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The utilization of natural resources to satisfy worldwide growing consumption of goods and services has severe ecological consequences. Aside from the projected doubling of food consumption in the next fifty years, the growing trade of biofuels and other commodities is a global challenge as the economic activities in the primary sector (i.e. mining, fisheries, aquaculture, forestry and agriculture) can damage biodiversity and ecosystem services. This should be taken into account in the decision-making affecting the global value chains linking consumer, retailer, processor, and producer in the North and the South. To cover the topic of ecosystem services and global trade this book is organized into four major parts. Part 1 gives the theoretical framework from an ecological, economic and political perspectives. Part 2 explores how internationally traded biophysical commodities from agriculture, forestry and fisheries translates into a virtual flow of land, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Part 3 describes how two widely used accounting tools (i.e., Life Cycle Assessment and Green National Accounts) deal with international aspects of ecosystem services, and Part 4 shows how instruments like labelling, bans, or payments for ecosystem services in the private and public sector can influence trade patterns and the management of ecosystem services. This collection is a valuable contribution to the global change science dealing with ecosystem services. It illustrates the consequences of international trade on global ecosystem services and provides an overview of accounting tools and of market-based policy instruments to address negative and positive externalities. The book is certainly innovative, because it brings together research findings from distinct disciplines especially Industrial Ecology and Ecosystem Sciences, as well as Environmental Economics and Political Science.
To date, research on the economic implications of climate change on fisheries has been both limited and fragmented. The contributors to this volume remedy the lack of attention by investigating the economic consequences of pelagic fish fluctuations in the recent past in order to understand how to adapt and respond to future climate changes. Small pelagic fish constitute approximately 30 per cent of the world's fish catch, have a global distribution, and are characterized by dramatic fluctuations in response to ocean climate. Despite this, countries adjust to changes in fish abundance, regardless of the cause, at variable time scales. These adjustments are often uncoordinated. The contributors address these concerns in chapters that cover a range of topics including: historical fluctuations of Atlanto-Scandian herring, management adaptations to climate regime shifts, differential consequences of pelagic fishery collapses in Southeast Asia, and the globalized nature of fishmeal markets. The case studies are complementary and yet self-standing, highlighting the need for a more coordinated assessment of impacts, and calling for more focused research. Students and scholars of climate change and environmental and resource economics will find this cohesive volume an instructive and enlightening resource. Policymakers and those in the fisheries management community will find the case studies and analyses useful in determining future goals and responses.
This multidisciplinary work explores ways of making environmental policy decisions in managing public goods and natural parks with the goal of maximizing economic benefits to society. The contributors to the volume seek the best strategies for improving the environmental sustainability and quality of a public resource by showing how to develop quantitative information about the natural area and how it interacts with the economy. Such an analysis can be used to define policies that encourage interactions among institutions, local economic agents and park users. At the same time, it provides a measure to account for the implications of those policies on the local economy. A public resource, such as a natural park, has many different functions - the production of marketed goods, ecosystem protection and tourism - and its management requires the knowledge of the physical, biological and ecological characteristics of the functions supplied by the resource, as well as the value of each function and the public resource as a whole. To ensure the implementation of the optimal practice, the contributors adopt a participative approach to establish a credible social contract between the area's public manager and its consumers. Balancing the interests of residents, visitors and local businesses, and coupling the development of both the natural potential of the area and the local economy, are necessary steps for the best strategy to be adopted. Economists and agricultural-environmental economists, forest and resource planners interested in practical guidance, and professors who teach environmental economics or forest planning courses will all find this collection invaluable and instructive.
This outstanding text, a follow-up to the authors' award-winning 1982 text, provides a thorough treatment of economic welfare theory and develops a complete theoretical and empirical framework for applied project and policy evaluation. The authors illustrate how this theory can be used to develop policy analysis from both theory and estimation in a variety of areas including: international trade, the economics of technological change, agricultural economics, the economics of information, environmental economics, and the economics of extractive and renewable natural resources. Building on willingness-to-pay (WTP) measures as the foundation for applied welfare economics, the authors develop measures for firms and households where households are viewed as both consumers and owner/sellers of resources. Possibilities are presented for (1) approximating WTP with consumer surplus, (2) measuring WTP exactly subject to errors in existing econometric work, and (3) using duality theory to specify econometric equations consistent with theory. Later chapters cover specific areas of welfare measurement under imperfect competition, uncertainty, incomplete information, externalities, and dynamic considerations. Applications are considered explicitly for policy issues related to information, international trade, the environment, agriculture, and other natural resource issues. The Welfare Economics of Public Policy is ideal for graduate and undergraduate courses in applied welfare economics, public policy, agricultural policy, and environmental economics and provides an essential reference for practitioners of applied welfare economics.
Regulation is on the rise across the world as the state steps back from public ownership. However, as the authors highlight, the style of political delegation to regulatory authorities has not followed a uniform trajectory but rather institutional endowments, administrative traditions, market structure and business culture have all influenced the creation of regulatory authorities and implementation styles. Noting these variances, the focus of this book is to consider the impact of liberalisation and the introduction of new regulatory structures on three utility sectors - telecommunications, energy and the railways - using Germany and the UK as case studies. With regulation seeking to foster competition at the same time as also having to protect essential services, the authors investigate regulatory styles, costs of new regulatory functions and how firms in the new regulatory landscape access and influence regulatory authorities. The authors consider how EU pressures may hinder or help the functioning of new regulatory markets and the establishment of business-regulator relationships, as well as the broader policy implications for these new regulatory environments. The book also determines how regulatory authorities emerge and evolve under different state traditions and assesses, over time, the degree to which there is potential for convergence, divergence and continued differences as regulatory functions mature. This book will be warmly welcomed by researchers and academics of comparative public policy, politics and regulation. It will also appeal to policy makers and the business community in Europe.
Tea is big business. After water, tea is believed to be the most widely consumed beverage in the world. And yet, as productivity increases, the real price of tea declines while labour costs continue to rise. Tea remains a labour intensive industry. With a distinguished career spanning over 50 years and rich experience in diverse crops, Mike Carr is eminently qualified to indulge in an intelligent discourse on tea agronomy. In addition to a comprehensive review of the principal tea growing regions worldwide in terms of structure, productivity and principal constraints, he has attempted to question and seeks to find the associated experimental evidence needed to support current and future crop management practices. The book will assist all those involved in the tea industry to become creative thinkers and to question accepted practices. International in content, it will appeal to practitioners and students from tea growing countries worldwide.
How are the economic values of water and water quality accounted for in policy and project appraisal? This important book gives an overview of the state-of-the-art in Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) in water resources management throughout Europe and North America, along with an examination of current applications. The distinguished authors highlight problems and challenges encountered in the use of CBA in 15 country-specific case studies. Based on these case studies, the value and limits of CBA in water resources management are assessed and special attention is paid to the institutional and policy context in which CBA is carried out. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Water Resources Management is written for both academics and policymakers interested in the use and usefulness of CBA in water resources management.
This provocative new book presents the results of twenty years of research on deforestation in the Amazon. By carefully observing the changing character of human settlements and their association with deforestation over such a prolonged period, the author is able to reject much of the `perceived wisdom'. He skillfully dissects various models of deforestation and provides hard evidence on what is myth and what is reality. The book begins by challenging a hypothesis used by many scholars to explain deforestation. The `turnover hypothesis' states that small farmers `cause' deforestation by moving rapidly across newly forested land in an effort to make a living. Dr. Campari argues that in reality the process is far more complex. He reveals that it is actually the larger farms who are the main culprits of deforestation and that, in comparison, the impact of small farmers is marginal. He also challenges the belief that current deforestation, as in the past, is the result of distortionary government policies. The author proves that deforestation continues today because existing policies are based on outdated assumptions of regional development. He goes on to discuss the policy implications of his important findings and identify possibilities for controlling deforestation in the future. This is one of the few studies that accurately documents the process of deforestation in the Amazon. Researchers, academics and policymakers with an interest in environmental policy and natural resource management will appreciate the new and updated information and fresh policy ideas found in this volume.
This fully updated and comprehensively revised edition of a classic text concentrates on the economics of conserving the living environment. It begins by covering the ethical foundations and basic economic paradigms' essential for understanding and assessing ecological economics. General strategies for global environmental conservation, policies for government intervention, developing countries, preserving wildlife and biodiversity, open-access to and common property in natural resources, conservation of natural areas, forestry, agriculture and the environment, tourism, sustainable development and demographic change are also all covered. This second edition deals with contemporary environmental policy issues that can be expected to be of lasting concern and importance - each chapter benefiting from either the addition of substantial sections of new material, valuable explanations or updates and revisions in light of developments in theory or world events and conditions. Updated techniques of economic analysis are also introduced, explained simply, and applied as appropriate. Economics of Environmental Conservation, Second Edition is written in an engaging and accessible manner and as such will be warmly received by both specialists and non-specialists in economics. It will find a wide readership amongst academics and policymakers in the fields of ecological, environmental and natural resource economics as well as those involved in development studies, environmental management and science, and conservation ecology and biology. Particular chapters will be of interest to those in tourism studies, agriculture, wildlife management and forestr
This reissue, first published in 1995, focuses on philosophy and social science in human ecology, and includes case studies dealing with the problems of political implementation of development plans and schemes. Part One deals with theory, including a comprehensive introduction to the field and an overview of the conceptual modelling typical in human ecology. Part Two moves towards questions of human behaviour and action, exploring the relationship between environmental ethics and policy in terms of the justification and implementation of human interactions with nature and the environment on an ecologically sustainable basis. In Part Three, the author focuses on environmental policy in China since 1949 and on a regional case study in India. The final part of the book discusses the prospects for sustainable development more broadly, in terms of favouring ecological and cultural variety in agriculture and of viewing the relationship between human beings and the natural environment as a matter of overexploitation rather than crisis.
Tourism is both a growth industry and the world's number one export earner. It is therefore no surprise that the role of tourism is increasingly gaining prominence in the debate over how we can move towards more sustainable patterns of development. An enormous literature has emerged on the three pillars of sustainable development - environment, culture and economics - and on how tourism impacts and interacts with them. This timely and original book is firmly grounded in the theory and application of economics, in contrast to much of the previous research which has tended to adopt an environmental or sociological perspective. Although economics has increasingly become a technical subject, this accessible book aims to present important economics results and relate them explicitly to the policy debate. Using a coherent analytical framework, this unique approach offers prescriptions for moving tourism, and economic development more generally, closer to a sustainable ideal. The authors begin by studying the macroeconomic effect of tourism in terms of growth performance and sources of growth. They also examine how the tourism-growth link is affected by the role of imports in the economy, and how tourism impacts upon land use. Further chapters investigate the important issue of forecasting visitor numbers and explore the need for a comprehensive accounting framework to take account of ecologically sustainable tourism. The authors also examine the microeconomic aspects of sustainable tourism and analyse the increasing popularity of environmentally friendly holidays. Sustainable tourism is a fast-growing subject and this book provides an insightful introduction to the critical economic issues involved. It will interest and inform a broad and varied readership including researchers, students and policymakers interested in tourism economics and tourism management, as well as environmentalists, geographers and development scholars.
The Yearbook provides a comprehensive overview of cutting-edge issues in environmental and resource economics. The expert contributors address some of today's most pressing environmental topics including: * issues in water pricing reforms * spatial environmental policy * environmental equity and the siting of hazardous waste facilities * strategies to conserve biodiversity * corporate sustainability * the double-dividend hypothesis of environmental taxes * valuing environmental changes in the presence of risk. The Yearbook will provide economists, scholars and practitioners working in environmental and resource economics with a comprehensive overview of the cutting-edge issues in the field.
`Eco-friendly' variants are rapidly gaining market share in many industries such as food, textiles, furniture, detergents and paints, automobiles, electrical appliances and domestic energy. These markets usually exhibit environmental differentiation, where consumers differ in their willingness to pay for the environmental attributes of a product. Building on the existing literature, this novel book provides a comprehensive analysis of firm strategy and environmental policy making in these types of `green' markets. The author introduces the model of an environmentally differentiated duopoly, in order to explicitly analyse the strategic interaction within such a market. He studies in detail the effects of environmental product standards, eco-labels, `green' R&D subsidies and environmental taxation on firm behaviour, welfare and emissions. Non-technical sections providing the empirical context expertly complement the formal theoretical analysis of environmental policy making. The author goes on to present important new conclusions for environmental policy and an agenda for future research. The Greening of Markets will be of immense interest to students and academics of environmental economics and applied industrial organisation, as well as policy makers and environmental managers.
This major annual publication provides a state-of-the-art survey of contemporary research on environmental and resource economics by some of the leading experts in the field. The critical issues addressed in this year's volume include: * contingent valuation * environmental policy, technological change and economic growth * land use decisions and policy * sustainability indicators * value transfer and environmental policy * joint implementation in climate change policy * environmentally harmful subsidies.
The management of natural resources located on private lands often involves a perceived conflict between the mix of private and public benefits they produce. This book is focused on one such issue: the design of policy relating to the production of wetland outputs in order to maximize private and social welfare. The authors first address the welfare impacts of alternative wetland management strategies on the wider community. They then concentrate on privately owned wetlands in Australia and find that they generate substantial public benefits. Furthermore, they are able to identify cost-effective avenues to increase these benefits. The authors then turn their attention to the integration of policy costs in decision-making and the implications for wetland policy. They highlight the fact that policy development and implementation is a costly process and in some cases can even outweigh the net benefits available from increasing wetland production. This important new book develops theory and policy for the provision of public goods from private land, and applies this to case studies of wetlands in Australia. It will be of great interest and practical value to environmental economists and policy makers working on the theory and application of economics to policy development. It will also appeal to environmental NGOs concerned about the effective production of environmental goods.
The debate about how best to manage the interplay between trade, industrialization and the impacts of both on the global environment continues to rage, particularly in the context of the introduction and ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. This book deals with a number of important issues surrounding the debate about trade and the environment, but places particular emphasis on the process of EU enlargement. The first two chapters, by prominent American scholars, present the case for and against the Kyoto Protocol. The authors go on to review the broader trade-environment debate by undertaking a critical analysis of the interplay between current WTO and EU economic policies and how they conflict with policies aimed at environmental protection. The third part focuses on EU accession economies and discusses how EU policies can best strike a balance between environmental improvements and economic development in those countries. Finally the book reviews the impact of economic transition on environmental policies in Russia and Central and Eastern Europe. This book will be of great interest to scholars interested in the trade-environment debate and will be a valuable resource for international environmental policymakers.
The siting or development of risky facilities, such as nuclear power plants or waste repositories, remains an intractable policy problem for all democratic nations. In this valuable new book, the authors present a comparative study of various siting controversies in North America, Asia, Europe and Australia. They argue that devising effective policies for dealing with siting conflicts will require social learning and changes in both institutional design and policy process. This volume studies the issue of siting in the context of a transactions cost framework. It analyses the extent to which the institutional and policy environment can assist in managing siting conflicts, as well as considering the effect of other important factors such as equity, incentive structures, social pressures, alliances, the nature of decision processes and information strategies. By adopting a broad comparative perspective and using international case studies, the authors are able to identify the similarities and differences in siting problems between nations, and the approaches and policies adopted. As well as extending the theoretical and comparative knowledge of siting conflicts, they also help to develop more robust and effective policies for managing and resolving future disputes. This book addresses a growing policy problem confronting all democratic nations. By exploring the lessons to be learned from international siting experiences, it will prove invaluable reading for academics, policymakers, government agencies, NGOs, and other societal interests involved in environmental and siting issues.
Soil fertility is the backbone of agricultural systems and plays a key role in determining food quantity and quality. In recent decades, soil fertility has decreased due to indiscriminate use of agrochemicals, and nations around the globe are now facing the challenge of increasing food production while sustainably maintaining soil fertility. Written by leading international scientists in the field, this book explores soil fertility management strategies, including agronomic, microbiological and soil-science based strategies. Highlighting the practices that can be incorporated into organic farming and discussing recent advances, it is a valuable resource for researchers wanting to broaden their vision and the scope of their investigations.
This fascinating book outlines the fundamental principles and difficulties that characterise the challenging task of using econometrics to inform natural resource management policies, and illustrates them through a number of case studies from all over the world. The book offers a comprehensive overview of the broader picture of the state-of-the-art in econometrics as applied to environmental and natural resource management. It includes a wide range of econometric techniques that can be used to inform natural resource management, while keeping a balance between methods and applications. Case studies have been carefully chosen to be of major concern in the arena of environmental policy, mainly in Europe (both EU member states and assessing countries), but also in the US and some developing countries. Econometrics Informing Natural Resources Management will be welcomed by academics and researchers interested in the areas of natural resource economics and econometrics, and also applied econometrics.
This significant new book highlights a little acknowledged but potentially catastrophic crisis of innovation in the global water sector, which institutions and industries are frighteningly ill-equipped to tackle or even accept. It suggests potential new technology and policy approaches to overcome both current and future problems. The book explores how technological innovation is vital to help provide sustainable water in both the UK and developing countries. However, innovation is being overlooked in the face of global trends to privatize and regulate water utilities. The authors highlight how the global water sector is failing to respond to increasingly complex world needs and continues to build largely unsustainable centralized infrastructures, opposing more appropriate, distributed and local modern technologies. The book also includes suggestions for potentially innovative technology and policy solutions to meet escalating global water and wastewater demands. Importantly, the authors adopt a long-term perspective that crosses both disciplinary and institutional boundaries, and include an international comparative perspective, covering a diverse range of examples and countries. This comprehensive book will have a broad appeal amongst researchers and academics with an interest in technology management, innovation studies, geography and development studies. It will also be a valuable asset for water regulators and governmental and non-governmental organisations working in this field.
The restoration of the Florida Everglades, the largest ecosystem restoration project in the world, is now underway. Missing from the original plan, however, is a study of the region's cities and farms and the economic impact their growth will make on this already endangered ecosystem. This book provides that analysis. Richard Weisskoff applies the widely-used Regional Economic Modeling Inc. (REMI) model to forecast the future of South Florida's six million-person, $300 billion economy. In addition, he supplies four significant pieces to the model, namely, detailed projections for agriculture, investment, tourism, and restoration spending. By integrating these and the results of a second economic modeling system (IMPLAN), he traces out three development paths for the region to the year 2030, and the demands for water and urban land required for each path. Also featured are the results of two land use/land cover surveys which are then used to measure the change in the value of ecosystem services in the Everglades region. The author provides an economic history of the region and statistically documents the transformation of the original Everglades into the sprawling cities and the sugar-citrus-cattle emporium, all of which share the same fragile ecosystem. The study concludes that the ultimate success of the restoration of the Everglades will depend on choices made regarding the future of the region's cities and farms. While the volume focuses on the Everglades, it serves also as a case study for other such restoration projects. Ecological and environmental economists, regional scientists, planning professionals, and government agencies will find this timely volume of great interest.
This open access volume is the first comprehensive assessment of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) region. It comprises important scientific research on the social, economic, and environmental pillars of sustainable mountain development and will serve as a basis for evidence-based decision-making to safeguard the environment and advance people's well-being. The compiled content is based on the collective knowledge of over 300 leading researchers, experts and policymakers, brought together by the Hindu Kush Himalayan Monitoring and Assessment Programme (HIMAP) under the coordination of the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD). This assessment was conducted between 2013 and 2017 as the first of a series of monitoring and assessment reports, under the guidance of the HIMAP Steering Committee: Eklabya Sharma (ICIMOD), Atiq Raman (Bangladesh), Yuba Raj Khatiwada (Nepal), Linxiu Zhang (China), Surendra Pratap Singh (India), Tandong Yao (China) and David Molden (ICIMOD and Chair of the HIMAP SC). This First HKH Assessment Report consists of 16 chapters, which comprehensively assess the current state of knowledge of the HKH region, increase the understanding of various drivers of change and their impacts, address critical data gaps and develop a set of evidence-based and actionable policy solutions and recommendations. These are linked to nine mountain priorities for the mountains and people of the HKH consistent with the Sustainable Development Goals. This book is a must-read for policy makers, academics and students interested in this important region and an essentially important resource for contributors to global assessments such as the IPCC reports.
In the past few decades, sustainability of natural resources and the social and environmental issues that surround them have become increasingly topical. This multidisciplinary book discusses the complex relationships between society, natural resources and the environment. Major resources including water, agriculture, energy, minerals and forests are considered, as well as different facets of the environment including climate, landforms and biodiversity. Each resource is discussed in the context of both environmental and socio-economic factors affecting their present and future distribution and demand. Presenting a balanced, comprehensive overview of the issues surrounding natural resources and sustainability, this accessible volume will be of interest to policy makers, resource managers, graduate students and researchers in the natural and social sciences.
The role of stakeholders is integral to corporate sustainability as society increasingly demands that corporations play a role in achieving environmental objectives in addition to building shareholder wealth. In the first book to gather cutting-edge research on the interactions between stakeholders and organizations within the context of corporate sustainability, the contributors to this volume provide a diversity of perspectives from North America, Europe, and Oceania. The authors examine the role stakeholders play in influencing regulations on global issues such as climate change and national and regional problems. Stakeholder selection of companies and the sustainability issues they choose to target are explored, as are the ways in which organizations motivate them to participate in the evolution of holistic sustainable solutions. The interactions between stakeholder pressures, organizational characteristics and corporate sustainability practices are also covered. Finally, the volume provides an examination of the dynamic structure of organizational fields in the European automobile industry in order to analyze the factors that foster or hinder ecological modernization. Academics, environmental consultants, sustainability managers, NGOs, and international development institutions will find this timely volume of great value.
Using a multidisciplinary approach that draws on their in-depth experience in the fields of energy, environment, and economics, the authors develop a comprehensive analytical framework. They apply their methodology to four detailed studies of Sri Lanka's energy sector, illustrating how to address key energy and environmental policy issues found in many developing countries today. Supplementary case examples are presented which also draw on many other countries in Asia and Africa. The main energy-related areas discussed include electric power, new and renewable energy sources, transport and oil-based fuels, and greenhouse gas emissions. The methodological tools of energy and environmental economics provide a rational basis for identifying policy priorities, evaluating them, and developing more sustainable energy options. The results of the studies are presented in an integrated manner, and contribute to the practical resolution of many important public policy issues. How to deal with risk and uncertainty, and how to identify robust policy options, are major themes that run throughout the volume. Energy and environmental economists, and graduate students interested in an introduction to the analytical methods used in recent World Bank projects on renewable energy and sustainable development will find this book of great value, as will decision makers and policy analysts in developing countries.
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