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This unique and up-to-date book analyses the functioning of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) and assesses the extent to which relevant legislation has affected its capacity to promote cost-effective reduction of European carbon emissions. The author investigates whether inefficiency has been caused by both the ETS cap setting procedure and by the ETS relevant allocation rule, as defined by Directive 2003/87/EC. He then considers whether the new Directive 2009/29/EC, which reforms the ETS institutional design, is likely to improve the scheme's effectiveness by reducing the risk of carbon leakage - which could potentially be a consequence of implementing a unilateral policy across the asymmetric political landscape of Europe. This well-documented book will appeal to researchers and postgraduate students in environmental law and environmental economics, as well as policymakers within environment, industry and economics, and electric and industrial operators and stakeholders. Environmental NGOs, energy and environmental consulting groups, members of the European Commission, and energy and environmental think-tanks will also find much to interest them in this insightful book.
Containing an authoritative set of original essays, Environmental Taxation and Climate Change provides fresh insights and analysis on how environmental sustainability can be achieved through fiscal policy. Written by distinguished environmental taxation scholars from around the world, this timely volume covers a range of hotly debated subjects including carbon related taxation in OECD countries, implications of environmental tax reforms, innovative environmental taxation and behavioural strategies, as well as many other relevant topics. This up-to-date and well-informed book will appeal to policymakers in government as well as students, researchers and academics in environmental law and other academic disciplines.
This insightful book discusses the use of Cost - Benefit Analysis (CBA) for transport policy options from an ethical perspective. Each detailed chapter deals with issues such as; the use and ethical aspects of CBA in transport, social exclusion, the environment and long term sustainability, safety, ethics of research and modelling transport. It summarizes ethics-based critics on CBA and discusses their relevance for accessibility, the environment and safety. In addition it explores ethical dilemmas of doing CBAs and CBA related research. The book concludes with possible avenues for furthering exploring the links between transport and ethics. Transport and Ethics will appeal to researchers in the area of CBA for transport, postgraduate and undergraduate students in transport economics, transport policy, transport planning and transport geography, as well as policy makers in the area of transport.
Environmental Taxation in China and Asia-Pacific contains an integrated set of detailed chapters providing insights and analysis on how fiscal policy can be used to achieve environmental sustainability. Highly topical chapters include energy tax policy in China, environmental fiscal reform, carbon tax policy in northeast Asia and environmental taxation strategies in China, Asia and Australia, as well as many other relevant topics. Written by distinguished environmental taxation scholars from around the world, the emphasis of this book is on finding solutions to environmental problems which merit serious consideration by policy makers as well as academics in environmental law and other academic disciplines.
Major contemporary issues and debates relating to the sustainable use of energy are addressed in this far-reaching Handbook. The contributing authors discuss the ongoing debates about sustainability and energy use, energy economics, renewable energy, efficiency and climate policy. New and original chapters from leading academics cover the full spectrum of relevant research including: definitions of sustainability in energy use; consumer behaviour and energy markets; the impacts of innovation and new technologies; energy economics and climate modelling; low carbon economies and renewable energies. The authors critically engage with perspectives from developed and developing countries from both global and regional standpoints. This Handbook will make a timely and important contribution to the study of energy, climate change and climate economics, and will prove essential reading for international researchers in the fields of natural resources, climate change and energy. Students in environmental science faculties, economics departments, business schools and engineering schools will also find this important and enriching compendium insightful. Similarly, policy-makers in energy and environment ministries and international organizations will find much topical debate to engage them.
Non-market environmental valuation (NMEV) is undergoing a period of increased growth in both application and development as a result of increasing recognition of the role of economics in environmental policy issues. Against this backdrop, The International Handbook on Non-Market Environmental Valuation brings together world leaders in the field to advance the development and application of NMEV as a tool for policy-making. The expert contributors provide insights into the state of the art across the spectrum of both revealed and stated preference methods and highlight new directions being taken. A sequence of topical applications demonstrate various techniques and illustrate what can be achieved using NMEV: deliberately diverse case studies are drawn from Europe, North America, Asia and Australia with valuation targets ranging across use and non-use values of the environment. A number of reviews of cutting-edge issues are also presented. This outstanding resource will enable those interested in environmental valuation from theoretical, practical or policy perspectives to bring themselves to the forefront of developments and practice. As such, this Handbook will prove invaluable to a wide-ranging audience encompassing academics, researchers, students, practitioners and consultants involved in environmental economics and NMEV.
Choice modelling is an area of growing popularity as many researchers and consultants seek to find better ways to explain the choices made by individuals, households and firms in many application contexts such as transportation, health services, environmental science, marketing, finance, economics, tourism, education, employment and taking a vacation. Choice modelling as a field begin as long ago as 1927 but it was the research in the 1960s and 1970s that cemented the field a dominant one for studying choice. This authoritative volume, along with an original introduction by the editors, brings together seminal papers that laid out the main features of the booming literature on discrete choice modelling. This timely collection will be of immense value to anyone with an interest in this evolving field of study.
Through a combination of global data analysis and focused country level analysis, this timely book provides answers to the most pertinent country and industry specific questions defining the current relationship between technology, natural resources and economic growth. Shunsuke Managi takes a distinctive approach by focusing on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress and, in doing so, looks at ways to ensure productivity improvements in the face of increasingly stringent environmental regulations and natural resource depletion. The findings in this important book demonstrate how successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. Technology, Natural Resources and Economic Growth will provide a valuable resource for a wide readership including postgraduate students, researchers, academics and policy makers working in the fields of environmental and ecological economics.
This book covers the elements involved in achieving sustainability in the textiles and clothing sector. The chapters covered in different volumes of this series title aim to cover all the distinctive areas earmarked for achieving sustainable development in the textile and clothing industry. This first volume is dedicated to the initial phases of life cycle, i.e. raw materials and manufacturing phases of textile products. This book aims to cover the sustainable raw materials, technologies and processing methods to achieve sustainable textile products. There are plenty of raw materials available today to cater the needs of sustainable textiles and apparels including organic materials, recycled and biodegradable raw materials for textile applications. Similarly, many innovative methods to process textile materials to achieve sustainability in the supply chain along with various processing technologies to manufacture textile products sustainably. This first volume covers the titles of these areas in a comprehensive way.
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL BESTSELLER FROM THE AUTHOR OF THE WORLD IS FLAT We all sense it: something big is going on. Life is speeding up, and it is dizzying. Here Thomas L. Friedman reveals the tectonic movements that are reshaping our world, how to adapt to this new age and why, sometimes, we all need to be late. 'A master class ... As a guide for perplexed Westerners, this book is very hard to beat ... an honest, cohesive explanation for why the world is the way it is, without miracle cures or scapegoats' John Micklethwait, The New York Times Book Review 'Wonderful ... admirably honest ... injects a badly needed dose of optimism into the modern debate' Gillian Tett, Financial Times 'His main piece of advice for individuals, corporations, and countries is clear: Take a deep breath and adapt. This world isn't going to wait for you' Fortune 'A humane and empathetic book' David Henkin, The Washington Post
This important book sheds light on the ways in which modern tools of welfare economics can be used to assess the benefits and costs of resource conflicts involving hydropower. The chapters highlight key methodological issues in this area; ranging from the intersection between cost-benefit analysis and behavioral economics, to the value of load balancing services provided by hydropower. The inclusion of insights from expert contributors from both sides of the Atlantic brings a unique and interesting range of viewpoints to the work. Several factors suggest that resource conflicts involving moving water are likely to be even more difficult to resolve today than they have been in the past. The contributors, top scholars in resource economics, consider a variety of issues through the lens of cost-benefit analysis. In the first part of the book, they address specific cases and issues from North America and Europe. The book closes with a more general look at the topic. Academics and students interested in applied welfare economics, especially cost-benefit analysis and energy economics, along with government officials in the energy-environment nexus and private sector analysts will all find much of interest and value in this volume.
This well-researched book focuses on international governance of crop diversity and agricultural innovation. It highlights the implications that the future control of food, including access to agricultural resources and technologies, might have for global food security. Claudio Chiarolla analyses developmental implications of global regulatory reforms that impact on access to agricultural knowledge, science and technology for sustainable development. Current global arrangements fall short of halving the proportion of people who suffer from hunger in accordance with the Millennium Development Goals' framework. Therefore, the book proposes ways to achieve international equity in the way agricultural research is conducted, how its results are disseminated and the benefits shared. This definitive study will be appreciated by anyone interested in intellectual property, agricultural innovation, environmental policy, biotechnology and associated regulatory challenges. It will be a valuable resource for policymakers and practitioners, legislators, academic professionals, civil society activists and scholars in legal, environment and development studies.
Climate Change and Growth in Asia is a comprehensive analysis of the major issues of climate change and global warming and their possible impacts on the growth of major Asian economies. The book addresses the climate change crisis in Asia within the context of three major challenges to growth: population, poverty and greenhouse gas emissions. The contributors of the book argue that, like globalisation, the effects of climate change are all-encompassing and recognise no national boundaries. Therefore, the issues emanating from this looming challenge must also be examined beyond the national boundaries and debated at global, regional and national levels simultaneously. The authors investigate the opportunities created by globalisation via trade, knowledge and the information economy, but climate change - induced by increased greenhouse gas emissions - risks restricting the opportunities created thereof. For those who follow Asian economies - especially graduate students of Asian studies, international business, the environment and economic development of Asia - this book is an invaluable resource. Furthermore, with its multidimensional focus and cross-cultural practical examples, it is an essential read for policymakers, including the Asian governments and international agencies such as the United Nations.
A First-Hand Look at the High-Performance Civano Development
This GreenSource book offers a complete survey of Civano, the largest high-performance mixed-use community in the United States. Located in Tucson, Arizona, Civano encompasses high standards of resource conservation, sustainability, and solar energy use.
Inside the Civano Project features insider information on the planning, funding, building, and management of this development, which integrates residential communities with shopping, workplace, school, and civic facilities, as well as parks and natural open spaces. The book discusses the zoning and building code guidelines, sustainable building materials, energy standards, and water conservation technologies that make Civano ahead of its time.
Inside the Civano Project covers: Behind-the-scenes preconstruction discussions Site analysis, planning, and zoningInsights from members of the Civano development teamThe Congress for the New UrbanismThe LEED-Neighborhood Development programPublic/private land development strategiesThe Urban Lands ActThe Integrated Method of Performance and Cost Tracking (IMPACT) SystemEnergy and water use monitoringPhotographs of CivanoChallenges, pitfalls, and lessons learned throughout Civano's development
This volume includes a series of previously published papers that both illustrate basic principles in the economics of pollution control and represent recent advances in the field over the last fifteen years. This authoritative collection includes seminal papers, written by leading scholars in the field, which relate to the overarching issue of designing pollution control policies to reduce environmental threats. The editor successfully covers a wide range of contemporary contexts and issues and includes both theoretical papers and empirical analyses of the impacts of pollution control policies. This volume will serve as an excellent source of reference for researchers, advanced students and practicing economists interested in a contemporary overview of the field.
This book reports and rationalizes the state-of-the-art concerning the social costs of electricity generation. Social costs are assessed by adding to the private generation costs, the external costs associated with damages to human health, the environment, crops, materials, and those related to the consequences of climate change. The authors consider the evolution of these costs up to 2030 for major electricity generating technologies and, using these estimates, evaluate policy options for external cost internalization, providing quantitative scenarios by country and primary fuel for 2010, 2020 and 2030. While mainly focusing on European countries, the book also examines the situation in key emerging economies such as China, India, Brazil and Turkey. With an analysis of the policies for external costs internalization, this invaluable book will appeal to energy policymakers, research institutions focusing on energy, environmental and energy NGOs and trade associations, as well as energy companies.
The capacity of mixed forests to mitigate climate change effects by increasing resilience and lowering risks is pinpointed as an opportunity to highlight the role of tree species rich forests as part of complex socio-ecological systems. This book updates and presents the state-of-the-art of mixed forest performance in terms of regeneration, growth, yield and delivery of ecosystem services. Examples from more than 20 countries in Europe, North Africa and South America provide insights on the interplay between structure and functionining, stability, silviculture and optimization of management of this type of forests. The book also analyses the role of natural mixed forests and mixed plantations in the delivery of ecosystem services and the best modelling strategy to study mixed forest dynamics. The book is intended to serve as a reference tool for students, researchers and professionals concerned about the management of mixed forests in a context of social and environmental change.
Firms adopt a wide variety of ecological strategies, ranging from the development of innovative products with reduced environmental impact to lobbying against governmental attempts to set standards for the way in which firms deal with the natural environment. This book explores this variety and is the first to provide a coherent evolutionary approach to the ecological strategies of firms. Drawing on insights from organization and management sciences and innovation studies, the author outlines an evolutionary framework enabling a deeper understanding of how firms shape ecological strategies and interact to create inertia or change at the level of systems of production and consumption. This framework is applied to the coffee and automobile production and consumption systems, yielding insight into the complex dynamics through which such systems evolve in dealing with ecological impact. The book advances theoretical insight into business strategies and the natural environment and illuminates the dynamics of production and consumption systems. Scholars, students and practitioners from organization and management sciences, innovation studies and industrial ecology interested in the relationship between business and the natural environment will find this book invaluable.
This concise Handbook examines welfare measurement problems in a dynamic economy, focusing on the welfare-economic foundations for social accounting. With environmental accounting becoming an increasingly important area of research, this timely Handbook assesses the ways in which the system of national accounts should be modified to accurately reflect the social value of economic activity, and how the comprehensive (or `green') net national product ought to be measured. It also addresses the principles for measuring welfare in a community at a given point in time, cost-benefit analysis for measuring welfare change and the principles for measuring sustainability, all of which have played important roles in the development of theories of social accounting. Covering a broad range of topics on environmental accounting such as endogenous risk and social accounting, money metrics welfare measures, public sector aspects of social accounting, dynamic cost-benefit analysis, and genuine saving, this unique Handbook will be a stimulating read for researchers and graduate students focusing on welfare economics and environmental economics.
Written by leading international experts in the field, this book reveals the various economic effects from climate change policies introduced at national and international levels. They describe actual applications of climate change policies in the main emitting countries. After the Copenhagen climate change summit, it was clear that there was a requirement for a comprehensive analysis of climate change policies - costs and benefits. Climate Change Policies is an eloquent insight into the foundations, design and effects of climate change policies. It includes chapters on public policies and climate change impacts, adaptation, mitigation, effects on competitiveness, new technologies, distributional concerns and the international dimension. With an emphasis on the economic aspects associated with climate change policies, this book will be invaluable for academics and researchers of environment economics and climate change policy. Policymakers, journalists and scientists will also find much to interest them in this enlightening resource.
Current systems thinking in urban and environmental planning provides ways to consider hidden forces behind both planned and consequential changes, in order that we can express, check, and clarify our mental models of the structure and function of these systems. In this path-breaking book, Anastassios Perdicoulis progresses the conception and expression of the planning problem as an `extended mental model'. In doing so he concisely expresses the essential elements of strategic planning (conditions, objectives, action) in a visual form which both stimulates and clearly communicates reasoning. As a result, concerns, defined objectives, and corresponding actions are uniquely linked. He goes on to illustrate how the structural and functional organization of the target system extends naturally into the planning process, and how decision-making therefore becomes based on systems learning. This challenging book will enhance the ability of spatial planners of all levels, especially students and newly qualified professionals, to prepare effective plan proposals. Strategy consultants will also find it a useful tool in preparing improved plan proposals and communicating more effectively with clients. Additionally, the book will assist government bodies to focus on the crux of development problems and reach balanced decisions more quickly. The enhanced problem formulation method presented in this volume is sure to prove an invaluable tool for researchers, students, and consultants in related fields including: operations research, system dynamics, business management, impact assessment, landscape architecture and environmental engineering.
This two-volume collection brings together critical essays on the economics of climate change, describing advances in the field ranging from the Kyoto Protocol carbon market, to sustainability criteria, international trade, and the management of catastrophic risks. Prepared by one of the leading academics in this pertinent and expanding field and including a new introductory essay to the collection, The Economics of Climate Change will certainly be an important resource for academics and policymakers alike.
Economics and Ecosystems demonstrates how the concepts of economic efficiency, sustainability and equity can be applied in ecosystem management. The book presents an overview of these three concepts, a framework for their analysis and modelling, and three case studies. Specific attention is given to how complex ecosystem dynamics, such as thresholds or irreversible responses, influence ecosystem management options. The case studies focus on ecosystem dynamics and ecosystem services supply in a forest ecosystem, a Dutch wetland, and a rangeland in the Western Sahel. Integrating ecology and economics, this informative book will appeal to postgraduate students in environmental sciences and environmental economics as well as ecosystem managers.
Elinor Ostrom was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize for Economics. Her theorising of the commons has been celebrated as groundbreaking and opening the way for non-capitalist economic alternatives, yet, many radicals know little about her. This book redresses this, revealing the indispensability of her work for green politics, left economics and radical democracy. Ostrom has often been viewed as a conservative or managerial thinker; but Derek Wall's analysis of her work reveals a how it is invaluable for developing a left political programme in the twenty-first century. Central to Ostrom's work was the move `beyond panaceas'; transforming institutions to widen participation, promote diversity and favour cooperation over competition. She regularly challenged academia as individualist, narrow and elitist and promoted a radical take on education, based on participation. Her investigations into how we share finite resources has radical implications for the Green movement and her rubric for a functioning collective ownership is highly relevant in order in achieving radical social change. As activists continue to reject traditional models of centralised power, Ostrom's work will become even more vital, offering a guide to creating economics that exists beyond markets and states.
The integration of environmental concerns into other policy areas is widely recognized as a key element to achieve sustainable development. It also represents a challenge for the environmental community, requiring not only a new approach to policy-making but also changes to existing policies and their implementation. This essential book presents a diverse set of perspectives and experiences on how to support sustainable development through the integration of environmental issues into various policy sectors. The authors examine existing research on environmental policy integration (EPI) at three levels of policy-making: the national level, both in relation to strategic and sectoral decision-making; the regional level, where both supra-national and sub-national regional entities are discussed; and the local level, where strategies available to municipalities or individuals for furthering environmental policy integration are presented. New and innovative approaches to the study of EPI at these levels of governance are proposed. They also demonstrate how the effectiveness of EPI depends on factors such as national, legal and administrative structures and culture, the stage of the policy cycle to which EPI measures are applied, and the level of integration among various modes of governance and instruments. Academics, graduate and postgraduate students in social, political and environmental sciences will find much of interest in this unique book. NGOs and representatives of public and private institutions working on environmental policy issues will also find this book an invaluable resource.
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