowledge required. This includes an understanding of basic economics concepts such as supply and demand, monopoly, market power and marginal cost. The second part of the book asks how a set of generation, load, and transmission resources should be efficiently operated, and the third part focuses on the generation investment decision. Part 4 addresses the question of the management of risk and Part 5 discusses the question of market power. Any power system must be operated at all times in a manner which can accommodate the next potential contingency. This demands responses by generators and loads on a very short timeframe. Part 6 of the book addresses the question of dispatch in the very short run, introducing the distinction between preventive and corrective actions and why preventive actions are sometimes required. The seventh part deals with pricing issues that arise under a regionally-priced market, such as the Australian NEM. This section introduces the notion of regions and interconnectors and how to formulate constraints for the correct pricing outcomes (the issue of "constraint orientation"). Part 8 addresses the fundamental and difficult issue of efficient transmission investment, and finally Part 9 covers issues that arise in the retail market.
- Bridges the gap between engineering and economics in electricity, covering both the economics and engineering knowledge needed to accurately understand, plan and develop the electricity market- Comprehensive coverage of all the key topics in the economics of electricity markets- Covers the latest research and policy issues as well as description of the fundamental concepts and principles that can be applied across all markets globally- Numerous worked examples and end-of-chapter problems Companion website holding solutions to problems set out in the book, also the relevant simulation (GAMS) codes
Despite several decades of reform, India's electricity sector remains marked by the twin problems of financial indebtedness and inability to provide universal, high quality electricity for all. Although political obstacles to reform are frequently invoked in electricity policy debates, Mapping Power provides the first thorough analysis of the political economy of electricity in Indian states. Through narratives of the electricity sectors in fifteen major states, this book argues that a historically-rooted political economy analysis provides the most useful means to understand the past and identify reforms for the future. The book begins with an analytic framework to understand how the political economy of power both shapes and is shaped by a given state's larger political economy. The book concludes with a synthetic account of the political economy of electricity that is animated by insights from the state-level empirical materials. The volume shows that attempts to depoliticize the sector are misplaced. Instead, successful reform efforts should aim at a positive dynamic between electricity reform and electoral success.
Published in association with Centre de Sciences Humaines, New Delhi. A non-starter for years, reforms of the power sector in India has finally started. In relation to the countrys growth and general economic buoyancy, the power sector has not only been slow with its reforms, but is also impeding the furthering and fostering of general reforms. In that respect, delays in reform not only bear a cost in terms of budgetary and human resource, but also in terms of credibility and opportunity. Every delay worsens the situation and the margin for wider option reduces. Some opportunities that are missed today will remain irremediably so. An articulate vision makes a pivotal difference and this is now the time of understanding (i) the organizational tasks, (ii) the tariff aspects, (iii) the role of the private sector, (iv) the role of technology in the complex, variegated, state-specific, Indian scenario. This new volume in the series, Against the Current deals with tariffs and the effective role of the private sector, and offers analyses by specialists and practitioners of different disciplines. The objective is to give leads for creation of a diversity suitable to face challenges of a post-developmentalist running of the power sector. This book includes studies and papers presented and discussed at a seminar jointly organized by the Centre de Sciences Humaines and the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur in September 2003.
This book uses electricity-sector reforms to question some of the preconceived ideas concerning the MENA region and to provide a broader analysis of related political economy issues. It presents potential further developments of MENA's electricity-sector reforms, taking into consideration the region's unique constraints and opportunities, and discusses the practical limits of reform and deregulation. Specifically, it examines the relationship between reforms and oil prices from a new perspective and presents alternatives to the Single Buyer Model. Complementing existing research on electricity-sector reforms in other emerging markets, the book provides a new analytical framework for assessing reforms that can be easily applied to other markets and sectors.
Shabnam Mirsaeedi-Farahani analyzes Iran's interests in diversifying its energy sector, specifically electricity generation and consumption, between 1990 and 2011. She examines the policy discussions in the Iranian Parliament as well as policy development and implementation with respect to the electricity sector. One of the geopolitically crucial areas for both Iran's domestic development as well as its international influence has been its energy sector. The author assesses international policy pressures and domestic interests to evaluate the interplay of interests, actors, and strategies. While increasing domestic generation capacity, Iran has been able to further its regional interests and influences as well as to build a backbone for its industrialization endeavors.
Sustainable energy services to customers - a balanced choice and
coordination of energy generated by traditional and alternative
sources - are the subject of this new innovative book. The myriad
factors involved in modeling an effective sustainable power system
are overwhelming. The Green Islands project represents a decade of
work by over a dozen researchers who have developed a model
designed to utilize the potential of distributed clean resources.
The key is the proper use of Information Technology (IT).Sited on
two islands in the Azores, the project developed the model of
careful forecasting of demand and supply, down to the minute,
coordinating the output of conventional power plants, wind energy,
fly wheels, hydroelectricity, demand reduction, and even plug-in
electric vehicles to take full advantage of the clean resources
available. The energy contingencies of the remote islands are not
unique. The issues of integrating promising clean technologies,
such as wind, into a complex power grid are challenging in
geographically far-flung, island-scale, power systems.
The first textbook to present a comprehensive and detailed economic analysis of electricity markets, analyzing the tensions between microeconomics and political economy. The power industry is essential in our fight against climate change. This book is the first to examine in detail the microeconomics underlying power markets, stemming from peak-load pricing, by which prices are low when the installed generation capacity exceeds demand but can rise a hundred times higher when demand is equal to installed capacity. The outcome of peak-load pricing is often difficult to accept politically, and the book explores the tensions between microeconomics and political economy. Understanding peak-load pricing and its implications is essential for designing robust policies and making sound investment decisions. Thomas-Olivier Leautier presents the model in its simplest form, and introduces additional features as different issues are presented. The book covers all segments of electricity markets: electricity generation, under perfect and imperfect competition; retail competition and demand response; transmission pricing, transmission congestion management, and transmission constraints; and the current policy issues arising from the entry of renewables into the market and capacity mechanisms. Combining anecdotes and analysis of real situations with rigorous analytical modeling, each chapter analyzes one specific issue, first presenting findings in nontechnical terms accessible to policy practitioners and graduate students in management or public policy and then presenting a more mathematical analytical exposition for students and researchers specializing in the economics of electricity markets and for those who want to understand and apply the underlying models.
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