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Pledges to reform environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS) have increased over the past few years, at both global and national levels. Paying the Polluter addresses the most important issues to be considered when embarking upon these necessary reforms. In this unique work, leading experts explore the definition of EHS, how they can be identified and measured and assess their impacts and the potential benefits of reform. Barriers and opportunities for EHS reform are elaborated with examples of successes and failures. A practical subsidy reform tool is also presented, giving guidance to help develop transparent inventories of subsidies and road maps for future development. Demonstrating how subsidy reform may contribute to a better environment, support fiscal reform and address social and economic objectives, this authoritative book will appeal to policy makers and their advisors all over the world. It will also be a useful sourcebook for academics interested in concrete applications of environmental economics. Finally it should prove a rich and informative read for anyone looking for facts and arguments supporting green budget reforms.
This timely volume recognizes that traditional policy approaches to reduce human impacts on the environment through technological change - for example, emphasizing resource efficiency and the development of renewable energy sources - are insufficient to meet the most pressing sustainability challenges of the twenty-first century. Instead, the editors and contributors argue that we must fundamentally reconfigure our lifestyles and social institutions if we are to make the transition toward a truly sustainable future. These expert contributions pinpoint specific areas in which innovation will be required. These include economic policies, socio-technical systems of production and consumption, and dominant social practices. Drawing on these and other diverse areas of scholarship, this fascinating book highlights new conceptual frameworks for achieving the twin sustainability goals of decreased resource use and enhanced individual and societal well-being. Students, professors and policymakers in ecological economics, innovation studies, environmental policy and many other related fields will find much of interest in this pathbreaking volume.
There are few sectors where `getting things done sustainably' is as important as it is for the water sector. From drinking water and sanitation to water use in agriculture, industry and ecosystems, Rafael Ziegler and his co-authors investigate the contribution of social entrepreneurship to the sustainable use of water. Using detailed case studies from Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America, the authors assess the role and potential of social entrepreneurship for the sustainable use of water. In addition, they examine the ethics and politics of new ideas for sustainability in the water sector. In so doing, they critically discuss the impact of these new innovations, with the emphasis on ideas changing heads rather than money changing hands. By bringing together questions from ecology, ethics, management and political science, and drawing on research in close collaboration with practitioners across the world, the approach taken is both inter- and trans-disciplinary. The result will be of significant interest to researchers and practitioners in social entrepreneurship and social innovation, as well as in water and sustainability politics.
Global Biodiversity Finance sets out the case for scaling up Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) at the international level. The book explores how International Payments for Ecosystem Services (IPES) can help capture the global willingness-to-pay for biodiversity, and how the resulting revenues can be used efficiently to encourage conservation and the sustainable supply of ecosystem services, on which we all depend. This timely volume includes examples of promising initiatives from around the world, supporting an agenda for action to make IPES a reality. Key questions addressed in this volume include: * Which ecosystem services are most likely to attract voluntary international payments? * How can we assess the international demand for particular ecosystem services? * How can potential importers of intangible ecosystem services ensure they receive value for money? * What is needed to become a competitive exporter of ecosystem services? * What kind of brokering and other services are needed to facilitate agreements between importers and exporters of ecosystem services? * What examples exist of international payments for ecosystem services, and what do they tell us about the potential for scaling up IPES? Researchers, teachers, policy makers, civil servants and technical staff of NGOs working at the interface between business and nature should find much useful material in this book.
In 2012, Australia took the major step of introducing a carbon price, involving the creation of a system of emissions permits initially issued at a fixed price. Carbon Pricing brings together experts instrumental in the development, and operation, of Australia's carbon policy who have played a significant role in the broader debate over climate change policy. Together they have achieved an in-depth analysis of Australia's policy stance on pricing carbon and its implications for the wider economy. While the future of carbon pricing is itself unclear in Australia, the experiences, insights and conclusions outlined herein will prove invaluable to a global audience. The assessment of the initial operation of the carbon price provides a wide range of insights into the problems of mitigating climate change, and the prospects for the future. The critical analysis will provide a valuable resource to inform wider international debates concerning alternative mechanisms for internalising the carbon externality, tax reform, climate scepticism and carbon farming initiatives. With its interdisciplinary approach, Carbon Pricing, will appeal to scholars and researchers of economics in general and climate change, natural resources and energy policy in particular. Those organisations and policymakers involved in similar experiments and processes in other countries will find the experiences and analysis invaluable.
In recent years, international, inter-governmental entities have acknowledged the importance of civil society for engaging stakeholders in environmental change, especially at the local community level, and in promoting democracy. In Russia, efforts by NGOs to promote reform since the fall of the Soviet Union have been aimed at achieving both objectives. This fascinating and highly illuminating book explores the political, legal, and attitudinal barriers to environmental reform in Russia since 1991. The authors, renowned experts in the field, explore efforts to develop a mature civil society in Russia, and analyse the policy views of environmental groups, the media, and the scientific community. Three important case studies underpin the study: suspended plans to build an oil pipeline near Lake Baikal; management of Cold War-generated radioactive waste at Chelyabinsk; and public reaction to the introduction of genetically modified foods. The conclusion is that although civil society groups face obstacles in the form of apathy, state-imposed constraints on their activities, and agency reluctance to confer on decisions, there are some successes in reversing decisions due in part to NGO pressures yielding reform. This path-breaking book will be of enormous interest to scholars, researchers and students focusing on comparative environmental policy and politics, contemporary public policy in Russia, and international politics.
Business sustainability has advanced from greenwashing and branding to being a business imperative. Stakeholders, including shareholders, demand, regulators require, and companies now need to report their sustainability performance. No longer is this a choice for businesses. A decade ago, fewer than 50 companies released sustainability reports, and now more 8,000 global public companies disclose sustainability performance information on some or all five economic, governance, social, ethical, and environmental (EGSEE) dimensions of sustainability performance, and this trend is expected to continue. Indeed, more than 6,000 European public companies would be required to disclose their environmental, social, governance and diversity information for their 2017 reporting year. However, the proper determination of sustainability performance, accurate and reliable reporting and independent assurance of sustainability information remain major challenges for organizations of all types and sizes. Through reading this book, you will: Identify sustainability strategies to create innovation in new products, services, energy-efficiency, environmental facilities and green initiatives. Understand the role and responsibilities of all participants in the corporate reporting process, including directors, officers, internal auditors, external auditors, legal counsel, and investors. See ways to improve public trust, investor confidence, business reputation, employee satisfaction, corporate culture, social responsibility and environmental performance. Learn all five economic, governance, social, ethical and environmental (EGSEE) dimensions of sustainability performance separately and their integrated and interactive effects on achieving the goal of creating sustainable value for all stakeholders, including shareholders. Learn how to adopt best practices in sustainability development and performance, and deliver effective integrated sustainability reporting and assurance.
The 'resource curse' is the view that countries with extensive natural resources tend to suffer from a host of undesirable outcomes, including the weakening of state capacity, authoritarianism, fewer public goods, war, and economic stagnation. This book debunks this view, arguing that there is an 'institutions curse' rather than a resource curse. Legacies endemic to the developing world have impelled many countries to develop natural resources as a default sector in lieu of cultivating modern and diversified economies, and bad institutions have also condemned nations to suffer from ills unduly attributed to minerals and oil. Victor Menaldo also argues that natural resources can actually play an integral role in stimulating state capacity, capitalism, industrialization, and democracy, even if resources are themselves often a symptom of underdevelopment. Despite being cursed by their institutions, weak states are blessed by their resources: greater oil means more development, both historically and across countries today.
In this classic work that continues to inspire many readers, Jim Lovelock puts forward his idea that the Earth functions as a single organism. Written for non-scientists, Gaia is a journey through time and space in search of evidence in support of a radically different model of our planet. In contrast to conventional belief that life is passive in the face of threats to its existence, the book explores the hypothesis that the Earth's living matter influences air, ocean, and rock to form a complex, self-regulating system that has the capacity to keep the Earth a fit place for life. Since Gaia was first published, Jim Lovelock's hypothesis has become a hotly debated topic in scientific circles. In a new Preface to this edition, he outlines his view of the present state of the debate. Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.
The energy world is dangerously divided between fossil fuel producers and environmentalists. A vicious head-on fight that affects everything - world poverty, governments, environmental catastrophe, big business. David Howell - Lord Howell of Guidlford - outlines the how we got here and the way ahead
This book summarizes assessments of the Paris Agreement to provide an excellent introduction to this research field. The AIM/CGE (Asia-Pacific Integrated Modeling /Computable General Equilibrium) model, which is the core of AIM modeling framework, is used for the assessment. The first part focuses on global issues, presenting both short-term (a few decades) and long-term (century scale) assessments in the context of the Agreement's ultimate climate goal. It also discusses policy implementation and climate risk. Part 2 is a collection of assessments of individual Asian countries, providing insights into the national situations and detailed analyses. It includes contributions from Asian countries as well as NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan) members. The main conclusion is that many countries require changes to their energy systems change and societal transformation in order to meet emissions targets. Part 3 describes in detail the AIM/CGE model, which is used to evaluate the climate and energy policies by simulating the future economic and energy and environmental situation in the Asia-Pacific region. This section can be used as a standard text on CGE modelling in climate change mitigation.
This unique book illustrates that in order to address the growing urgency of issues around environmental and resource limits, it is clear that we need to develop effective policies to promote durable changes in behaviour and transform how we view, and consume, goods and services. It suggests that in order to develop effective policies in this area, it is necessary to move beyond a narrow understanding of `how individuals behave', and to incorporate a more nuanced approach that encompasses behavioural influences in different societies, contexts and settings. The editors draw together analyses and case studies from across the globe and from multi-disciplinary perspectives in order to offer a broad-based psychological, sociological and economic understanding of consumer behaviour. The expert contributors, from both academic and practitioner backgrounds - discuss in detail the barriers, challenges and opportunities that face governments in relation to policy and actions at local, national and supranational levels. This fascinating book will prove a thought-provoking read for academics, researchers and students in the fields of environmental studies - particularly sustainability - and public policy. Practitioners and policy makers concerned with achieving sustainable lifestyles will find this book an invaluable reference tool.
Taking stock of emerging planet data and analysing policies during the global crisis, Earth Economics provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to basic macroeconomic concepts, methods and principles, and their application to real world data. Written principally for students seeking an introduction to macroeconomics, this book offers a completely new angle to policy, with a focus on the truly global level. Underpinned by empirical orientation of state-of-the-art data, it introduces earth economics as the study of the economy of our planet from the perspective of an autarkic system (a `closed economy'), focussing on policymaking that improves global rather than national welfare. Key features include: * A discourse on issues fundamental to the understanding of macroeconomics. * An introduction to economists' tools and concepts. Non-economists will learn how to survive in a discussion with economists: where to ask questions, where to listen, where to skip and where to ignore. * Presentation of extensive and wide-ranging data in a consistent and comprehensive framework. * In-depth treatment of key concepts including: aggregates, autarky, closed economies, current accounts, earth economics, data, macroeconomics, microeconomics, development and global public goods. * Provision of a thorough, working understanding of the subject matter via exercises set throughout the book, including: questions on the text, calculations, formulating arguments and preparation, analysis and interpretation of data and figures. See the companion website - www.eartheconomics.info for updates and additional information.
This book focuses on three critical issues pertaining to the broader goal of sustainable development - namely, the degenerative forces of globalisation, ecological sustainability requirements, and how best to negotiate the economic transition process. While the applicability of ecological sustainability to sustainable development is obvious, the association between economic transition and sustainable development, and, more particularly, how globalisation forces can impact negatively on the sustainable development process, is poorly understood. Philip Lawn brings together some of the leading practitioners in the field of sustainable development to discuss these issues and to outline ways to achieve sustainable development without the perceived need for continuous growth. The book culminates with a number of policy recommendations and institutional modifications to assist nations and the global community to achieve sustainable development. This book will prove invaluable for academics and researchers in ecological, environmental and natural resource economics as well as sustainable development, globalisation and international trade. Practitioners and policy-makers at all levels will find this resource both interesting and instrumental to their work.
Now that the Earth has reached the limits of its biophysical carrying capacity, we have to change technologies, social practices and social norms relating to material production and consumption to ensure that we do not further jeopardize the functioning of our planet's life support systems. Through research, education and civic engagement, universities have a pivotal role to play in this transition. This timely book explores how universities are establishing living laboratories for sustainable development, and examines the communication networks and knowledge infrastructures that underpin impact both on and beyond the campus. The expert contributors present case studies of living laboratories being built in leading universities across four continents. Their aim is to cultivate the transition to sustainable development by actively fostering social and technological change to improve use of natural resources and reduce pollution. They are designed to link research, education and practice and to integrate knowledge across disciplines to develop more socially robust approaches to improving sustainability. Directing attention to what enables and constrains learning in communities of multiple and very diverse stakeholders in such laboratories can contribute to a better general understanding of factors influencing the chance of success (or failure), and the institutional arrangements, norms and values that accompany it. Focussing on social learning processes to drive societal change for sustainable development, this fascinating book will prove an invaluable read for academics, researchers, students and policy makers in the fields of higher education, regional and urban studies, public policy and the environment, and development studies.
Using a selection of authoritative and original contributions, this timely book explores the uncertainty surrounding the impact of decisions undertaken to manage ecosystem services worldwide. Invariably, the policies designed and implemented to manage forests, wetlands, and marine and coastal environments often involve conflicts of interest between various stakeholders. This has added an additional layer of complexity in the context of developing countries where institutions and governance are weak or absent. Economic valuation and the subsequent design of innovative response tools such as payment for ecosystem services (PES) have the potential to offer far greater transparency. In the case of LDCs, the identification of suitable institutions for executing these tools is also of vital importance. With a strong policy focus, the contributors synthesise the scientific approaches to PES, valuation, trade-offs, equity and the institutional requirements to operationalize a credible concept of economic value. The book also addresses the behavioral foundations of creating the incentive design and response policies for ecosystem management. This book will prove helpful to ecosystems management researchers and postgraduate students of conservation and development. Conservation managers, decision makers and development practitioners will also find this resource both interesting and beneficial to their work.
This timely volume provides fascinating insights into emerging developments in the field of legal governance of the environment at a time when environmental governance is increasingly concerned with far more than legal doctrine. The expert contributors are concerned with the totality of arrangements through which power and resources are deployed to protect and restore natural resources, and how the costs and benefits of this are allocated. They explore key issues such as: how the community exercises its democratic rights; how government responds to the needs of current and future generations and balances the interests of the powerful with the powerless; the freedoms and responsibilities of commerce and the holders of property; and the ways in which laws and policies are informed by science and other perspectives. The various ways in which legal scholarship is pivotal to good governance are thus highlighted, as is the extent of innovation being generated by current ecological, economic and social challenges. Clearly demonstrating the increasing breadth and depth of environmental law scholarship, this thought-provoking book will prove an invaluable reference tool for academics, students and researchers focusing on environmental law and development.
The 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg is remembered mainly for the promotion of a novel form of global governance: the so-called `partnerships for sustainable development'. This book provides a first authoritative assessment of partnerships for sustainable development, ten years after the Johannesburg Summit. The extensive research builds on an exclusive Global Sustainability Partnerships Database and a series of in-depth qualitative case studies. Key questions studied in this book include the overall effectiveness and influence of partnerships, their geographical, functional and organizational scope, and their legitimacy. This unique book systematically investigates the questions of emergence, influence and legitimacy, which will prove invaluable for scholars and students interested in global environmental governance and sustainability, public-private partnerships, sustainability at the UN level and environmental governance beyond international agreements and policies.
This fascinating volume has at its heart a simple but powerful premise: that a clean and safe environment is not a commodity to be allocated on the basis of purchasing power, nor a privilege to be allocated through political power, but rather a basic human right. Building upon this premise, James K. Boyce explores the many ways in which economics can be refashioned into an instrument for advancing human well-being and environmental health. Comprising a decade's worth of essays written since the publication of the author's pathbreaking book, The Political Economy of the Environment (2002), this volume discusses a number of diverse environmental issues through an economist's lens. Topics covered include environmental justice, disaster response, globalization and the environment, industrial toxins and other pollutants, cap-and-dividend climate policies, and agricultural biodiversity. The first economics book to explore the idea that the environment belongs in equal measure to us all, this pioneering volume will hold great interest for students, professors and researchers of both economics and environmental studies.
A Dictionary of Climate Change and the Environment bridges the gap between the many disciplines encompassing climate change, environmental economics, environmental sciences, and environmental studies. It defines a comprehensive set of over 3700 words used across these fields to help policy makers, students, and professionals achieve a holistic view of environmental issues. The Dictionary also features: introductory primers to major topic areas; recommended reading for particular topics and specific words or concepts; and seven appendices, including a catalog of scientific symbols, units, and conversions, as well as an expansive listing and description of selected environmental treaties. The extensive and accessible nature of the content renders this book an indispensable reference for practitioners requiring an informed and balanced description of key concepts and issues. This resource will be extremely valuable to policymakers and professionals working on climate change and other environmental issues, and to postgraduate and undergraduate students in climate change and environmental studies, as well as to academics and other practitioners working on multidisciplinary environmental issues outside their areas of expertise.
The thoroughly revised second edition of this authoritative Handbook, complete with new chapters, comprehensively examines the current status and future directions of model-based systems in decision support and their application to sustainable development planning. The Handbook presents a full review of model-based applications in sustainable development planning, paying particular attention to environment disaster, ecosystem management, energy, infrastructure development, and agricultural systems, amongst other contemporary issues. Conceptual and policy oriented papers debate the future directions of model-based sustainable development planning. Given the rise in prominence of sustainable development planning in recent years, this Handbook will be invaluable to a wide-ranging audience including NGOs, planners, consultants, policymakers, and academics.
This unique textbook offers comprehensive coverage of the economics of climate change and climate policy, and is a suitable guide for advanced undergraduate, post-graduate, and doctoral students. Topics discussed include the costs and benefits of adaptation and mitigation, discounting, uncertainty, policy instruments, and international agreements. Key features of the second edition: * In-depth treatment of the economics of climate change * careful explanations of concepts and their application to climate policy * customizable integrated assessment model that illustrates all issues discussed * specific usage guidelines for each level of reader * companion website featuring data, extra reading, quizzes, videos, and more to support seminar sessions and further exploration of the topic * discussion of the latest developments in theory and policy * a stronger empirical basis than the first edition. This book is an essential text for advanced undergraduate and masters students in economics, climate change, and environmental policy, and an excellent resource for researchers and practitioners looking for a key text to support them across all of their teaching.
This book provides a wide-ranging comparative analysis of contemporary economic, social, political and environmental change in small islands, island states and territories, through every ocean. It focuses on those island realms conventionally perceived as developing, rather than developed, in the Caribbean, Pacific and Indian Oceans. John Connell examines the decline of agriculture and the rise of tourism, the problems of urbanization, and the particular role of migration and remittances, within a culture of migration. He seeks to balance economic challenges with environmental threats, notably that of climate change, and social changes with the survival of culture, pointing to awkward and hybrid development futures. This unique study comprehensively balances environmental, social and economic changes to provide a more wide-ranging assessment of sustainability that will be invaluable for academics and postgraduate students on environment and international development courses.
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