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This well-known undergraduate electrodynamics textbook is now available in a more affordable printing from Cambridge University Press. The Fourth Edition provides a rigorous, yet clear and accessible treatment of the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory and offers a sound platform for explorations of related applications (AC circuits, antennas, transmission lines, plasmas, optics and more). Written keeping in mind the conceptual hurdles typically faced by undergraduate students, this textbook illustrates the theoretical steps with well-chosen examples and careful illustrations. It balances text and equations, allowing the physics to shine through without compromising the rigour of the math, and includes numerous problems, varying from straightforward to elaborate, so that students can be assigned some problems to build their confidence and others to stretch their minds. A Solutions Manual is available to instructors teaching from the book; access can be requested from the resources section at www.cambridge.org/electrodynamics.
This is the first textbook which presents the theory of pure discrete communication systems and its relation to the existing theory of digital and analog communications at a graduate level. Based on the orthogonality principles and theory of discrete time stochastic processes, a generic structure of communication systems, based on correlation demodulation and optimum detection, is developed and presented in the form of mathematical operators with precisely defined inputs and outputs and related functions. Based on this generic structure, the traditionally defined phase shift keying (PSK), frequency shift keying (FSK), quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and code division multiple access (CDMA) systems are deduced as its special cases. The main chapters, presenting the theory of communications, are supported by a set of supplementary chapters containing the theory of deterministic and stochastic signal processing, which makes the book a self-contained presentation of the subject. The book uses unified notation and unified terminology, which allows a clear distinction between deterministic and stochastic signals, power signals and energy signals, discrete time signals and processes and continuous time signals and processes, and an easy way of understanding the differences in defining the correlation functions, power and energy spectral densities, and amplitudes and power spectra of the mentioned signals and processes. In addition to solved examples in the text, about 300 solved problems are available to readers in the supplementary material that aim to enhance the understanding of the theory in the text. In addition, five research Projects are added to be used by lecturers or instructors that aim to enhance the understanding of theory and to establish its relation to the practice.
Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.
Exploring the origins and evolution of magnetic fields in planets, stars and galaxies, this book gives a basic introduction to magnetohydrodynamics and surveys the observational data, with particular focus on geomagnetism and solar magnetism. Pioneering laboratory experiments that seek to replicate particular aspects of fluid dynamo action are also described. The authors provide a complete treatment of laminar dynamo theory, and of the mean-field electrodynamics that incorporates the effects of random waves and turbulence. Both dynamo theory and its counterpart, the theory of magnetic relaxation, are covered. Topological constraints associated with conservation of magnetic helicity are thoroughly explored and major challenges are addressed in areas such as fast-dynamo theory, accretion-disc dynamo theory and the theory of magnetostrophic turbulence. The book is aimed at graduate-level students in mathematics, physics, Earth sciences and astrophysics, and will be a valuable resource for researchers at all levels.
The primary goal of this book is to give mathematicians, applied mathematicians, and engineers a survey of some problems of current interest in the realm of classical nonlinear electromagnetic theory; a secondary aim is the presentation of the wide variety of mathematical techniques which may be employed to study such problems. Among the problems treated are those which involve the propagation of electromagnetic waves in nonlinear dielectric media, the transmission of signals on distributed parameter nonlinear lines, and nonlocal problems such as the determination of the equilibrium states of nonlinearly elastic current-bearing wires placed in an ambient magnetic field. The mathematical techniques employed include several from the theory of shock waves, i.e Riemann invariants arguments, as well as semi-inverse methods, classical energy and compactness arguments, and the use of the Young measure and compensated compactness arguments to handle weak convergence problems for nonlinear systems of partial differential equations.
How quantum electrodynamics evolved in the first quarter of the 20th century, revealed here by its creators in 34 papers by Foley, Fermi, Heisenberg, Dryson, Weisskopf, Oppenheimer, Pauli, Schwinger, Klein and other key figures. 29 are in English, three in German, one each in French and Italian. Preface. Historical commentary.
This large reference work addresses a broad range of topics covering various aspects of spintronics science and technology, ranging from fundamental physics through materials properties and processing to established and emerging device technology and applications. It comprises a collection of chapters from a large international team of leading researchers across academia and industry, providing readers with an up-to-date and comprehensive review of this dynamic field of research. The opening chapters focus on the fundamental physical principles of spintronics in metals and semiconductors, including the theory of giant magnetoresistance and an introduction to spin quantum computing. Materials systems are then considered, with sections on metallic thin films and multilayers, magnetic tunnelling structures, hybrid materials including Heusler compounds, magnetic semiconductors, molecular spintronic materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene. A separate section describes the various methods used in the characterisation of spintronics materials, including spin-polarised photoemission, x-ray diffraction techniques and spin-polarised SEM. The third and final part of the Handbook contains chapters on spintronic device technology and applications, including spin valves, GMR and MTJ devices, MRAM technology, spin transistors and spin logic devices, spin torque devices, spin pumping and spin dynamics, and thermal effects in spintronics. Each chapter builds from the fundamentals through to the state-of-the-art, also considering the challenges faced by researchers and containing some indication of the direction that future work in the field is likely to take. This reference work will be an essential and long-standing resource for the spintronics community, whether in academic or industrial research.
Each of this book's 32 essays discusses a chosen topic, at a level that is generally within that of a four-year degree course in Physics. The essays supplement (indeed sometimes correct) treatments usually given, or supplies reasoning that tends to fall through the cracks. The author uses his life long experience of tutorial teaching at Oxford to know what topics often need such discussion, for clarification, or for avoidance of common confusions. The book contains accounts of even-standard topics, accounts that offer an unusual emphasis, or a fresh insight, or more than customary rigour, or a cross-link to apparently unrelated material. The student (and their teachers) who really wants to understand physics will find this book indispensable. Often the outcome of tutorial discussion has been an understanding that lies a little to the side of what is presented in standard texts. Such understanding is presented here in the essays. The topics covered are diverse and have something useful to say across most areas of a physics degree.
Learn about the properties of synchrotron radiation and its wide range of applications in physics, materials science and chemistry with this invaluable reference. This thorough text describes the physical principles of the subject, its source and methods of delivery to the sample, as well as the different techniques that use synchrotron radiation to analyse the electronic properties and structure of crystalline and non-crystalline materials and surfaces. Explains applications to study the structure and electronic properties of materials on a microscopic, nanoscopic and atomic scale. An excellent resource for current and future users of these facilities, showing how the available techniques can complement information obtained in users' home laboratories. Perfect for graduate and senior undergraduate students taking specialist courses in synchrotron radiation, in addition to new and established researchers in the field.
Physics on Your Feet (2nd Edition) is a significantly expanded collection of physics problems covering the broad range of topics in classical and modern physics that were, or could have been, asked at oral PhD exams at University of California at Berkeley. The questions are easy to formulate, but some of them can only be answered using an outside-of-the box approach. Detailed solutions are provided, from which the reader is guaranteed to learn a lot about the physicists' way of thinking. The book is also packed full of cartoons and dry humor to help take the edge off the stress and anxiety surrounding exams. This is a helpful guide for students preparing for their exams, as well as a resource for university lecturers looking for good instructive problems. No exams are necessary to enjoy the book!
This book focuses on the analytical modeling of fractional-slot concentrated-wound (FSCW) interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines and establishes a basis for their magnetic and electrical analysis. Aiming at the precise modeling of FSCW IPM machines' magnetic and electrical characteristics, it presents a comprehensive mathematical treatment of the stator magneto-motive force (MMF), the IPM rotor non-homogeneous magnetic saturation, and its airgap flux density. The FSCW stator spatial MMF harmonics are analytically formulated, providing a basis on which a novel heuristic algorithm is then proposed for the design of optimal winding layouts for multiphase FSCW stators with different slot/pole combinations. In turn, the proposed mathematical models for the FSCW stator and the IPM rotor are combined to derive detailed mathematical expressions of its operational inductances, electromagnetic torque, torque ripple and their respective subcomponents, as a function of the machine geometry and design parameters. Lastly, the proposed theories and analytical models are validated using finite element analysis and experimental tests on a prototype FSCW IPM machine.
This volume provides an in-depth review of all aspects of solar magnetic fields. Written by world-leading experts, these thirteen papers cover all regions of the subject from the solar interior, photosphere, chromosphere, active regions, and corona out to the solar wind. The history of solar magnetic fields as well as the necessary instrumentation are also covered. The volume serves as both a reference for researchers and a starting point for graduate students. Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Volume 210, Issue 1-4, September 2017
This book focuses on the theory and techniques of free abrasive tool finishing technology. Providing analytical methods and practical technical references for the engineers involved in surface-finishing processes, it significantly contributes to improving part quality and performance while also promoting further developments in surface finishing technology. Combining a highly systematic approach, readability and novel content, it is a valuable resource for researchers and graduates working in mechanical engineering fields, especially in surface finishing.
This introduction to circuit design is unusual in several respects. First, it offers not just explanations, but a full course. Each of the twenty-five sessions begins with a discussion of a particular sort of circuit followed by the chance to try it out and see how it actually behaves. Accordingly, students understand the circuit's operation in a way that is deeper and much more satisfying than the manipulation of formulas. Second, it describes circuits that more traditional engineering introductions would postpone: on the third day, we build a radio receiver; on the fifth day, we build an operational amplifier from an array of transistors. The digital half of the course centers on applying microcontrollers, but gives exposure to Verilog, a powerful Hardware Description Language. Third, it proceeds at a rapid pace but requires no prior knowledge of electronics. Students gain intuitive understanding through immersion in good circuit design.
Discover an innovative and fresh approach to teaching classical electromagnetics at a foundational level Introduction to Electromagnetic Waves with Maxwell's Equations delivers an accessible and practical approach to teaching the wellknown topics all electromagnetics instructors must include in their syllabus. Based on the author's decades of experience teaching the subject, the book is carefully tuned to be relevant to an audience of engineering students who have already been exposed to the basic curricula of linear algebra and multivariate calculus. Forming the backbone of the book, Maxwell's equations are developed step-by-step in consecutive chapters, while related electromagnetic phenomena are discussed simultaneously. The author presents accompanying mathematical tools alongside the material provided in the book to assist students with retention and comprehension. The book contains over 100 solved problems and examples with stepwise solutions offered alongside them. An accompanying website provides readers with additional problems and solutions. Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of: A thorough introduction to preliminary concepts in the field, including scalar and vector fields, cartesian coordinate systems, basic vector operations, orthogonal coordinate systems, and electrostatics, magnetostatics, and electromagnetics An exploration of Gauss' Law, including integral forms, differential forms, and boundary conditions A discussion of Ampere's Law, including integral and differential forms and Stoke's Theorem An examination of Faraday's Law, including integral and differential forms and the Lorentz Force Law Perfect for third-and fourth-year undergraduate students in electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, applied maths, physics, and computer science, Introduction to Electromagnetic Waves with Maxwell's Equations will also earn a place in the libraries of graduate and postgraduate students in any STEM program with applications in electromagnetics.
Why are candle flames yellow? Why does ultraviolet light supposedly kill vampires? What about the monocle? Why was the monocle-a corrective lens that only corrects vision in a single eye-so popular among businessmen and politicians for so many years? Stephen R. Wilk answers all this and so much more in Sandbows and Black Lights. This book is a collection of original essays on weird and unusual topics surrounding optics. Wilk uses the BBC's formula of "Education by Stealth" to explain unusual facets of science and technology through the matrix of interesting and cultural paths, all the while weaving in math equations in an accessible way. The first part of the book focuses on the history, the second moves to odd scientific approaches to visual phenomena, and the third part explains the unique use of optics in fiction, movies, and comic books over time. Chapters cover everything from endless corridors to the beam of light over treasure chests in movies. Whether he is explaining a rare discovery or answering a seemingly unapproachable question, Wilk is able to lure readers in on every page. He has a unique ability to turn complex science into an engaging story, and this book is full of narratives on esoteric topics anyone will find intriguing. Sandbows and Black Lights provides an enticing and entertaining look at physical illusions in a whole new way.
Instant Physics pulls together all the pivotal physics knowledge and thought into one concise volume. Each page contains a discrete 'cheat sheet', which tells you the most important facts in bite-sized chunks, meaning you can become an expert in an instant. From black holes to black body radiation, telescopes to microscopes, quantum mechanics to general relativity, every key figure, discovery or idea is explained with succinct and lively text and graphics. Perfect for the knowledge hungry and time poor, this collection of graphic-led lessons makes psychology interesting and accessible. Everything you need to know is here.
The third volume in Leonard Susskind's one-of-a-kind physics series cracks open Einstein's special relativity and field theory In the first two books in his wildly popular The Theoretical Minimum series, world-class physicist Leonard Susskind provided a brilliant first course in classical and quantum mechanics, offering readers not an oversimplified introduction, but the real thing - everything you need to start doing physics, and nothing more. Now, thankfully, Susskind and his former student Art Friedman are back, this time to introduce readers to special relativity and classical field theory. At last, waves, forces and particles will be demystified. Using their typical brand of relatively simple maths, enlightening sketches and the same fictional counterparts, Art and Lenny, Special Relativity and Classical Field Theory takes us on an enlightening journey through a world now governed by the laws of special relativity. Starting in their new watering hole, Hermann's Hideaway, with a lesson on relativity, Art and Lenny walk us through the complexities of Einstein's famous theory. Combining rigor with humour, Susskind and Friedman guarantee that Special Relativity and Classical Field Theory will become part of the reader's physics toolbox.
This book deals with a new class of magnetic materials, spin ice. Spin ice has become the canonical example of modern frustrated magnetism where competing interactions between spins set the rules for an emergent magnetostatic gauge field theory. Excitations take the form of magnetic monopoles or can condense via a Higgs mechanism. Beyond classical spin ice, the book describes the new physics emerging when quantum coherence (spin liquids, photon-like excitations) and itinerant electrons (anomalous Hall effect) are included in artificial systems. This first book dedicated to spin ice is a review of the current understanding of the field, both on the theoretical and experimental levels, written by leading experts. The book is written in a linear way with very few prerequisites. It also contains textbook-like descriptions of theoretical methods to help advanced students and researchers to enter the field.
We live in a world of waves. The Earth shakes to its foundations, the seas and oceans tremble incessantly, sounds reverberate through land, sea, and air. Beneath the skin, our brains and bodies are awash with waves of their own, and the Universe is filled by a vast spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, of which visible light is the narrowest sliver. Casting the net even wider, there are mechanical waves, quantum wave phenomena, and the now clearly detected gravitational waves. Look closer and deeper and more kinds of waves appear, down to the most fundamental level of reality. This Very Short Introduction looks at all the main kinds of wave, their sources, effects, and uses. Mike Goldsmith discusses how wave motion results in a range of phenomena, from reflection, diffraction, interference, and polarization in the case of light waves to beats and echoes for sound. All waves, however different, share many of the same features, and, as Goldsmith shows, for all their complexities many of their behaviours are fundamentally simple. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
As Charlton Heston put it: 'There's a temptingly simple definition of the epic film: it's the easiest kind of picture to make badly.' This book goes beyond that definition to show how the film epic has taken up one of the most ancient art-forms and propelled it into the modern world, covered in twentieth-century ambitions, anxieties, hopes and fantasies. This survey of historical epic films dealing with periods up to the end of the Dark Ages looks at epic form and discusses the films by historical period, showing how the cinema reworks history for the changing needs of its audience, much as the ancient mythographers did. The form's main aim has always been to entertain, and Derek Elley reminds us of the glee with which many epic films have worn their label, and of the sheer fun of the genre. He shows the many levels on which these films can work, from the most popular to the specialist, each providing a considerable source of enjoyment. For instance, spectacle, the genre's most characteristic trademark, is merely the cinema's own transformation of the literary epic's taste for the grandiose. Dramatically it can serve many purposes: as a resolution of personal tensions (the chariot race in Ben-Hur), of monotheism vs idolatry (Solomon and Sheba), or of the triumph of a religious code (The Ten Commandments). Although to many people Epic equals Hollywood, throughout the book Elley stresses debt to the Italian epics, which often explored areas of history with which Hollywood could never have found sympathy. Originally published 1984.
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