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This comprehensive Handbook explores the role that economics plays in water resource use, management, and policy. The contributors cover a continuum of topics that individually and jointly represent the state of the art of water economics. Leading scholars demonstrate ways in which economic theory, tools, and analyses have been used to address a variety of water-related issues over the years and, subsequently, to create better-informed policy and management decisions. Acknowledging and building upon the seminal research related to water economics, this book offers a current and provocative exploration of a variety of topics, including: * the role of institutions in developing sound water policy and water sustainability * extraction, production, and use of surface water, groundwater, and recycled water, including the conjunctive use of these resources * the use of water in industrial, residential, agricultural, and hydropower sectors as well as for the environment and ecosystems * the role of experimental economics; methods to address climate change effects and adaptation; developments in the field of nonmarket valuation; approaches to nonpoint source pollution control and salinity pollution; issues related to water in the developing world; water and economic growth; and management of international water. The Handbook of Water Economics will prove to be an enlightening, thought-provoking, and practical read for PhD students, researchers in water economics and management, water-related agency staff, and professionals interested in water-related economic issues at the local, state, national, and international levels.
Water scarcity, urban population growth, and deteriorating infrastructure are impacting water security around the globe. Struggling with the most significant drought in its recorded history, California faces all of these challenges to secure reliable water supplies for the future. The unfolding story of California water includes warnings and solutions for any region seeking to manage water among the pressures of a dynamic society and environment. Written by leading policy makers, lawyers, economists, hydrologists, ecologists, engineers, and planners, Sustainable Water reaches across disciplines to address problems and solutions for the sustainable use of water in urban areas. The solutions and ideas put forward in this book integrate water management strategies to increase resilience in a changing world. Contributors: John T. Andrew, Carolina Balazs, Celeste Cantu, Juliet Christian-Smith, Matthew Deitch, Caitlin Dyckman, Howard Foster, Julian Fulton, Peter Gleick, Brian E. Gray, Ellen Hanak, Maurice Hall, Michael Hanemann, Sasha Harris-Lovett, Matthew Heberger, G. Mathias Kondolf, Jay Lund, Damian Park, Kristen Podolak, John Radke, Isha Ray, David Sedlak, Fraser Shilling, Daniel Wendell, Robert Wilkinson, Cleo Woelfle-Erskine, Sarah Yarnell
Carbon Pricing reflects upon and further develops the ongoing and worthwhile global debate into how to design carbon pricing, as well as how to utilize the financial proceeds in the best possible way for society. The world has recently witnessed a significant downward adjustment in fossil fuel prices, which has negative implications for the future of our environment. In light of these negative developments, it is important to understand the benefits of environmental sustainability through well-documented research. This discerning book considers the design of carbon taxes and examines the consequential outcomes of different taxation compositions as regulatory instruments. Expert contributors assess a variety of national experiences to provide an empirical insight into the use of carbon taxes, emissions trading, energy taxes and excise taxes. The overarching discussion concludes that successful policies used by some countries can be implemented in other jurisdictions with minimum new research and experimentation. This astute work will benefit scholars, practitioners and policymakers alike with an interest in the fields of environmental law, environmental economics, sustainable development and taxation law.
Is there no escape from an economy that devours nature in the name of endless growth? John Thackara's answer is a rousing `yes, there is!' Drawing on a lifetime of travel in search of real-world alternatives that work, he describes in this book how communities the world over are creating a replacement economy from the ground up. Each chapter is devoted to the creative ways people in diverse contexts tackle timeless needs. From Bali to Brazil, as well as Delhi, London, and California, Thackara writes of soil restorers and river keepers, seed savers and de-pavers, cloud commuters and e-bike couriers, care farmers, food system curators, Fibreshed stewards, money designers and more. Read together, these encounters add up to a joyful new story about what an economy is actually for. In place of an obsession with stuff, money and endless growth, this book describes social practices that cherish all-of-life, not just human life.
If we are part of nature, then so is everything we make. This unique book explores this notion using the example of the car, how it is made and used and especially how we relate to it, with a view to creating a more sustainable automobility. We have been trying to make cars cleaner and more efficient, but has this really made them more sustainable? This book argues, within the context of sustainable consumption and production, that we should see the car as a natural system, subject to natural laws and processes. As part of this new perspective we need to change our attitude to cars, building more durable relationships and co-evolving with them. Revolutionary, perhaps; but if we get it right, this approach will allow us to enjoy motoring - albeit in modified form - into the future. The book draws on a range of disciplines, including industrial ecology, engineering, philosophy, anthropology, consumer psychology and object-oriented ontology, as well as providing industry examples to support its innovative case. This ground-breaking book will be of interest to academics of sustainability, socio-technical transition, management of change, engineering, biomimicry and business. It will also be of interest to automotive consultancies and those working in the car and oil industries. Paul Nieuwenhuis' innovative suggestions will certainly be of interest to government workers in industry, business and the environment, as well as various environmental NGOs.
This book compares water allocation policy in three rivers under pressure from demand, droughts and a changing climate: the Colorado, Columbia and Murray-Darling. Each river has undergone multiple decades of policy reform at the intersection of water markets and river basin governance - two prominent responses to the global water crisis often attempted and analyzed separately. Drawing on concepts and evidence about property rights and transaction costs, this book generates lessons about the factors that enable and constrain more flexible and sustainable approaches for sharing water among users and across political jurisdictions. Despite over 40 years of interest in water markets as a solution to water scarcity, they have been slow to develop. Intensified competition has also stimulated interest in river basins as the ideal unit to manage conflicts and tradeoffs across jurisdictions, but integration has proven elusive. This book investigates why progress has been slower and more uneven than expected, and it pinpoints the principles and practices associated with both successes and failures. Garrick synthesizes theoretical traditions in public policy and institutional economics, to examine the influence of path dependency and transaction costs on water allocation reform. Using evidence from historical sources, public policy analysis and institutional economics, the book demonstrates that reforms to water rights and transboundary governance arrangements must be combined and complementary to achieve lasting success at multiple scales. The original approach of this book, and its comparison of three prominent sites of reform, makes it an asset to practitioners of water policy, as well as water governance scholars and academics in public policy and economics who are focused on environmental policy, property rights and institutional change.
Environmental taxes can be efficient tools for successful environmental policy. Their use, however, has been limited in many countries. This thoughtful book explores the scope of environmental pricing and examines a variety of national experiences in environmental policy integration, to identify the most effective use of taxation and policy for environmental sustainability. Environmental taxes are seldom implemented in isolation and are applied in combination with other regulatory instruments. At issue is the critical lack of knowledge on how different policy instruments and taxes interact and work together. This perceptive book considers recent research on the environmental and economic impact of applying environmental taxes. Expert contributors come together to discuss the high potential for wider use of environmental taxation in combination with other policy instruments, and highlight key areas of current practice that must be addressed. Empirical studies of policy strategies are discussed to illustrate the extent to which current climate change policy is integrated against the proposed successful policy combinations that are presented in this insightful book. Environmental pricing will be of interest to scholars, practitioners and policymakers alike in the areas of environmental law, environmental economics and environmental sustainability.
This perceptive work presents a unique comparative legal analysis, ascertaining how regional environmental law can contribute to the prevailing pursuit of global sustainable development. The book provides an introduction to and analysis of the environmental law adhered to by each regional organisation in an accessible and discerning discussion. Regional Environmental Law analyses the manner in which four distinct regional organisations - the European Union (EU), Organization of American States (OAS), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the African Union (AU) - facilitate cooperation concerning regional environmental law in order to promote sustainable development. The fundamental environmental issues that require regional cooperation are considered: human rights and the environment, climate change and shared watercourses. Leading scholars critically analyse how states may pool sovereignty, pursuant to finding solutions to these salient environmental problems. The book puts forward conclusive thoughts about how to work towards the sustainable development agenda through both specific regional action and collaborative efforts. Researchers and students interested in international and environmental law will benefit from the comparative analysis of the respective regional organisations and their contribution to the sustainable development commitment. Practitioners and policy makers will find practical insight from the conclusions drawn.
The topics discussed in the Handbook on the Economics of Natural Resources are essential for those looking to understand how best to use and conserve the resources that form the foundation for human well-being. The expert contributors to this Handbook provide insightful solutions to many of the problems that growing populations now face. Organized into four fundamental parts, this book sketches the likely developments in the field of natural resource economics and paves the way for new thinking in the areas of: - nonrenewable resources - modeling of biological resources - conservation of biological resources - water resources. A key source of the most important research in the field, this important book will be of interest to graduate students, instructors and scholars in natural resource economics.
Sustainability partnerships were the Type-II outcomes of the 2002 Johannesburg Summit, which promised increased effectiveness in and wider participation to global environmental governance. They have quickly become the main form of collaboration between UN and non-state actors. This groundbreaking book uses the results of quantitative and qualitative research to analyze sustainability partnerships and their role in environmental governance. It focuses on the origins of and the rationale behind the concept of `public-private partnership'. With a combination of post-structuralist discourse theory and interpretative methods such as historical discourse analysis and ecocriticism not previously used in studies on partnership, Aysem Mert examines three discourses that have been rooted into the logic of partnerships: privatization of governance, sustainable development and democratic participation. Ultimately, Mert argues that these discourses help understand both the potential and structural limitations of sustainability partnerships. This revolutionary book will be useful to researchers of environmental governance, transnational and global studies, looking for an empirical and analytical interpretation of the topic. Political theorists and philosophers, as well as discourse analysts, will also find the theoretical and methodological perspectives to be of interest.
Companies are increasingly facing intense pressures to address stakeholder demands from every direction: consumers want socially responsible products; employees want meaningful work; investors now screen on environmental, social and governance criteria; "clicktivists" create social media storms over company missteps. CEOs now realize that their companies must be social as well as commercial actors, but stakeholder pressures often create trade-offs with demands to deliver financial performance to shareholders. How can companies respond while avoiding simple "greenwashing" or "pinkwashing"? This book lays out a roadmap for organizational leaders who have hit the limits of the supposed win-win of shared value to explore how companies can cope with real trade-offs, innovating around them or even thriving within them. Suggesting that the shared-value mindset may actually get in the way of progress, bestselling author Sarah Kaplan shows in The 360 Degrees Corporation how trade-offs, rather than being confusing or problematic, can actually be the source of organizational resilience and transformation.
The thoroughly revised second edition of this authoritative Handbook, complete with new chapters, comprehensively examines the current status and future directions of model-based systems in decision support and their application to sustainable development planning. The Handbook presents a full review of model-based applications in sustainable development planning, paying particular attention to environment disaster, ecosystem management, energy, infrastructure development, and agricultural systems, amongst other contemporary issues. Conceptual and policy oriented papers debate the future directions of model-based sustainable development planning. Given the rise in prominence of sustainable development planning in recent years, this Handbook will be invaluable to a wide-ranging audience including NGOs, planners, consultants, policymakers, and academics.
The implementation of sustainable consumption presents one of the greatest challenges of our era. Consumption is a wanted and necessary phenomenon, integral to our society and economy, yet our way of consuming contradicts important ecological and social long-term goals. Although research on sustainable consumption has gained in importance and been addressed by various disciplines, this original new book is one of the few to compile and summarize the important research findings. Against this background, the Handbook of Research on Sustainable Consumption provides an interdisciplinary overview of recent research on the ecological and social obstacles we face through over consumption, drawing attention to the salience of the subject and stimulating discussion in this area. In 27 chapters, leading authorities in the field provide concise and accessible expertise, covering a wide range of approaches from psychology to economics. This collection will be a useful point of reference for students, researchers and policy makers seeking a wider understanding of the state-of-the-art of sustainable consumption research.
Many believe economic growth is incompatible with ecological preservation. Green Capital challenges this argument by shifting our focus away from the scarcity of raw materials and toward the deterioration of the great natural regulatory functions (such as the climate system, the water cycle, and biodiversity). Although we can find substitutes for scarce natural resources, we cannot replace a natural regulatory system, which is incredibly complex. It is therefore critical that we introduce a new price into the economy that measures the costs of damage to these regulatory functions. This change in perspective justifies such innovations as the carbon tax, which addresses not the scarcity of carbon but the inability of the atmosphere to absorb large amounts of carbon without upsetting the climate system. Brokering a sustainable peace between ecology and the economy, Green Capital describes a range of valuation schemes and their contribution to the goals of green capitalism, proposing a new approach to natural resources that benefits both businesses and the environment.
In this important book, Herman E. Daly lays bare the weaknesses of growth economics and explains why, in contrast, a steady-state economy is both necessary and desirable. Through the course of the book, Daly develops the basic concept and theory of a steady-state economy from the 1970s limits to growth debates. In doing so, he draws on work from the classical economists, through both conflicts and agreements with neo-classical and Keynesian economists, as well as recent debates on uneconomic growth. Editorial-style policy essays substantiate Daly's argument and he provides specific application of steady-state economics to important current issues, including monetary reform, tax reform, international trade and population. The book also includes discussion and critique of ethical, as well as biophysical, presuppositions of growth. From Uneconomic Growth to a Steady-State Economy is essential reading for academics, students and researchers in the fields of ecological economics, environmental studies, economic development, resource economics and public policy.
Cities, and the built environment more broadly, are key in the global response to climate change. This groundbreaking book seeks to understand what governance tools are best suited for achieving cities that are less harmful to the natural environment, are less dependent on finite resources, and can better withstand human-made hazards and climate risks. In mapping, describing and evaluating nearly 70 traditional and highly innovative governance tools from Asia, Australia, Europe and North America, Jeroen van der Heijden uncovers the five most eminent contemporary trends in governance for urban sustainability and resilience. He also develops a series of 12 design principles that will help to develop better governance tools for improving the sustainability and resilience of today's cities and those of the future. The book is unique in drawing lessons from the theoretical literature on environmental and hazard governance into a broad empirical study. The book will be of great interest to scholars in the field of urban governance, urban planning, sustainable development and resilience, environmental and hazard governance, and climate risk adaptation and mitigation. It will also appeal to students, policymakers and organisations involved with environmental policy and governance.
Using a combination of thorough research and practical examples, Strategy and Competitiveness in Latin American Markets explains how the concept of the sustainability frontier that the book develops resolves the long-running debate on whether sustainability requires trade-offs or not. Through its exploration of a variety of sustainability challenges and opportunities, along with various sustainability models, the authors show how the sustainability frontier can be expanded through disruptive innovation, the building of new skills and by other means to secure `no trade-off' solutions. Experts in the field of sustainability in Latin America, researchers in the field of management, students of business administration and managers of companies operating in emerging countries will all find this book to be both useful and engaging.
This book shares essential insights on evaporites and their effects on dams and reservoirs. The intensity of the solution and suffusion process in evaporites (gypsum and salt) is much greater than the solution of carbonates, and evaporites are particularly vulnerable at dam and reservoir sites. Moreover, the presence of evaporites in the vicinity of dams or reservoirs often leads to serious problems: numerous dams in countries around the world (e.g. China, Germany, Iran, Iraq, Peru, Russia, Spain, the Unites States, and Venezuela) have been affected by evaporite dissolution problems. Several of these dams were seriously endangered or ultimately abandoned, even though the best available engineering prevention and remediation practices were applied. Conventional geotechnical methods based on treating the underground (e.g. grout curtains) or surface (e.g. protective blankets) were not successful. This book presents and analyzes revealing case studies in this regard. To improve geotechnical remediation in connection with preventing seepage from reservoirs situated in evaporites, particularly in gypsum, it puts forward a new chemical solution that, after painstaking laboratory testing, was successfully applied in the field.
This timely and important Handbook takes stock of progress made in our understanding of what sustainable development actually is and how it can be measured and achieved. This fully updated and revised second edition captures recent developments in the field, including 14 new chapters by internationally renowned authors from a variety of perspectives and disciplines. The authors explain that the gap between public commitments to sustainable development and real-world action towards achieving it is still significant, but not insurmountable, and that opportunities do exist to reduce that margin. Contributors synthesize the established knowledge and clearly present cutting-edge concepts from the frontier of sustainability research with direct relevance to theory and practice. Topics covered include: the fundamentals of sustainability; equity within and between generations; the capital approach; green growth; measurements and indicators of sustainability; climate change and wellbeing. This accessible, comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to exploring the theory and practice of sustainable development will prove an invaluable reference tool for researchers, students, academics and practitioners with an interest in the field of sustainable development.
This pioneering book explores the influence of human values on the willingness of individuals to pay for the conservation of individual wildlife species (and classes of these), to be for or against their survival, and to favour or oppose their harvesting. Clement Tisdell combines original theories, survey results and experimental findings to assess the economic benefit of conserving particular wild species and to suggest strategies for a sustainable future. With a detailed analysis of 25 species, covering the three classes (mammals, birds and reptiles), this book examines how variations in knowledge and social factors can influence individuals' evaluation of species. Moreover, economics and ecology are combined to propose sound policies for wildlife management and to provide estimates of the net economic benefit of conserving particular species. The first work to provide such extensive analysis of human values and conservation, this book is an essential resource for economists, ecologists and all those interested in wildlife management, environment and nature conservation.
All effects of human action will inevitably be played out within our planet's limits; any hope of infinity is an illusion. And yet, as Wolfgang Sachs warned almost twenty years ago, environmental concerns have been assimilated into the rhetoric, dynamics and power structures of development. This classic collection of trenchant and elegant explorations addresses the crisis of the Western world's relations with nature and social justice. Examining the notions of efficiency, speed, globalization and development, Sachs shows that sustainability, truly conceived, is incompatible with the worldwide rule of economism. Planet Dialectics reveals that the Western development model is fundamentally at odds with both the quest for justice among the world's people and the aspiration to reconcile humanity and nature.
The dynamism of science has been catalytic for human prosperity in recent history. Conventional perspectives of the ivory tower model of modern science are, however, rivalled by the failure of humanity to tackle global crises of an economic, environmental and social nature. Operational solutions to these pressures have grown and exposed the pitfalls of modern science to date. Research institutions globally are eschewing traditional practice, converging around ideas of transdisciplinary sustainability science. New practice based on science-society research partnerships, experiential learning in higher education and iterative and participatory modelling has become manifest. Sustainability Science for Strong Sustainability investigates the core concepts, tools and institutional strategies of this evolving field. Prominent research programs within heterodox economics, the environmental sciences and transition theory are explored through diverse case studies, revealing challenges and advancements for transdisciplinary research. The need for reform of modern science is facilitated by consideration of action points to overcome the institutional barriers of putting sustainability science into practice. Up to date knowledge on the practice of transdisciplinary research for sustainability will benefit researchers in environmental economics and environmental management. Senior policy officials active in research policy and environmental planning will find the book's analysis invaluable to their practice. Uniquely offering a broad review of transdisciplinary sustainability research, this book is constructive supplementary reading for post-graduate teaching.
Within the United States, minority and low-income communities currently bear a disproportionate amount of risk associated with pollution and other harmful environmental practices. The environmental justice movement is working to change this fact, promoting the fair and non-discriminatory treatment of all people with respect to environmental issues, policies, and regulations. This fascinating and timely volume explores the relationship between environmental justice and the government, offering a comprehensive introduction to the legal, economic, and philosophical concerns involved in pursuing environmental justice goals within a federalist system. The authors discuss two case studies in their investigation of the complex interactions between environmental justice and government. These analyses offer a comprehensive view of both the siting and regulation of polluting activities, as well as a discussion of the effects on major natural resources such as clean air and drinking water. In each case, the authors both describe current government responses to the problem and offer specific recommendations regarding what actions should be taken in the future. This authoritative book will make an invaluable addition to courses in environmental law and policy. Professionals and policymakers working in disciplines such as law, economics, environmental science, philosophy and political science will also find this a comprehensive and critical reference.
The significant challenges associated with managing waste continue to attract international scholarly attention. This international Handbook scrutinizes both developed and developing economies. It comprises original contributions from many of the most prominent scholars researching this topic. Consisting primarily of empirical research efforts - although theoretical underpinnings are also explored thoroughly - the Handbook serves to further the understanding of the behaviors of waste generators and waste processors and the array of policies influencing these behaviors. The Handbook reveals how, broadly speaking, research in the area of waste management appears to be motivated by two sources of intellectual curiosity. First is the attempt to directly or indirectly inform our understanding of the development of solid waste policy. Economic incentives, including advanced disposal fees, recycling subsidies, unit-based pricing programs, and landfill taxes, appear commonly across developed countries, and understanding how effective these policies are at diverting waste is examined carefully in the Handbook. Second, other economists are motivated to study solid waste management decisions as an avenue to understanding how incentives and norms affect individual behavior. The blossoming area of behavioral economics is especially appropriate for application to solid waste management decisions, and the Handbook contains new research contributions that add to this expanding literature. Readership will be broad including academic economists researching waste issues and researchers specializing in waste management and more widely in environmental policy, behavioral economics, and public economics. International policymakers engaged in waste management decisions will find the work enlightening.
Pledges to reform environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS) have increased over the past few years, at both global and national levels. Paying the Polluter addresses the most important issues to be considered when embarking upon these necessary reforms. In this unique work, leading experts explore the definition of EHS, how they can be identified and measured and assess their impacts and the potential benefits of reform. Barriers and opportunities for EHS reform are elaborated with examples of successes and failures. A practical subsidy reform tool is also presented, giving guidance to help develop transparent inventories of subsidies and road maps for future development. Demonstrating how subsidy reform may contribute to a better environment, support fiscal reform and address social and economic objectives, this authoritative book will appeal to policy makers and their advisors all over the world. It will also be a useful sourcebook for academics interested in concrete applications of environmental economics. Finally it should prove a rich and informative read for anyone looking for facts and arguments supporting green budget reforms.
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