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How can we build the institutions that will promote the cooperation needed to meet our intertwined environmental and economic needs? Efforts to meet these twin goals in New York City's watershed collaborations offer some guidance. The experience provides lessons in addressing scattered sources of pollution, encouraging environmentally compatible economic development, and coping with conflicts that are part of the collaboration process. It also yields insights into what we need to work effectively towards sustainable economic development. This book identifies many barriers to achieving the cooperation necessary to solving our water problems and discusses how watershed collaborations are a means to overcoming those barriers. Historical experience and lessons from other watershed collaborations informed the design of New York City's complex watershed collaboration which is shown to contain the elements of a "green milieu" that can foster sustainable economic development. The particular challenges to the collaboration's environmental and economic goals created by the watershed's rural economy, farming and forestry are described. The unusual inclusion of the analysis of the economic aspects and effects of collaboration, of the relationship between collaboration and sustainable development, and of the processes of implementation and conflict make this book especially valuable to those interested in collaboration, regulation, environmental cooperation and conflict, watershed protection, economic development in general, and sustainable economic development in particular.
Economic development and the environment are presumed to be in conflict, but the latter part of the twentieth century experienced a series of economic changes that increasingly questioned this view. Economic activity became more footloose and the ability to attract productive labor became a prominent regional development concern. Consequently, environmental amenities began to have a larger role in determining the patterns of regional growth and development, and subsequently moved to the forefront of current regional economic development thought and practice. Environmental amenities provide non-pecuniary benefits to area residents, and induce in-migration flows to regions that possess high levels of environmental amenities. The attraction is particularly strong for those individuals with higher incomes and wealth. The combined forces of increased demand for environmental amenities and increased spatial flexibility of production has brought environmental amenities to the forefront of current regional economic development thought and practice. Regional economic development policy needs to consider the tradeoffs of attracting firms or people, which requires an understanding of the role the environment plays directly or indirectly in attracting firms and households. This book presents key papers that explore the role of the natural environment in regional economic development. The papers contain critical insights and information for both researchers and practitioners interested in the nexus between environmental amenities and regional economic growth and development. The book covers varied dimensions of this issue, including: the relative importance of amenities in recent variation in regional growth; the role of local infrastructure in promoting amenity-led development; socio-economic distribution concerns and sustainability of amenity-based growth; and the effects of local environmentally protected areas on other economic activities. This book will be of most value to practitioners and academics, specifically related to the areas of environmental economics, regional economic development, local and regional planning, public administration and public policy.
This important book presents fresh thinking and new results on the measurement of sustainable development. Economic theory suggests that there should be a link between future wellbeing and current wealth. The book explores this linkage under a variety of headings: population growth, technological change, deforestation and natural resource trade. While the relevant theory is presented briefly, the chief emphasis is on empirical measurement of the change in real wealth - this measure of net or 'genuine' saving is a key indicator of sustainable development. The methodological and empirical work is bolstered by tests of the predictive power of genuine saving in explaining future consumption and economic growth. Just as importantly, the authors show that many resource-abundant countries would be considerably wealthier today had they managed to save and invest the profits from natural resource exploitation in the past. Wealth, Welfare and Sustainability will be of great interest to environmental and resource economists, specialists in 'sustainability' indicators from other disciplines and also development and growth economists.
Gardner M. Brown, Jr. has been a leading innovator in the development of environmental and natural resource economics. This book comprises essays written in his honor by some of the most distinguished economists working in this field. The principal themes addressed include fundamental theoretical and empirical issues in the valuation of environmental and natural resources; the relationships between economic growth, natural resources and environmental quality; re-evaluation of some standard results in the dynamic modeling of renewable and non-renewable resources; the protection and management of biological resources; and the economics of antibiotic resistance. The original papers within this book will be of great interest to academics and practitioners in the field of environmental and natural resource economics.
The first Handbook of original articles by leading scholars of global environmental politics, this landmark volume maps the latest theoretical and empirical research in this young and growing field. Captured here are the dynamic and energetic debates over concerns for the health of the planet and how they might best be addressed. The introductory chapters explore the intellectual trends and evolving parameters in the field of global environmental politics. They make a case for an expansive definition of the field, one that embraces an interdisciplinary literature on the connections between global politics and environmental change. The remaining chapters are divided into three broad themes - states, governance and security; capitalism, trade and corporations; and knowledge, civil societies and ethics - with each section providing a cohesive discussion of current issues. In-depth explorations are given to topics such as: global commons, renewable energy, the effectiveness of environmental cooperation, regulations and corporate standards, trade liberalization and global environmental governance, and science and environmental citizenship. A comprehensive survey of the latest research, the Handbook is a necessary reference for scholars, students and policymakers in the field of global environmental politics.
This book presents a valuable new tool for water management - water resource accounting - which significantly advances the economic analysis of water. Water resource accounts integrate detailed information about water supply and use with national income accounts to show the economic use of water, costs and tariffs paid, and the economic value of water for different economic uses. Based on the UN's handbook for environmental accounting, this book describes the implementation and policy application of water accounts in three African countries - Botswana, Namibia and South Africa - and discusses how they have been used by water managers. The book compares water use across the three countries, explaining the differences in water resources and water policy. In addition to the comprehensive outline of physical and monetary water accounts for each country, the authors provide an extensive discussion of water valuation as well as addressing a number of issues of regional importance, including water accounting for an international river basin and the impact of trade on each country's water use. By demonstrating the usefulness of water resource accounts, this book makes a major contribution to the literature on water economics and management, sustainable development, and to the development of environmental accounting in general. The Economics of Water Management in Southern Africa will appeal to a wide readership including: * environmental and development economists * NGOs concerned with sustainable development * environmental advocacy groups * professionals (economists and environmentalists) working in Africa on water and sustainable development issues * water professionals * national accounts experts and statisticians.
During the five decades since its origin, law and economics has provided an influential framework for addressing a wide array of areas of law ranging from judicial behaviour to contracts. This book will reflects the first-ever forum for law and economics scholars to apply the analysis and methodologies of their field to the subject of wildfire. The only modern legal work on wildfire, the book brings together leading scholars to consider questions such as: How can public policy address the effects of climate change on wildfire, and wildfire on climate change? Are the environmental and fiscal costs of ex ante prevention measures justified? What are the appropriate levels of prevention and suppression responsibility borne by private, state, and federal actors? Can tort liability provide a solution for realigning the grossly distorted incentives that currently exist for private landowners and government firefighters? Do the existing incentives in wildfire institutions provide incentives for efficient private and collective action and how might they be improved?
This significant book explains how work-life balance is being destroyed because individuals fail to link their work effort with its adverse environmental effects and the personal costs they impose. The burgeoning literature dealing with work-life balance suggests that the developed world is more interested in this issue today than at any other time in the recent past. Provocative and insightful, Work, Leisure and the Environment presents a rigorous explanation based on economic theory as to why contemporary societies suffer from over-work and work-life imbalance, asserting that they are both the cause and effect of environmental degradation. The author focuses upon a fundamental flaw in contemporary market economies that causes individuals to unknowingly reduce their well-being by working and consuming excessively, while enjoying inadequate leisure time. It is argued that this inability to correctly assess the benefits derived from their work effort causes individuals to place unreasonable and unsustainable demands on the environment. By ignoring the environmental destruction that accompanies work effort, its benefits are overestimated and, as a consequence, individuals voluntarily choose to work longer hours than they should. This engaging volume will have widespread appeal amongst researchers and policymakers interested in the environment, consumerism and labour markets and will also be an invaluable reference tool for studies into leisure and work-life balance.
Many managers in the English-speaking world are seeking an alternative to the prevailing business model which promotes a short-term, shareholder-value approach. In this accessible and highly topical book, Gayle Avery argues that this Anglo/US approach to capitalism and business is seriously flawed and does not bring the quality of life to individuals and societies that many people seek. But what is the alternative and do business leaders have a different choice? This book demonstrates alternative ways of leading sustainable organizations. It identifies 19 criteria for sustainable leadership practices that can be found in globally successful enterprises such as Allianz, BMW, Munich Reinsurance, Nokia, Novartis, and Porsche. Sustainable principles include promoting ethical behavior, long-term thinking and innovation, and valuing employees and other stakeholders such as the community, the environment and future generations. The author presents concrete examples of leadership from 28 interesting case studies to illustrate the many different ways in which sustainable leadership principles can be implemented. The book concludes that shifting to sustainable leadership practices may appear difficult for enterprises based in the USA, UK and Australia, but is essential for the long-term survival of these firms. Indeed, several well-known businesses from these countries have already adopted sustainable leadership principles, including Colgate-Palmolive, Continental Airlines, HSBC, IBM, Marriott, Nordstrom and SAS. By highlighting a dramatically different approach to leadership which can prove financially, socially and environmentally successful, this book will have a great appeal to scholars and students with an interest in leadership, strategy, international management and organisational studies. It will also be a valuable and practical aid for managers and consultants looking for new directions and ways of running their businesses.
Water issues in the American West share many similarities with those seen elsewhere in the world as population growth exacerbates longstanding problems of inappropriate water use and management. The contributors to this timely volume examine the universal challenge of sustainable water management to improve the use of water resources already developed and find ways to moderate our growing collective thirst. The volume begins with an exploration of the opportunities, arguments, and mechanisms for transferring lessons between the American West and foreign nations. Succeeding chapters cover individual issues such as: water allocation and the relationship between market mechanisms and government-based approaches, the challenge of environmental protection, the protection of cultural values with a focus on indigenous water rights, the significance of international and interstate rivers in promoting regional conflict and cooperation, and the role of water management in sustainable development. A comprehensive look at one of our most pressing issues, In Search of Sustainable Water Management will be of great interest to scholars and practitioners in the areas of water management, law, policy studies, economics, planning and public administration.
Social Impact Assessment (SIA) is the process of analysing and managing the intended and unintended consequences on the human environment of planned interventions (policies, programmes, plans, projects) so as to bring about a more sustainable and equitable biophysical and human environment. This important Handbook presents an indispensable overview of the range of new methods and of the conceptual advances in SIA. Recent increased attention to social considerations has led to substantial development in the techniques useful to, and the thinking in, SIA. A distinguished group of contributors provides an up-to-date and comprehensive account of the cutting-edge in SIA development. This Handbook outlines a new understanding and definition of SIA and, as such, will be an invaluable reference tool for both practitioners and scholars at different levels working in the fields of SIA and environmental studies (including both impact assessment and management).
This book offers a comprehensive analysis of dynamic networks and evolutionary variational inequalities, a topic of growing prominence in the study of networks. The extraordinary importance of networks in finance, mathematics, computer science and other areas is well known but the relatively new concept of `dynamic' networks is less well understood. They become dynamic when the constitutive elements of the phenomena associated with the fixed geometry of networks are considered to be evolving over time. Patrizia Daniele offers many numerical examples to illustrate the issues discussed and provides a broad appendix to enrich this challenging but deeply informative book. Researchers, students and practitioners in the areas of finance, economics, computer science, and mathematics will find this volume an indispensable resource in understanding the use and development of networks in their disciplines.
This book deals with the economic consequences of monetary integration, which has long been dominated by the Optimal Currency Area (OCA) paradigm. In this model, money is perceived as having developed from a private sector cost minimization process to facilitate transactions. Not surprisingly, the book argues, the main advantage of monetary integration in the OCA context is the reduction of transaction costs, yet the validity of OCA to analyze processes of monetary integration seems to be limited at best. The contributors in this volume try to go beyond the OCA model and understand the political economy of monetary integration by comparing the European Monetary Union with the dollarization (formal and informal) process in Latin America. The contributors, many of whom are leading lights, reflect the disagreements and the changing views on the proper monetary arrangements in a globalized world and suggest that monetary integration and dollarization are not the solution for the great majority of countries around the world. Monetary Integration and Dollarization brings together mainstream and heterodox views of monetary integration and uses the European and North American experiences as a guide for the discussion of dollarization in developing countries. It will appeal to scholars, researchers and policy makers in the fields of financial and international economics.
This book provides readers with in-depth insights into the changes in the Pantanal wetland from its formation to the actual and likely future states. It reveals that today's Pantanal is an evolutionary consequence of geological, ecological and, more recently, man-made events taking place at distinct space-time intervals. Topics include geotectonics and sun-earth interactions, which largely dictate the rate of drastic changes that eventually disrupt ecological stability and radically rebuild the regional landscape. Furthermore, the biota-climate system is discussed as a major driver reshaping the ecohydrology functioning of the landscape on an intermediate timescale. Also covered are major changes in the landscape ecohydrology and biodiversity due to recent land-use and climate changes induced by humankind in the Anthropocene. The ability to recognize how those temporal scales impact the Pantanal wetland provides the opportunity for wise management approaches and the sustainable development of the region.
Water deficiency in many arid and semi-arid regions in Southern Europe is becoming a major constraint for economic welfare and sustainable regional development. These regions are characterised by high spatial and temporal imbalances of water demand and supply, seasonal water uses, inadequate water resources and poor institutional water management. The aim of this book is to formulate appropriate strategies and guidelines for water management necessary for the formulation and implementation of integrated sustainable management of water resources. Lessons are learned from various case studies, which examine competing water use patterns, compare governance structures and how these have evolved in response to scarcity, and structural and non-structural instruments to address water deficiency. Water Management in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions will appeal to policymakers in relevant countries as well as to scholars and researchers of environmental studies and economics.
Addressing the sustainable energy crisis in an objective manner, this enlightening book analyzes the relevant numbers and organizes a plan for change on both a personal level and an international scale--for Europe, the United States, and the world. In case study format, this informative reference answers questions surrounding nuclear energy, the potential of sustainable fossil fuels, and the possibilities of sharing renewable power with foreign countries. While underlining the difficulty of minimizing consumption, the tone remains positive as it debunks misinformation and clearly explains the calculations of expenditure per person to encourage people to make individual changes that will benefit the world at large. If you've thrown your hands up in despair thinking no solution is possible, then read this book - it's an honest, realistic, and humorous discussion of all our energy options.
The restoration of the Florida Everglades, the largest ecosystem restoration project in the world, is now underway. Missing from the original plan, however, is a study of the region's cities and farms and the economic impact their growth will make on this already endangered ecosystem. This book provides that analysis. Richard Weisskoff applies the widely-used Regional Economic Modeling Inc. (REMI) model to forecast the future of South Florida's six million-person, $300 billion economy. In addition, he supplies four significant pieces to the model, namely, detailed projections for agriculture, investment, tourism, and restoration spending. By integrating these and the results of a second economic modeling system (IMPLAN), he traces out three development paths for the region to the year 2030, and the demands for water and urban land required for each path. Also featured are the results of two land use/land cover surveys which are then used to measure the change in the value of ecosystem services in the Everglades region. The author provides an economic history of the region and statistically documents the transformation of the original Everglades into the sprawling cities and the sugar-citrus-cattle emporium, all of which share the same fragile ecosystem. The study concludes that the ultimate success of the restoration of the Everglades will depend on choices made regarding the future of the region's cities and farms. While the volume focuses on the Everglades, it serves also as a case study for other such restoration projects. Ecological and environmental economists, regional scientists, planning professionals, and government agencies will find this timely volume of great interest.
Climate change and energy consumption are at the forefront of current environmental debate. Whilst energy is essential to the functioning and survival of our societies, the environmental impact that energy consumption is having, particularly on climate change, is a growing concern and the design and practicalities of energy and energy-related environmental policies are under constant scrutiny. This innovative new book not only addresses the economic assessment of environmental and energy policies but also discusses the efficiency and distributional consequences these policies have for producers and consumers. With contributions from leading academics in the field, this comprehensive volume uses a variety of methodological approaches with which to explore a number of pertinent issues, including several studies on the EU Emission Trading System, as well as more advanced topics such as indeterminacy and optimal environmental public policies, energy-saving technological progress, oil shocks and energy transitions and policy design. Combining theoretical and empirical work, this timely book is a significant contribution to the existing literature and deals with issues at the frontier of current economic knowledge. Economic Modelling of Climate Change and Energy Policies is a unique and informative book and will have widespread appeal amongst scholars, students and policymakers.
This major annual publication presents a comprehensive overview of cutting-edge issues in environmental and resource economics. The expert contributors address some of today's most pressing environmental concerns including: * pollution control policies * Graphical Information Systems (GIS) and spatial analysis * disclosure strategies for pollution control * environmental policy under imperfect competition * transport and the environment * optimal forest harvesting. The Yearbook is an essential resource for economists, scholars and practitioners working in environmental and resource economics.
A pollution haven may arise if environmental stringency differs between countries, when capital is mobile, and when trade rules allow firms to relocate and still sell their products to the same customers. This cohesive volume analyzes how country characteristics determine environmental rules, how those rules affect production costs, trade, and investment flows, how those flows affect pollution, prices, and incomes, and finally how all of these last considerations feed back into environmental rules. The sixteen papers collected here represent the most recent and significant advancements of knowledge on the subject. The contributors, all well-known scholars in the area, investigate how polluter location decisions respond to pollution policies, how local environmental rules respond to those location decisions, and how trade liberalization affects the incentives of governments to regulate dirty industries. The volume begins with a comprehensive overview by M. Scott Taylor and goes on to explore how the usual effects of pollution havens can be reversed. Also covered are the ways in which managed trade and trade liberalization, the regulation of multinationals, political stability and emissions controls impact pollution havens. Written for a multidisciplinary audience, The Economics of Pollution Havens will be of interest to those working in the areas of economics, international trade, political science, public policy, and environmental studies.
This collection of specially commissioned papers pays tribute to Karl-Gustaf Loefgren's significant and diverse contribution to theoretical and empirical research within the field of environmental and resource economics over the past two decades. A number of distinguished scholars examine a broad range of topics including sustainability, risk and uncertainty, demand theory and issues related to public goods. The book also contains analyses of more specific resource problems concerning fisheries, forestry management, wildlife and pollution. Together, the seventeen chapters provide an innovative and cutting-edge analysis of a smorgasbord of both old and new environmental and resource problems, including, amongst others: * local public goods and income heterogeneity * self-selection and the value of lives saved * international fisheries agreements * salmon and hydropower * discrete versus continuous harvesting * timber supply * voluntary road pricing * economic impacts of environmental regulations in California. Academics, researchers and students within the fields of environmental, resource and public economics will find this book to be a fascinating read.
This volume gathers contributors across a wide range of disciplines to explore the relationship between the environment, economics, and development in Nigeria from the twentieth century to the present, examining issues such as violence, health, and contemporary concerns about sustainability and conservation. It sheds light not just on the environmental history of Nigeria - a crucial, paradigmatic case in its own right - but also offers insights into these issues as they manifest themselves throughout the developing world.
Bring your learning to life with compelling images, media and text from National Geographic. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC LEARNING READER: SUSTAINABILITY w/PAC eBOOK will help you develop a clearer understanding of the world around you through engaging content. This reader is designed to be used in combination with several core texts in a variety of trades fields by focusing on the importance of Green and Sustainability. Used as a supplement with two strong brands of National Geographic and Delmar Learning, this reader will bring relevancy, critical thinking skill activities, vocabulary and career information to the topics you are studying. With broad articles included in the reader, the companion website will allow you to apply topics as they show how the theories are applied in a real world setting.
Traditional measures of economic activity, such as GDP, take no account of damage done to the stock of natural capital by environmental change nor the loss of welfare that economic activity causes through increased pollution. This book predominantly addresses the second question and develops and expands on previous research by the authors (Markandya and Pavan, 1999). Using spatially desegregated data on measures of pollution to derive economic damage estimates, the main purpose of the book is to gauge the environmental damage sustained as a result of economic activities and to offer an insight into how the information generated can be used in conjunction with conventional economic accounts. The first few chapters review recent developments in both green accounting and pathway analysis. The book goes on to evaluate the progress made in estimating dose response functions and valuing environmental damages. The authors discuss the methodology used for the estimation of damages caused by ambient air pollution and the cost of defensive expenditures. They also present the results of the analysis and draw important policy conclusions for environmental accounting, particularly in the EU. This book will be essential reading for environmental economists, particularly those interested in issues of environmental accounting.
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