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Professor Sigman has selected the most authoritative previously published papers for this pathbreaking collection. This timely book examines private decision-making and government policy for the management of hazardous waste, the clean-up of contaminated land and the redevelopment of brownfield sites. Issues explored include the success of economic incentive policies such as 'green taxes' and tort liability, environmental decentralization and attitudes toward risk by both regulators and households. The additional focus on empirical analysis will help economists understand this challenging public policy area and will make economic insights accessible to policymakers.
A growing number of environmental groups focus on more sustainable practices in everyday life, from the development of new food systems, to community solar, to more sustainable fashion. No longer willing to take part in unsustainable practices and institutions, and not satisfied with either purely individualistic and consumer responses or standard political processes and movement tactics, many activists and groups are increasingly focusing on restructuring everyday practices of the circulation of the basic needs of everyday life. This work labels such action sustainable materialism, and examines the political and social motivations of activists and movement groups involved in this growing and expanding practice. The central argument is that these movements are motivated by four key factors: frustration with the lack of accomplishments on broader environmental policies, a desire for environmental and social justice, an active and material resistance to the power of traditional industries, and a form of sustainability that is attentive to the flow of materials through bodies, communities, economies, and environments. In addition to these motivations, these movements demonstrate such material action as political action, in contrast to existing critiques of new materialism as apolitical or post-political. Overall, sustainable materialism is explored as a set of movements with unique qualities, based in collective rather than individual action, a dedication to local and prefigurative politics, and a demand that sustainability be practiced in everyday life - starting with the materials and flows that provide food, power, clothing, and other basic needs.
This book provides an insight into some of the efforts and actions taken by the rapidly developing economy of Malaysia towards its 'Vision 2020' of becoming a developed country. Renuka Mahadevan explores whether the vision can become reality and not just remain a dream. The purpose of this book is thus to study selected key areas such as structural transformation, total factor productivity growth, human capital and technology development policies as well as poverty and income equality. In addition, the various challenges that Malaysia faces in an increasingly global environment, and its move to a knowledge economy are examined. Based on empirical investigation covering a wide number of topics, policy is critically reviewed and suggestions are made for sustainable growth and development. With a focus on policy in a range of macroeconomic topics, Sustainable Growth and Economic Development will be of interest to policy analysts and researchers in development economics.
In "Zero Waste Home," Bea Johnson shares the story of how she
simplified her life by reducing her waste. Today, Bea, her husband,
Scott, and their two young sons produce just one quart of garbage a
year, and their overall quality of life has changed "for the
better" they now have more time together, they've cut their annual
spending by a remarkable 40 percent, and they are healthier than
they've ever been.
Transport, and in particular road transport, represents a significant global threat to long-term sustainable development, and is one of the fastest-growing consumers of final energy and sources of greenhouse gas emissions. In this book, long-term energy-economy-environment scenarios are used to identify the key technological developments required to address the challenges passenger car transport poses to climate change mitigation and energy security. It also considers possible targets for policy support and examines some of the elements that contribute to the significant levels of uncertainty - particularly social and political conditions. The book then builds on this long-term scenario analysis with a broad review of recent empirical examples of relevant policy implementation to identify near-term options for the passenger transportation sector, which may promote a shift towards a more sustainable transport system over the longer term. Sustainable Automobile Transport will be of particular interest to those in the policy process who are striving to address the automobile-derived challenges associated with climate change - a growing rather than declining problem. It will have a worldwide audience as every developed and rapidly growing society struggles to address the dynamic growth in greenhouse gas emissions from automobiles.
This important book provides a comprehensive analysis of technological change and environmental policy within the oil and gas industry. It identifies and measures the impact of technological change, both in market and environmental output sectors and takes steps to identify key causal relationships. The author focuses on the design and implementation of environmental policies that encourage technological progress in the face of the depletion of natural resources and the increasing stringency of environmental regulations. Detailed policy scenarios provide quantitative assessments indicating the significance of the potential benefits of technological change and well-designed environmental policy. With a sophisticated description of innovations within the oil and gas industry, this book will be of great interest to postgraduate students in economics, as well as in public policy, business administration and engineering. It will also appeal to practitioners in the energy industry and energy and environmental policymakers as it demonstrates how successful market and environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation.
This book analyses the recent emergence of transnational forms of environmental regulation within the larger conceptual context of global governance research and institutional theory. Increasingly, private policies at the transnational level complement, and in some cases even replace, public interventions. The author takes a deep and broad look at the phenomenon to account for both the emergence and the influence of private institutions in global governance and sustainability. Focusing on the empirical arenas of sustainable forestry and corporate environmental reporting and management, Philipp Pattberg examines why and how private forms of policy-making emerge at the transnational level and how their impacts can be analysed. The study makes a threefold contribution to current debates; firstly, it provides a novel theoretical perspective on the phenomenon of private governance in global sustainability politics. Secondly, it offers a fresh conceptualisation of global governance as a meta-theory in the social sciences. And finally, it provides detailed insights into the empirical landscape of private governance in the areas of global forestry and corporate environmental reporting. This book bridges disciplinary boundaries by providing a detailed account of recent developments in global business regulation as an important aspect of the current sustainability debate. As such it will appeal to a wide audience of both academics and researchers in the fields of environmental policy, public sector economics, international relations and global environmental and sustainability politics in particular. It will also be of interest to practitioners involved in private rule-making and sustainable development.
The past few decades have seen the beginnings of a convergence between religions and ecological movements. The environmental crisis has called the religions of the world to respond by finding their voice within the larger Earth community. At the same time, a certain religiosity has started to emerge in some areas of secular ecological thinking. Beyond mere religious utilitarianism, rooted in an understanding of the deepest connections between human beings, their worldviews, and nature itself, this book tries to show how religious believers can look at the world through the eyes of faith and find a broader paradigm to sustain sustainability, proposing a model for transposing this paradigm into practice, so as to develop long-term sustainable solutions that can be tested against reality.
The capacity of mixed forests to mitigate climate change effects by increasing resilience and lowering risks is pinpointed as an opportunity to highlight the role of tree species rich forests as part of complex socio-ecological systems. This book updates and presents the state-of-the-art of mixed forest performance in terms of regeneration, growth, yield and delivery of ecosystem services. Examples from more than 20 countries in Europe, North Africa and South America provide insights on the interplay between structure and functionining, stability, silviculture and optimization of management of this type of forests. The book also analyses the role of natural mixed forests and mixed plantations in the delivery of ecosystem services and the best modelling strategy to study mixed forest dynamics. The book is intended to serve as a reference tool for students, researchers and professionals concerned about the management of mixed forests in a context of social and environmental change.
Cities are no longer just places to live in. They are significant actors on the global stage, and nowhere is this trend more prominent than in the world of transnational climate change governance (TCCG). Through transnational networks that form links between cities, states, international organizations, corporations, and civil society, cities are developing and implementing norms, practices, and voluntary standards across national boundaries. In introducing cities as transnational lawmakers, Jolene Lin provides an exciting new perspective on climate change law and policy, offering novel insights about the reconfiguration of the state and the nature of international lawmaking as the involvement of cities in TCCG blurs the public/private divide and the traditional strictures of 'domestic' versus 'international'. This illuminating book should be read by anyone interested in understanding how cities - in many cases, more than the countries in which they're located - are addressing the causes and consequences of climate change.
Eco-innovation is becoming a conceptual reference point for many regional and international public policies and management strategies. This field of research has been focusing on how environmental innovation is particularly related to the intensity of emissions and economic performance. There are two reasons for this growing interest. The first is that environmental performance is one of the main economic policy goals of European countries, thanks to its relevance to the Lisbon Strategy and the Goteborg priorities for sustainable development. The second, which is partly linked to the first, is related to the growing impact of environmental regulation on private sector activity in many European countries.
This volume brings together microeconomics studies on firms eco-innovation and economic performance, both in the industrial and service sector, with a sector-based perspective rooted mainly in the exploitation of NAMEA data at regional level, and finally with a macroeconomic analysis of the environment, income and welfare.
This collection brings together the best of recent research in the interlinked areas of eco-innovation and income-environment relationships studies, and in its entirety is an excellent source of knowledge for postgraduates, researchers and students of Environmental and Ecological Economics alike. As well as fully developing the theoretical aspects of its topics, these essays are also strongly policy-oriented and will be of interest to anyone seeking information on an applied perspective.
This book considers the corporate governance of sustainability from a co-evolutionary perspective, exploring the linkages between pro-active approaches at the corporate level, market-based incentives and environmental networks. The contributors contend that governance for sustainable development has not yet been fully formulated, and requires further analysis in the context of policies, the role of the state and the inclusion of corporate and private actors. They question whether the governance of sustainable development goes beyond traditional, state-centred policy-making by aiming for proactive changes of private actors' behaviours at different levels. The discussion also encompasses relevant theory on corporate governance, competition, market failures and regulatory tools. An assessment methodology suitable for empirical network analysis at the meso-level is introduced, and its application is demonstrated using eight case studies. Raimund Bleischwitz and his team of contributing authors draw important conclusions for policy analysis and sustainability assessments and the actors involved. The book will therefore prove an invaluable resource for academics, scholars and policymakers focussing on applied sustainability research, policy analysis and evaluation.
This unique book examines the role of institutions in transport regulation within a sustainability and comparative Trans-Atlantic framework. With contributions from leading experts in the field, three areas of analysis are provided: barriers to implementation of reforms, regulatory issues and Public-Private Partnerships (PPP). The discussion on barriers focuses on political and public acceptance, as well as equity and environmental justice. Regulatory reform analyses include comparative discussions of railroad and airline deregulation in North America and Europe which are complimented with analyses of EU integration and transport regulation for sustainability, transport pricing and inter country competition. Finally, infrastructure finance and evaluation frameworks for PPP form the topical focus for a comprehensive assessment of PPP within the transport sector. Scholars and advanced students in engineering, public policy, planning, policy and international business will find Institutions and Sustainable Transport of great interest, as will national and sub-national transport senior planners and policy advisors in Europe and North America, and analysts and strategic planners for logistics organizations.
At the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, popularly known as the Rio Earth Summit, the world's leaders constructed a new "sustainable development" paradigm that promised to enhance environmentally sound economic and social development. Twenty years later, the proliferation of multilateral environmental agreements points to an unprecedented achievement, but is worth examining for its accomplishments and shortcomings. This book provides a review of twenty years of multilateral environmental negotiations (1992-2012). The authors have participated in most of these negotiating processes and use their first-hand knowledge as writers for the International Institute for Sustainable Development's Earth Negotiations Bulletin as they illustrate the changes that have taken place over the past twenty years. The chapters examine the proliferation of meetings, the changes in the actors and their roles (governments, nongovernmental organizations, secretariats), the interlinkages of issues, the impact of scientific advice, and the challenges of implementation across negotiating processes, including the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Convention to Combat Desertification, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Commission on Sustainable Development, the UN Forum on Forests, the chemicals conventions (Stockholm, Basel and Rotterdam), the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, the Convention on Migratory Species and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.
Research on the cutting edge of economics, ecology, and ethics is presented in this timely study. Building from a theoretical critique of the tradition of cost-benefit analysis, the contributors lay the foundation for a macroeconomics of environmental sustainability and distributive justice. Attention is then turned to three of the most critical areas of social and environmental applied research - biodiversity, climate change, and energy. The contributors redefine progress away from growth and toward development. To this end, the first section of the book tackles the dominant framework used in the US today to evaluate tradeoffs between economic growth and its inherent externalities. Succeeding chapters cover a wide variety of studies related to biodiversity health and energy. Each section is anchored with overviews by top scholars in these areas - including Herman Daly, Carl McDaniel, Stephen Schneider, and Nathan Hagens - and followed by detailed analyses reflecting the transdisciplinary approach of ecological economics. Students and scholars of ecological, environmental, and natural resource economics, sustainability sciences, and environmental studies will find this book of great interest. Non-profit and government agencies in search of methods and cases that merge the study of ecology and economics will also find the analyses of great practical value.
This innovative book investigates the practical applications of sustainable development in the spirit of the Brundtland Report, paying special attention to water-stressed developing countries. Satoshi Kojima argues that the main objective of sustainable development is poverty alleviation within the present generation without destroying those ecosystems underpinning life support systems. The policy implications of such sustainable development policies are investigated with an original quantitative policy analysis framework. The book develops an innovative dynamic optimisation CGE model based on the Ramsey growth model but employs an imperfect foresight assumption and a decentralised setting in which the private agent and the government optimise their objective functions separately. The model also addresses trade-offs between rain-fed and irrigated agriculture, urban unemployment due to rural-urban migration and welfare costs of lack of safe water access. The model is calibrated and dynamically validated against Moroccan time-series data. Researchers in environmental, ecological and development economics will find this book of great interest. It will also appeal to researchers and scholars interested in water management and related issues.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are recognized as one of the greatest threats to crop production throughout the world. Estimated annual crop losses of $8 billion in the United States and $78 billion worldwide are attributed to plant parasitic nematodes. Plant parasitic nematodes not only cause damage individually but form disease-complexes with other microorganisms thereby increasing crop loss. Nematode diseases of crops are difficult to control because of their insidious nature and lack of specific diagnostic symptoms which closely resemble those caused by other plant pathogens and abiotic diseases. Future developments of sustainable management systems for preventing major economical agricultural losses due to nematodes is focused on strategies that limit production costs, enhance crop yields, and protect the environment. This book presents a first compendium and overview for nematode problems and their management across North America. Each chapter provides essential information on the occurrence and distribution of plant parasitic nematodes, their major crop hosts, impact on crop production and sustainable management strategies for each region of the continent including, Canada, Mexico and all states of the USA. For each region, a thematic overview of changes in crop production affected by plant parasitic nematodes and their management strategies over time will provide invaluable information on the important role of plant parasitic nematodes in sustainable agriculture.
This study offers a unique evolutionary economics perspective on energy and innovation policies in the wider context of the transition to sustainable development. The authors include: an analysis of the environmental policy implications of evolutionary economics; a critical examination of current Dutch environmental and innovation policies and policy documents; and systematic evaluation of three specific energy technologies, namely fuel cells, nuclear fusion and photovoltaic cells, within the evolutionary-economic framework. Their analysis results in a number of very specific policy recommendations, which to some extent may be in conflict with current policy advice and practice. Evolutionary Economics and Environmental Policy will appeal to researchers, undergraduate and graduate students in environmental economics, environmental science, public economics and technology studies. It will also be valuable to policy advisors and policymakers whose decisions affect the environment either directly or indirectly.
This book focuses on the future of China and its sustainable development, and summarizes the implications, forms, causes, countermeasures and related rules of the main costs generated during a country's period of development, so as to provide a theoretical reference and decision-making consulting tools for institutions and scientific governance and management professionals. Combining China's national situation and development characteristics with the country as a unit, it uses case studies to propose the concept of cost theory and the theoretical system of national development cost. Focusing on the goals of innovation in nation building, common development and prosperity, as well as enhancement of people's net welfare, the book summarizes and draws conclusions about various aspects of national development, including economic development cost; political, social and cultural development cost; foreign opening-up development cost and nature development cost. It primarily establishes an indicator system of national development cost for promoting full-factor productivity and reducing development cost, and provides a theoretical basis for implementing the scientific political-achievement view.
This provocative book examines the broad and complex conceptual issues that must be addressed in order to achieve sustainable development. It begins with several case studies that reflect innovative policy and strategic initiatives within the corporate and public sectors, followed by a sector-by-sector analysis of specific opportunities and challenges within the critical resource domains of energy and global climate, human health, fisheries, agriculture, biodiversity, and forestry. It concludes by discussing how to measure and assess national economic and corporate activity, and whether humanity is itself capable of making the changes necessary to guarantee its own survival. The contributors illustrate, on the one hand, the spark of human ingenuity and invention which holds out a promise of success, but expose, on the other hand, the mindsets, myths and new conventional wisdom which characterize the emerging domain of sustainable development and which pose a daunting and potentially insurmountable challenge to its achievement. They determine that nothing short of a revolution in the way we produce goods and services, structure corporate decision making, and view our relationship with the natural environment will guarantee sustainable development. Central to this conclusion is a realization that many of the reigning beliefs that guide our actions today must be critically re-examined and, if necessary, rejected and replaced. A challenge to the tenets of current conventional wisdom, Sustainable Resource Management will be of great interest to students and scholars of business, resource and environmental economics, and resource management.
The international community is increasingly confronted with global environmental problems, which lead to distributional conflicts, unresolved equity issues and asymmetric distribution of the costs and benefits of environmental policy. The complexity of such problems requires the development of an international institutional framework, capable of coping with the long-run international aspects of global environmental change. This book analyses some of the difficulties in the construction of such a framework and offers suggestions on how they might be overcome. The contributions in The Economics of Global Environmental Change address international trade, land-use change, biodiversity preservation, the management of water resources and the composition of water-related conflicts, global warming and strategic aspects of international environmental agreements. This book provides an in-depth insight to the current state-of-the-art for both economists and non-economists interested in global environmental change. It will also be of great interest to those wanting an introduction to the economic perspective of an increasingly relevant environmental core problem, as well as to students and researchers in political science.
Trade and the environment has become a major issue in international relations, yet the surrounding debate remains polarised and hostile. This book answers the question: Can an international liability regime facilitate international trade while fostering environmental sustainability? On the one hand, the authors argue, international trade is perceived as a major threat to environmental sustainability, whilst on the other, trade and the economic development arising from it is seen as the prerequisite to stronger environmental protection. Nowhere is the debate more acrimonious than over trade in genetically modified organisms. The Biosafety Protocol has been negotiated to govern trade in genetically modified products and includes provisions for an international liability regime to facilitate trade - a subject that has been little studied. This valuable study explores the role, design and potential effectiveness of such a regulating body and addresses questions such as - what are the options for an international environmental liability regime? Why are some options unworkable? Is there a set of options that will achieve the dual goals of trade facilitation and environmental protection? Is international liability the best option for defusing the trade and environment debate? This illuminating book will be an essential read for scholars and students (senior undergraduate as well as postgraduate) of international trade policy, environmental economics, international politics and international law. Individuals working in international organizations, those employed by environmental NGOs and government policy makers will also find much to engage them within this book.
Significant advances have occurred in recent years in Europe and in North America in addressing agri-environmental policies. Land use issues tend to be more pressing in Europe than in the US as a whole because of different spatial exigencies. Because these advances have taken place within individual academic disciplines, there has been something of a loss of synergy and often efforts are duplicated. While important institutional and legal differences still exist between the two continents, the sharing of recent scientific advances will benefit scientists on both sides of the Atlantic and this is the main purpose of this book. The primary features of the book are threefold. First, the authors aim to identify options for policy to overcome the challenges ahead related to future agri-environmental policies. Second, they synthesize existing knowledge and identify gaps in current knowledge along with future research needs. Finally, they explicitly compare agri-environmental interactions and approaches to their resolution in Europe and in the US. This is the only major book of its kind that focuses specifically on the intersection between agricultural and environmental policies and issues. Furthermore, the multi-disciplinary approach taken in the volume, as well as the inclusion of authors from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, makes the book unique. This book will be of most value to university faculty and students interested in agriculture and the environment on both sides of the Atlantic, the text should also be of interest to informed laypersons as well as policymakers.
How are the economic values of water and water quality accounted for in policy and project appraisal? This important book gives an overview of the state-of-the-art in Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) in water resources management throughout Europe and North America, along with an examination of current applications. The distinguished authors highlight problems and challenges encountered in the use of CBA in 15 country-specific case studies. Based on these case studies, the value and limits of CBA in water resources management are assessed and special attention is paid to the institutional and policy context in which CBA is carried out. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Water Resources Management is written for both academics and policymakers interested in the use and usefulness of CBA in water resources management.
This edited volume presents and reflects upon empirical evidence of sustainability -induced and -related transition in food practices. The material collected in the various chapters contributes to our understanding of the ways in which ideas and preferences, sociotechnological developments and changes in the governance of food interact and become visible in practices of consumption, retail and production.
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