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Environmental law provides a comprehensive and succinct examination of the entire environmental law landscape in South Africa. The second edition includes a new chapter on climate change, and also examines the following recent developments: the new environmental impact assessment (EIA) regime (2010 regulations) several amendments to the National environmental management act and other environmental legislation the new National environmental management: waste act the new National environmental management: Integrated coastal management act several important developments in delegated legislation numerous new cases, including the far-reaching Fuel Retailers decision in the Constitutional Court.
Most planning degrees at South African universities include a compulsory course in planning law. This is usually the first time that planning students encounter law as a discipline. Planning students therefore need to familiarise themselves with sources such as the Constitution, legislation and court decisions. The Planning Law Casebook seeks to assist students in this regard. Understanding how to use, interpret and apply case law is perhaps the most difficult aspect of planning law.
Part I of the Planning Law Casebook describes the different parts of a typical court case. Part II briefly explains how the Casebook should be used. Part III contains discussions and analyses of 18 key planning law cases, which reflect the different components of current planning law. Part IV is a glossary in which the relevant legal concepts and terminology are defined. Part V includes extracts from applicable legislation. Part VI provides examples of typical planning documents, such as a deed of transfer, a notice of the removal of a restrictive condition or rezoning, and a part of a schedule to a town planning scheme indicating one of the zoning categories.
Hydraulic Fracturing in the Karoo: Critical Legal and Environmental Perspectives explores a broad-ranging set of questions related to proposed hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking' in the Karoo. The book is multidisciplinary, with contributors including natural scientists, social scientists, and academics from the humanities, all concerned with the ways in which scientific facts and debates about fracking have been framed and given meaning. The work comprises four parts: Part 1 provides an international, legal, energy, economic, and revenue overview of the topic. Part 2 has a physio-geographic theme, with chapters on the inter-related aspects of water, geology, geo-hydrology, seismicity and biodiversity, as well as archaeological and palaeontological considerations. Part 3 focuses on public health, and sociological and humanities-related aspects, and Part 4 addresses the relevant laws, emphasising their implementation and the role of governance. The underlying theme of Hydraulic Fracturing in the Karoo: Critical Legal and Environmental Perspectives is one of caution. The book emphasises the need for collaboration between the natural and social sciences and the responsibilities of those charged with the implementation and governance of the fracking enterprise if South Africa hopes to effectively manage fracking at all.
Environmental Law and Local Government in South Africa is the first work of its kind to extensively analyse South African environmental law and policy for local government. This book meets an important need in the area of environmental management. This novel collection of theoretical scholarship and real-life examples presents different features of the interface between local government and environmental law. Each chapter is accessible yet detailed enough to be useful. In the scope of this comprehensive work, 32 authors collectively answer the question: What is the role of local government in moving South Africa towards a sustainable future, considering the dictates and scope of environmental law?
Informed by international law, international relations and environment management scholarship, this interdisciplinary analysis of environmental regimes in Asian subregions proposes a new regime for the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau based on China's cooperation with its south Asian neighbors. After evaluating the nine existing environmental regimes across the subregions of southwest, central, southeast and northeast Asia, Simon Marsden proposes a tenth regime for the cross subregion in south and east Asia known as the Third Pole. The role of China in connection with each of the existing agreements - as lender, dialogue partner or Party - is a key aspect of the analysis, considering it in developmental, legal and political contexts. Conclusions recommend future research to progress efforts in developing such a regime and caution the need for context in any legal transplant. This book will have a strong appeal for international environmental law and environmental planning and management researchers. Meanwhile those in international relations or international politics will find valuable insights in the book's exploration of relationships between the states of each subregion and China, whilst coverage of the regulation of oil and gas, hydroelectricity and exploitation of other resources will be of great interest to energy law scholars and practitioners.
The quality and the strength of an environmental legal system is a reflection of the conceptual foundations upon which it is constructed. The Research Handbook on Fundamental Concepts of Environmental Law illuminates key aspects of environmental governance through the lens of their underlying dimensions: for example, the form, structure and language of international, regional and national instruments; the function of norms, objectives and standards; and the relevance of economic analysis and of integrated policy formulation. The topical chapters in this timely Handbook include analyses of human rights, constitutional rights, property rights, sustainable development, environmental impact assessment and precaution. Perceptive contributions examine the emerging roles played by various concepts, values and objectives in environmental governance. The nature of these emerging concepts and their relationship with traditional rights and duties, which are typically reactive in nature, is of particular significance. The concepts examined go to the heart of environmental law: the capacity of a system of environmental governance to be judicially recognized and enforced. This insightful Handbook will be a valuable resource for all students and researchers in environmental law and governance. It will be essential reading for policymakers, legal drafters and anyone needing to understand the foundations of the modern environmental legal system.
With aquaculture operations fast expanding around the world, the adequacy of aquaculture-related laws and policies has become a hot topic. This much-needed book provides a comprehensive guide to the complex regulatory seascape. Split into three distinct parts, the expert contributors first review the international legal dimensions, including chapters on the law of the sea, trade, and access and benefit sharing for aquatic genetic resources. Part Two discusses how the EU and regional bodies, such as the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO), have addressed aquaculture development and management whilst the final part contains twelve national case studies exploring how leading aquaculture producing countries have been putting sustainability principles into practice. These case studies focus on implementation approaches and challenges, in particular emphasizing ongoing national struggles in attaining effective aquaculture zoning and marine spatial planning. Students and scholars of environmental law and politics will find this contemporary volume an invaluable addition to the limited academic literature critiquing aquaculture law and policy. Policy makers, international bodies and NGOs will also find its insights particularly informative when ensuring sustainable aquaculture regulation and development.
Only through a concerted global effort can we protect our natural resources, save our precious natural environment, and indeed our future. Pressures on our natural environment come from many directions, including overuse, mismanagement and contamination, all of which must be addressed through a range of measures as part of an international response. This much-needed book reviews and evaluates the use of market and fiscal instruments in protecting our natural resources, from rural to marine environments. The expert contributors emphasise the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to stem the tide of irreparable harm to our natural resources. Market instruments that are designed to protect the global atmosphere are evaluated, along with carbon instruments and environmental tax incentives. Meanwhile, consideration is given to shifting the tax burden to achieve environmentally responsible outcomes, balancing sustainable use and natural resource protection, and protecting water resources. Offering a comprehensive appraisal of market instruments and policy solutions for natural resource protection, this book is ideal for both policy makers and students and academics of environmental law, economics and sustainability.
In the face of the failure of the traditional `command and control' model of environmental regulation to curb the devastating losses of biodiversity around the world, policymakers are increasingly seeking new approaches to deal with this complex interdisciplinary issue. The Privatisation of Biodiversity? provides a timely contribution to this debate by exploring the legal aspects and the scope to strengthen conservation through these reforms. Colin Reid and Walters Nsoh draw on literature well beyond legal sources, particularly from ecology, environmental economics and philosophy to reach a number of pragmatic conclusions on the issues discussed. The new approaches explored include payment for ecosystem services, biodiversity offsetting and conservation covenants, as well as taxation and impact fees. Such mechanisms introduce elements of a market approach as well as private sector initiative and resources. This book considers both the practical and ethical aspects of the regulatory choices available to identify the potential and limitations of an increasingly market-based regime. Bringing clarity and coherence to a complex issue, this book will act as a useful tool for environmental and public law scholars as well as other academics in a range of fields interested in biodiversity conservation. It will also provide valuable insight for policymakers, legal practitioners involved in planning, environmental and agricultural matters, public bodies with responsibility for conservation, landowners, managers and developers, individuals and NGOs dedicated to biodiversity, and students of nature conservation interested in exploring new mechanisms for achieving their objectives.
Significant growth in economic activity in the Arctic has added weight to the argument that projects must be developed responsibly and sustainably. Addressing growing concerns regarding the exploitation of the Arctic's natural resources, this timely book presents and evaluates examples of best practice in Arctic environmental impact assessment. Timo Koivurova and Pamela Lesser succinctly synthesise primary data gathered from interviews with local communities, indigenous peoples, NGOs, government officials and businesses in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Greenland, Iceland, Canada, Russia and the USA. Considering all stakeholder perspectives, they present the regulatory processes of all eight Arctic countries, and also provide helpful flowcharts that depict the process graphically for each country. Measuring these practices against the 1997 Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment in the Arctic, the only Arctic environmental impact assessment guidance document that has been officially approved by the ministers of all eight Arctic countries, this book identifies key areas where adherence to best practice is high, such as stakeholder outreach and development, as well as those areas that fall short. Thorough and accessible, Environmental Impact Assessment in the Arctic will provide an excellent reference for academics in the fields of law and environmental studies as well as for government officials and stakeholders who stand to benefit from best practice.
REDD+ (Reducing Emissions of greenhouse gases from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) is an important tool under the UNFCCC for incentivizing developing countries to adopt and scale up climate mitigation actions in the forest sector and for capturing and channeling the financial resources to do so. This Handbook eloquently examines the methodological guidance and emerging governance arrangements for REDD+, analysing how and to what extent it is embedded in the international legal framework. Organized coherently into five parts, contributions from legal experts, international relations scholars, climate change negotiators and activists explore the history and design of REDD+ in the UN climate regime, as well as linkages between REDD+ and other international agreements. The book also considers global governance for REDD+, its financial dimensions including markets and investment and future developments and legal challenges. Detailed analysis from a range of angles illustrates the interplay of international norms and institutions and maps out a legal research agenda for identifying best practice solutions. Shedding light on one of the most vibrant and fast-moving fields in international law, this comprehensive Handbook is essential reading for scholars of international law and international relations, policy makers in the area of climate change, REDD+ and land sector experts and NGOs.
This topical book examines the issues surrounding climate change and sustainability in relation to the freight transport sector. Written by an interdisciplinary team of contributors, the book approaches the topic from a multitude of perspectives, demonstrating that the sector will need to undergo significant changes in order to meet climate change targets. In addition to examining the challenges facing the transport sector, chapters also offer practical suggestions as to how the sector can achieve the required transformation. Legal methods are considered along with the application of new technologies and the implementation of alternative incentive structures as ways to promote sustainability and reduce emissions. Featuring contributions from leading authors from logistics, business, law and sustainability backgrounds, Sustainable and Efficient Transport demonstrates that a more integrated approach is needed at an EU level, to bring about the paradigm shift required for reducing transport emissions and making the sector more sustainable. This book will be a valuable resource for researchers working in both sustainability and transport. Lawyers, industry professionals and policy-makers will also benefit from insights in to the effectiveness of current policies and alternative solutions to contemporary challenges.
The rapid growth of shale gas development has led to an intense and polarizing debate about its merit. This book asks and suggests answers to the question that has not yet been systematically analysed: what laws and policies are needed to ensure that shale gas development helps to accelerate the transition to sustainability? In this groundbreaking book, more than a dozen experts in policy and academia assess the role that sustainability plays in decisions concerning shale gas development in the US and elsewhere, offering legal and policy recommendations for developing shale gas in a manner that accelerates the transition to sustainability. Contributors assess good practices from Pennsylvania to around the planet, discussing how these lessons translate to other jurisdictions. Ultimately, the book concludes that major changes in law and policy are needed to develop shale gas sustainably. Policymakers and educators alike will find this book to be a valuable resource, as it tackles the technical, social, economic and legal aspects associated with this sustainability issue. Other strengths are its clear language and middle-ground policy perspective that will make Shale Gas and the Future of Energy accessible to both students and the general public.
Countries around the world are increasingly looking to liquefied natural gas (LNG) - natural gas that has been cooled until it forms a transportable liquid - to meet growing energy demand. Energy for the 21st Century provides critical insights into the opportunities and challenges LNG faces, including its potential role in a carbon-constrained world. This comprehensive study covers topics such as the LNG value chain, the historical background and evolution of global LNG markets, trading and contracts, and an analysis of the various legal, policy, safety and environmental issues pertaining to this important fuel. Additionally, the author discusses emerging issues and technologies that may impact global LNG markets, such as the development of shale gas, the prospects of North American LNG exports, the potential role of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum and floating LNG. The author contextualizes the discussion about the importance of LNG with an analysis of why the 21st century will be the `golden age' of natural gas. Accessible and non-technical in nature, this timely book will serve as an essential reference for practitioners, scholars and anyone else interested in 21st century energy solutions.
EU climate law is one of the most dynamic and fastest growing areas of EU law. This exciting new textbook provides a comprehensive account of essential EU climate mitigation law. In addition, the contents cover a number of important and topical issues related to the EU's efforts to tackle climate change. Written by some of the key thinkers on EU climate law from the University of Groningen, each chapter addresses the relevant directives and regulations as well as their implementation issues, explaining how this affects current policy and academic debate. The chapters therefore not only describe but also critically reflect upon EU climate law. Key features include: * Comprehensive introduction to EU climate mitigation law * Discussion of the climate targets and instruments of the EU * Review of the relevant climate-related directives and regulations * Analysis of their implementation problems * Relationship between climate law and broader issues including energy law * Educational design based on reviews by climate law students The combination of educational design and analytical accuracy makes the textbook suitable for both students and professionals. This introduction is highly recommended for courses on EU climate mitigation law, also in the context of broader curricula on climate law, energy law and EU law in general.
This authoritative Research Handbook presents, for the first time, a comprehensive overview of the salient content and major developments in environmental law in transitional China. Through this rigorous examination, it gives a unique insight into the implementation problems and reform needs of environmental governance in China. This timely book explores the core concepts, basic mechanisms and key challenges of Chinese environmental law, extending the frontier of understanding in this fundamental area. Combining theory and practice, the expert contributors provide an introduction to and comments on relevant environmental laws and regulations and their latest developments. The Research Handbook builds upon previous knowledge of Chinese environmental law, divulging concerns on redressing environmental protection issues in the context of economic growth and sustainable development. Readers will gain a discerning insight into the nuances of environmental regulation in China from this extensive review. This necessary exploration of Chinese environmental law will be an indispensible reference point for academics and advanced students of environmental studies in general, and environmental law in particular. Practitioners will find the work both informative and important.
Bringing together leading international scholars in the field, this authoritative Handbook combines critical and doctrinal scholarship to illuminate some of the challenging tensions in the legal relationships between humans and the environment, and human rights and environment law. The accomplished contributors provide researchers and students with a rich source of reflection and engagement with the topic. Split into five parts, the book covers epistemologies, core values and closures, constitutionalisms, universalisms and regionalisms, with a final concluding section exploring major challenges and alternative futures. An essential resource for students and scholars of human rights law, the volume will also be of significant interest to those in the fields of environmental and constitutional law.
This Handbook provides state-of-the-art analysis by leading authors on the links between the international trade regime and health and environment concerns - concerns that make up an increasing proportion of WTO dispute settlement. Research Handbook on Environment, Health and the WTO surveys fields as diverse as climate change mitigation, non-communicable diseases, nanotechnology and public health care. The volume brings to the fore the debates and complexities surrounding these issues and their implications for the international trading system. The Handbook begins in Part I with a survey of general issues that sets a context for the more specific sectorial studies. Part II considers the most pressing issues within health regulation and trade law, whilst Part III is devoted to environmental regulation and its interface with trade law. Part IV looks specifically at aspects of the dispute settlement process and in particular standard of review, and the book concludes in Part V with a consideration of the impact of trade measures on the health and environment regimes of emerging economies. This comprehensive yet concise Handbook will appeal to academics and researchers in international trade law and environmental law, as well as trade law practitioners.
As populations become increasingly concentrated in urban centres and mega cities, while demands on transportation continue to grow, the question of how to mitigate the environmental footprint of these trends is ever more pressing. This comprehensive book demonstrates the potentially significant role of environmental taxation and other market-based instruments in meeting these challenges. Providing global insights, the book features international contributions from specialists in economics, law, technology, political economy and policy analysis. Studying environmental pricing policies in the context of urban sustainability and transportation, the contributing scholars identify cross-cutting issues to demonstrate how the use and evaluation of policy instruments can be improved. In addition to addressing the pervasive environmental impact of cities and transportation, novel case studies illustrate how the digital economy, as well as increasing globalisation, necessitate a more sustainable approach in which environmental fiscal solutions could play a vital role. Environmental Fiscal Challenges for Cities and Transport will have broad appeal for researchers and will also be a useful resource for students in law, economics and politics with an interest in urban and environmental issues. Policymakers and their staff will find its use of real-world examples and nontechnical language particularly beneficial.
Because of the complexity of the National Building Regulations document, this book has been written as a comprehensive reference to that text. It addresses both conventional and unconventional methods of home building, and is aimed at all builders, from small contractors to large developers.
The second edition of this seminal work is the only book which comprehensively addresses current environmental management in South Africa from an interdisciplinary perspective.
Key themes in environmental management including agriculture, air quality, biodiversity, energy, climate change, the coast, freshwater and marine resources, mining, protected areas, rivers, soil and waste management are covered from both scientific and legal perspectives. Legal and scientific aspects of each topic are covered by different authors, who are experts in their field.
Environmental Management in South Africa also explains the legal frameworks in regional environmental law, international environmental law, administrative law and the National Environmental Management Act.
This textbook presents key theoretical approaches to understanding issues of sustainability and environmental management, perfectly bridging the gap between engineering and environmental science. It begins with the fundamentals of environmental modelling and toxicology, which are then used to discuss qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods, and environmental assessments of product design. It discusses how business and government can work towards sustainability, focusing on managerial and legal tools, before considering ethics and how decisions on environmental management can be made. Students will learn quantitative methods while also gaining an understanding of qualitative, legal, and ethical aspects of sustainability. Practical applications are included throughout, and there are study questions at the end of each chapter. PowerPoint slides and jpegs of all the figures in the book are provided online. This is the perfect textbook on environmental studies for engineering and applied science students.
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