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This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.
This book details the chemistry of visible light-induced photocatalysis using different classes of nanocomposites. Starting with a general introduction and explanation of basic principles and mechanisms of (visible) light-induced photocatalysis in the first two chapters (not omitting a plaidoyer for furthering research and development in this promising field), the following chapters detail the different types and classes of nanocomposites currently used in light-induced photocatalytic applications, including e.g. metal and mixed metal-oxide nanoparticles and -composites, nanoporous materials, polymeric and carbon-based nanocomposites. They explain the characteristics and importance of the different types of nanocomposites, as well as their synthesis and fabrication.In the end of the book an outlook on the unique applications of novel nanocomposites is offered, for example in water treatment and disinfection and removal of pollutants from wastewater, self-cleaning window panes based on photoactive materials, and many more. The book also addresses the challenges in present photocatalytic research, and therefore is a must-read for everybody interested in the developing field of nanocomposites and visible light-induced photocatalysis.
In the past four years we have witnessed rapid development in technology and significant market penetration in many applications for LED systems. New processes and new materials have been introduced; new standards and new testing methods have been developed; new driver, control and sensing technologies have been integrated; and new and unknown failure modes have also been presented. In this book, Solid State Lighting Reliability Part 2, we invited the experts from industry and academia to present the latest developments and findings in the LED system reliability arena. Topics in this book cover the early failures and critical steps in LED manufacturing; advances in reliability testing and standards; quality of colour and colour stability; degradation of optical materials and the associated chromaticity maintenance; characterization of thermal interfaces; LED solder joint testing and prediction; common failure modes in LED drivers; root causes for lumen depreciation; corrosion sensitivity of LED packages; reliability management for automotive LEDs, and lightning effects on LEDs. This book is a continuation of Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems (published in 2013), which covers reliability aspects ranging from the LED to the total luminaire or system of luminaires. Together, these two books are a full set of reference books for Solid State Lighting reliability from the performance of the (sub-) components to the total system, regardless its complexity.
The transistor is the key enabler of modern electronics. Progress in transistor scaling has pushed channel lengths to the nanometer regime where traditional approaches to device physics are less and less suitable. These lectures describe a way of understanding MOSFETs and other transistors that is much more suitable than traditional approaches when the critical dimensions are measured in nanometers. It uses a novel, "bottom-up approach" that agrees with traditional methods when devices are large, but that also works for nano-devices. Surprisingly, the final result looks much like the traditional, textbook, transistor models, but the parameters in the equations have simple, clear interpretations at the nanoscale. The objective is to provide readers with an understanding of the essential physics of nanoscale transistors as well as some of the practical technological considerations and fundamental limits. This book is written in a way that is broadly accessible to students with only a very basic knowledge of semiconductor physics and electronic circuits.
This Third Edition brings Lander's successful text completely up to date, retaining the original material but adding important new information. In particular, a whole new section on EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) is incorporated into the chapter on harmonics. Recently emerged semiconductor devices, such as IGBTs and MCTs are covered, as are other new topics, including active filters for harmonic elimination. The control sections are considerably expanded to take into account pulse-width modulated converters for power factor control, vector control of cage induction motor drives and resonant converters. The balanced and broad structure of coverage from the previous editions remain and is augmented by many new worked examples and an updated bibliography.
The fact that there are more embedded computers than
general-purpose computers and that we are impacted by hundreds of
them every day is no longer news. What is news is that their
increasing performance requirements, complexity and capabilities
demand a new approach to their design.
This book discusses modern-day Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) and future trends of transistor devices. This book provides an overview of Field Effect Transistors (FETs) by discussing the basic principles of FETs and exploring the latest technological developments in the field. It covers and connects a wide spectrum of topics related to semiconductor device physics, physics of transistors, and advanced transistor concepts. This book contains six chapters. Chapter 1 discusses electronic materials and charge. Chapter 2 examines junctions, discusses contacts under thermal-equilibrium, metal-semiconductor contacts, and metal-insulator-semiconductor systems. Chapter 3 covers traditional planar Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). Chapter 4 describes scaling-driving technological variations and novel dimensions of MOSFETs. Chapter 5 analyzes Heterojunction Field Effect Transistors (FETs) and also discusses the challenges and rewards of heteroepitaxy. Finally, Chapter 6 examines FETs at molecular scales. * Links the discussion of contemporary transistor devices to physical processes * Material has been class-tested in undergraduate and graduate courses on the design of integrated circuit components taught by the author * Contains examples and end-of-chapter problems Field Effect Transistors, A Comprehensive Overview: From Basic Concepts to Novel Technologies is a reference for senior undergraduate / graduate students and professional engineers needing insight into physics of operation of modern FETs. Pouya Valizadeh is Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Concordia University in Quebec, Canada. He received B.S. and M.S. degrees with honors from the University of Tehran and Ph.D. degree from The University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) all in Electrical Engineering in 1997, 1999, and 2005, respectively. Over the past decade, Dr. Valizadeh has taught numerous sections of five different courses covering topics such as semiconductor process technology, semiconductor materials and their properties, advanced solid state devices, transistor design for modern CMOS technology, and high speed transistors.
"Ceramic Materials: Science and Engineering" is an up-to-date treatment of ceramic science, engineering, and applications in a single, comprehensive text. Building on a foundation of crystal structures, phase equilibria, defects, and the mechanical properties of ceramic materials, students are shown how these materials are processed for a wide diversity of applications in today's society. Concepts such as how and why ions move, how ceramics interact with light and magnetic fields, and how they respond to temperature changes are discussed in the context of their applications. References to the art and history of ceramics are included throughout the text, and a chapter is devoted to ceramics as gemstones. This course-tested text now includes expanded chapters on the role of ceramicsin industry and their impact on the environment as well asa chapter devoted to applications of ceramic materials in clean energy technologies. Also new are expanded sets of text-specific homework problems and other resources for instructors. The revised and updated Second Editionis further enhanced with color illustrations throughout the text."
This book brings together the many concepts and discoveries in liquid crystal colloids contributed over the last twenty years and scattered across numerous articles and book chapters. It provides both a historical overview of the development of the field and a clear perspective on the future applications in photonics. The book covers all phenomena observed in liquid crystal colloids with an emphasis on experimental tools and applications of topology in condensed matter, as well as practical micro-photonics applications. It includes a number of spectacular manifestations of new topological phenomena not found or difficult to observe in other systems. Starting from the early works on nematic colloids, it explains the basics of topological defects in ordered media, charge and winding, and the elastic forces between colloidal particles in nematics. Following a detailed description of experimental methods, such as optical tweezing and particle tracking, the book eases the reader into the theoretical part, which deals with elastic deformation of nematic liquid crystals due to inclusions and surface alignment. This is discussed in the context of basic mean field Landau-de Gennes Q-tensor theory, with a brief explanation of the free-energy minimization numerical methods. There then follows an excursion into the topology of complex nematic colloidal structures, colloidal entanglement, knotting and linking. Nematic droplets, shells, handlebodies and chiral topological structures are addressed in separate chapters. The book concludes with an extensive chapter on the photonic properties of nematic dispersions, presenting the concept of integrated soft matter photonics and discussing the concepts of nematic and chiral nematic microlasers, surface-sensitive photonic devices and smectic microfibers. The text is complemented by a large bibliography, explanatory sketches and beautiful micrographs.
This thesis presents various characteristics of 122-type iron pnictide (FeSC) such as crystal and electronic structure, carrier-doping effect, and impurity-scattering effect, using transport, magnetization, specific heat, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and optical spectral measurements. Most notably the measurement on the magnetic fluctuation in the material successfully explains already known unusual electronic properties, i.e., superconducting gap symmetry, anisotropy of in-plane resistivity in layered structure, and charge dynamics; and comparing them with those of normal phase, the controversial problems in FeSCs are eventually settled. The thesis provides broad coverage of the physics of FeSCs both in the normal and superconducting phase, and readers therefore benefit from the efficient up-to-date study of FeSCs in this thesis. An additional attraction is the detailed description of the experimental result critical for the controversial problems remaining since the discovery of FeSC in 2008, which helps readers follow up recent developments in superconductor research.
Surface photovoltage (SPV) techniques provide information about photoactive materials with respect to charge separation in space. This book aims to share experience in measuring and analyzing SPV signals and addresses researchers and developers interested in learning more about and in applying SPV methods. For this purpose, basics about processes in photoactive materials and principles of SPV measurements are combined with examples from research and development over the last two decades.SPV measurements with Kelvin probes, fixed capacitors, electron beams and photoelectrons are explained. Details are given for continuous, modulated and transient SPV spectroscopy. Simulation principles of SPV signals by random walks are introduced and applied for small systems. Application examples are selected for the characterization of silicon surfaces, gallium arsenide layers, electronic states in colloidal quantum dots, transport phenomena in metal oxides and local charge separation across photocatalytic active crystallites.
Ferromagnetism of metallic systems, especially those including transition metals, has been a controversial subject of modern science for a long time. This controversy sterns from the apparent dual character of the d-electrons responsible for magnetism in transition metals, i.e., they are itinerant elec trons described by band theory in their ground state, while at finite tem peratures they show various properties that have long been attributed to a system consisting of local magnetic moments. The most familiar example of these properties is the Curie-Weiss law of magnetic susceptibility obeyed by almost all ferromagnets above their Curie temperatures. At first the problem seemed to be centered around whether the d-elec trons themselves are localized or itinerant. This question was settled in the 1950s and early 1960s by various experimental investigations, in particular by observations of d-electron Fermi surfaces in ferromagnetic transition metals. These observations are generally consistent with the results of band calculations. Theoretical investigations since then have concentrated on explaining this dual character of d-electron systems, taking account of the effects of electron-electron correlations in the itinerant electron model. The problem in physical terms is to study the spin density fluctuati.ons, which are ne glected in the mean-field or one-electron theory, and their influence on the physical properties."
Quantum Mechanics: An Introduction for Device Physicists and Electrical Engineers, Third Edition provides a complete course in quantum mechanics for students of semiconductor device physics and electrical engineering. It provides the necessary background to quantum theory for those starting work on micro- and nanoelectronic structures and is particularly useful for those beginning work with modern semiconductors devices, lasers, and qubits. This book was developed from a course the author has taught for many years with a style and order of presentation of material specifically designed for this audience. It introduces the main concepts of quantum mechanics which are important in everyday solid-state physics and electronics. Each topic includes examples which have been carefully chosen to draw upon relevant experimental research. It also includes problems with solutions to test understanding of theory. Full updated throughout, the third edition contains the latest developments, experiments, and device concepts, in addition to three fully revised chapters on operators and expectations and spin angular momentum, it contains completely new material on superconducting devices and approaches to quantum computing.
Due to progress in the development of communication systems, it is now possible to develop low-cost wearable communication systems. A wearable antenna is meant to be a part of the clothing or close to the body and used for communication purposes, which include tracking and navigation, mobile computing and public safety. Examples include smartwatches (with integrated Bluetooth antennas), glasses (such as Google Glass with Wi-Fi and GPS antennas), GoPro action cameras (with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth antennas), etc. They are increasingly common in consumer electronics and for healthcare and medical applications. However, the development of compact, efficient wearable antennas is one of the major challenges in the development of wearable communication and medical systems. Technologies such as printed compact antennas and miniaturization techniques have been developed to create efficient, small wearable antennas which are the main objective of this book. Each chapter covers enough mathematical detail and explanations to enable electrical, electromagnetic and biomedical engineers and students and scientists from all areas to follow and understand the topics presented. New topics and design methods are presented for the first time in the area of wearable antennas, metamaterial antennas and fractal antennas. The book covers wearable antennas, RF measurements techniques and measured results in the vicinity of the human body, setups and design considerations. The wearable antennas and devices presented in this book were analyzed by using HFSS and ADS 3D full-wave electromagnetics software. Explores wearable medical systems and antennas Explains the design and development of wearable communication systems Explores wearable reconfigurable antennas for communication and medical applications Discusses new types of metamaterial antennas and artificial magnetic conductors (AMC) Reviews textile antennas Dr. Albert Sabban holds a PhD in Electrical Engineering from the University of Colorado at Boulder, USA (1991), and an MBA from the Faculty of Management, Haifa University, Israel (2005). He is currently a Senior Lecturer and researcher at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Kinneret and Ort Braude Engineering Colleges.
Electronic Conduction: Classical and Quantum Theory to Nanoelectronic Devices provides a concise, complete introduction to the fundamental principles of electronic conduction in microelectronic and nanoelectronic devices, with an emphasis on integrating the quantum aspects of conduction. The chapter coverage begins by presenting the classical theory of conduction, including introductory chapters on quantum mechanics and the solid state, then moving to a complete presentation of essential theory for understanding modern electronic devices. The author's unique approach is applicable to microscale and nanoscale device simulation, which is particularly timely given the explosion in the nanoelectronics field. Features Self-contained Gives a complete account of classical and quantum aspects of conduction in nanometer scale devices Emphasises core principles, the book can be useful to electrical engineers and material scientists, and no prior course in semiconductors is necessary Highlights the bridge to modern electronics, first presenting the physics, and then the engineering complications related to quantum behaviour Includes many clear, illustrative diagrams and chapter problem sets Gives an account of post-Silicon devices such as the GaAs MOSFET, the CNT-FET and the vacuum transistor Showcases why quantum mechanics is necessary with modern devices due to their size and corresponding electron transport properties Discusses all the issues that will enable readers to conduct their own research
This book is a thoroughly practical way to explore the 8051 and
discover C programming through project work. Through graded
projects, Dogan Ibrahim introduces the reader to the fundamentals
of microelectronics, the 8051 family, programming in C, and the use
of a C compiler. The specific device used for examples is the
AT89C2051 - a small, economical chip with re-writable memory,
readily available from the major component suppliers.
Microcontroller Projects in C for the 8051 is an ideal resource
for self-study as well as providing an interesting, enjoyable and
easily mastered alternative to more theoretical textbooks.
This book, a continuation of the series "Advances in Materials Research," is intended to provide the general basis of the science and technology of crystal growth of silicon for solar cells. In the face of the destruction of the global environment,the degradationofworld-widenaturalresourcesandtheexha- tion of energy sources in the twenty-?rst century, we all have a sincere desire for a better/safer world in the future. In these days, we strongly believe that it is important for us to rapidly developanewenvironment-friendlycleanenergyconversionsystemusingsolar energyastheultimatenaturalenergysource. Forinstance,mostofournatural resources and energy sources will be exhausted within the next 100 years. Speci?cally, the consumption of oil, natural gas, and uranium is a serious problem. Solar energy is the only ultimate natural energy source. Although 30% of total solar energy is re?ected at the earth's surface, 70% of total solar energy can be available for us to utilize. The available solar energy amounts to severalthousand times larger than the world's energy consumption in 2000 of about 9,000 Mtoe (M ton oil equivalent). To manage 10% of the world's energy consumption at 2050 by solar energy, we must manufacture 40 GW solar cells per year continuously for 40 years. The required silicon feedstock is about 400,000 ton per year. We believe that this is an attainable target, since it can be realized by increasing the world production of silicon feedstock by 12times asmuchasthe presentproductionat2005.
Providing an introduction to the design of embedded microprocessor systems, this edition covers everything from the initial concept through to debugging the final result. It also includes material on DMA, interrupts and an emphasis throughout on the real-time nature of embedded systems. The book is not limited to describing any specific processor family, but covers the operation of, and interfaces to, several types of processors with an emphasis on cost and design trade-offs Included throughout the book are numerous examples, tips, and pitfalls to help readers find out how to implement faster and better design processes and avoid time-consuming and expensive mistakes. The author describes the entire process of designing circuits, and the software that controls them, assessing the system requirements, as well as testing and debugging systems. In this third edition, there is an expanded section on debug which includes avoiding common hardware, software and interrupt problems. Other added features include an expanded section on system integration and debug to address the capabilities of more recent emulators and debuggers, a section about combination microcontroller/PLD devices, and
Topological Insulator and Related Topics, Volume 108 in the Semiconductors and Semimental series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters on topics such as Majorana modes at the ends of one dimensional topological superconductors, Optical/electronic properties of Weyl semimetals, High magnetic fields to unveil the electronic structure, magnetic field-induced transitions, and unconventional transport properties of topological semimetals, New aspects of strongly correlated superconductivity in the nearly flat-band regime, Anomalous transport properties in topological semimetals, Pseudo-gauge field and piezo-electromagnetic response in topological materials, Topological Gapped States Protected by Spatial Symmetries, and more.
This book gathers selected research papers presented at the Second International Conference on Energy Systems, Drives and Automations (ESDA 2019), held in Kolkata on 28-29 December 2019. It covers a broad range of topics in the fields of renewable energy, power management, drive systems for electrical machines and automation. Also discussing a variety of related tools and techniques, the book offers a valuable resource for researchers, professionals and students in electrical and mechanical engineering disciplines.
This book focuses on the calculus of variations, including fundamental theories and applications. This textbook is intended for graduate and higher-level college and university students, introducing them to the basic concepts and calculation methods used in the calculus of variations. It covers the preliminaries, variational problems with fixed boundaries, sufficient conditions of extrema of functionals, problems with undetermined boundaries, variational problems of conditional extrema, variational problems in parametric forms, variational principles, direct methods for variational problems, variational principles in mechanics and their applications, and variational problems of functionals with vector, tensor and Hamiltonian operators. Many of the contributions are based on the authors' research, addressing topics such as the extension of the connotation of the Hilbert adjoint operator, definitions of the other three kinds of adjoint operators, the extremum function theorem of the complete functional, unified Euler equations in variational methods, variational theories of functionals with vectors, modulus of vectors, arbitrary order tensors, Hamiltonian operators and Hamiltonian operator strings, reconciling the Euler equations and the natural boundary conditions, and the application range of variational methods. The book is also a valuable reference resource for teachers as well as science and technology professionals.
The book provides an overview of III-nitride-material-based light-emitting diode (LED) technology, from the basic material physics to the latest advances in the field, such as homoepitaxy and heteroepitaxy of the materials on different substrates. It also includes the latest advances in the field, such as approaches to improve quantum efficiency and reliability as well as novel structured LEDs. It explores the concept of material growth, chip structure, packaging, reliability and application of LEDs. With spectra coverage from ultraviolet (UV) to entire visible light wavelength, the III-nitride-material-based LEDs have a broad application potential, and are not just limited to illumination. These novel applications, such as health & medical, visible light communications, fishery and horticulture, are also discussed in the book.
This volume presents the results of a multi-year research programme funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Council), which explains how organic solar cells work. In this new promising photovoltaic technology, carbon-based materials are deposited by low-cost methods onto flexible substrates, thus allowing devices which open completely new applications like transparent coatings for building, solar cells integrated into clothing or packages, and many more. The investigation of organic solar cells is an interdisciplinary topic, covering physics, chemistry and engineering. The different chapters address topics ranging from the synthesis of new organic materials, to the characterization of the elementary processes such as exciton transport and separation, and the principles of highly efficient device design.
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