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Environmental Economics for Sustainable Growth is a specially designed handbook for trainers, practitioners and government advisors involved in environmental policy making. It will enable professionals to initiate and implement environmental economic studies and identify policies and investments which will ensure sustainable development in their respective countries. The book focuses on economic tools but also encompasses ecological and sociological perspectives, all of which are essential to any successful environmental policy. The authors highlight the major issues in environmental policy making and the analysis of projects with environmental impacts. Features include: * sustainable development in a global context * macroeconomic policies and the environment * environmental policies and priorities * legal and institutional dimensions * integration of environmental assessment into project analysis * valuation techniques and case studies. This handbook will be of immense use in the training of policymakers, practitioners, and students of environmental policy as well as development managers and scholars working in the areas of environment and development.
The tourism industry has increasingly recognized and responded to growing environmental concerns. In recent years, there has been an emergence of a variety of categories of tourism considered more environmentally friendly: green, eco-tourism, and sustainable tourism. Much of the literature that has addressed these developments has been orientated to the destination locale or specific to a development. These texts have not sought to investigate and examine the response of government/national tourist organizations to the international sustainability agenda and the responses/actions of tourism enterprises to this "greening" agenda. This text aims to address this remarkable gap. This indispensable contribution to the field provides a comprehensive, state of the art perspective on progress towards the objectives of sustainable development within the tourism sector across the globe by focusing on the environmental performance and adoption of environmental management systems by tourism enterprises.
In their pursuit of policies to combat global warming, countries will find that they may also receive additional benefits which are not directly associated with the primary aim. These ancillary benefits are likely to include, for example, a reduction in pollution as a result of carbon containment policies. International Climate Policy to Combat Global Warming is one of the first books which analyses climate policy, taking account of ancillary as well as primary benefits. The author integrates ancillary benefits into the theory and explores the implications for international policy measures. Because of the private character of ancillary benefits, the author is able to treat climate policy as an impure public good which in turn has an impact on the efficient climate protection level. He highlights the general failures of the standard approach to climate policy design and goes on to propose a new approach to international negotiations on climate change. He suggests a flexible matching scheme which would help overcome free-rider incentives and which would have considerable advantages over traditional co-operative designs. By proposing a novel framework for the analysis of, and solution to, the problem of global warming, this book will be welcomed by environmental and ecological economists, policymakers and researchers of political science.
In evaluating environmental policy, researchers have tended to focus on the industry or market that is targeted by regulation and to disregard policy impacts in other parts of the economy. Recent research indicates, however, that in economies where governments rely on distortionary taxes, environmental regulation can profoundly affect costs and efficiency in areas other than the targeted industry or market. These findings signal the importance of evaluating environmental policy using a general equilibrium framework - an approach that can capture interactions across industries, sectors or markets. General equilibrium analysis can fundamentally alter the evaluation of environmental tax policies, and can overturn conventional wisdom concerning the relative cost-effectiveness of environmental taxes, emissions quotas, or mandated technologies. This volume gathers together important papers on the general equilibrium impacts of environmental regulation in the presence of distortionary taxes. Topics include optimal environmental taxation,'green tax reform' and the `double dividend', and the choice among alternative policy instruments. The volume will be of interest to environmental economists, public finance economists and researchers interested in the economics of regulation.
Can economic globalization and environmental protection co-exist or does globalization inevitably lead to environmental degradation? How have firms in Europe responded to increased environmental regulation in the face of growing international competition, particularly from newly industrializing and transition economies? This book attempts to answer these questions using case studies of three pollution-intensive industries: iron and steel, leather tanning, and fertilizers. Based on in-depth interviews with managers and regulators in Western and Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America, the book illustrates the variety of responses to the conflicting pressures of globalization and environmental protection at corporate and industry levels. It also considers the impact which shifting competitive advantage has on the environment in newly industrialized countries and transition economies. Environmental managers and regulators of national and international environmental agencies will find Environmental Regulation in the New Global Economy of great interest, as will, academics and students of economics, environmental management, business studies, geography and international relations.
Global warming is widely considered to be one of the most serious environmental problems for current and future generations. Moreover, the apparent failure of the Kyoto Protocol to effect a meaningful reduction in greenhouse gas emissions has increased the importance of economic research into new ways to control global warming. In this exhaustive study, the authors break new ground by integrating cutting edge insights on global warming from three different perspectives: game theory, cost-effectiveness analysis and public choice. For each perspective the authors provide an overview of important results, discuss the theoretical consistency of the models and assumptions, highlight the practical problems which are not yet captured by theory and explore the different applications to the various problems encountered in global warming. They demonstrate how each perspective has its own merits and weaknesses, and advocate an integrated approach as the best way forward. They also propose a research agenda for the future which encompasses the three methods to create a powerful tool for the analysis and resolution of global pollution problems. Surveying a large amount of literature and providing plentiful examples of potential applications, this extensive book combines three branches of economic research on global warming into one accessible volume. It will be widely read by students and scholars in environmental courses, environmental and resource economists, and those working in governmental and non-governmental organisations concerned with international environmental problems.
In the post-Cold War era, the pre-eminent threats to our security derive from human degradation of vital ecosystems as well as the possibility of war and terrorist attack. This substantial book examines this new `security-environment' paradigm and the way in which the activities of societies are shifting the balance with nature. The distinguished authors investigate this redefinition of security with particular reference to environmental threats such as climate change and the availability of adequate supplies of food and water. They illustrate how unfettered economic growth, rising levels of personal consumption and unsustainable natural resource and energy procurement are taking a heavy toll on the global environment. This, in turn, is forcing both developed and developing countries to re-evaluate the more immediate environmental security of their own populations. For a truly global perspective, the authors present a series of country case-studies, looking at issues of security and environment, and comparing how they influence policy and human well-being. They also discuss a number of theoretical issues which underpin discussions of `environmental security', demonstrating that this is a relatively new and essentially contested concept. This thought-provoking book highlights the way in which both security and sustainability are being reworked as concepts and are being linked increasingly to social, economic and cultural factors. It will be of great interest to academics, researchers and students in environmental management, sociology, geography, international relations and politics.
Although the history of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is dominated by a process of centralisation, growing pressures to integrate agri-environmental problems into the CAP have revealed the need to embrace decentralised approaches in an efficient federal structure. Indeed, in recent years it has become increasingly evident that the agricultural sector must undergo fundamental changes in order to enter an era of sustainable development. The authors do not believe that this will be an easy process, not only because agricultural policies in Europe are dominated by specific interest groups, but primarily because integrating environmental aspects into the CAP requires difficult institutional change at different levels. Centralised decision making at the EU level has characterised recent agricultural policy and the authors argue that centralised and hierarchical governance structures may fail to produce adequate solutions if they are not linked to regional and more diverse institutional arrangements. They demonstrate how these new institutional arrangements should be designed and how this change can be organised. In particular, they highlight the need for cooperation, and the participation of farmers, as a strategy to cope with agri-environmental issues and resource management problems. Addressing the value of co-operative strategies to achieve sustainable development and cope with agri-environmental problems, this book will be of great interest to agricultural economists and those with an interest in ecological reforms of agricultural policies. It will also be particularly relevant to policymakers within EU nations, as well as policymakers within the countries of Eastern and Central Europe who will be amongst the first to be admitted to the EU in the next wave of expansion.
This coherent collection of both previously published and specially written papers applies general economic principles to the conservation of wildlife and natural areas, and outlines consequential policy issues. Particular consideration is given to open-access situations, property rights in wildlife and to the total valuation of species, allowing for their possible positive and negative values. Possible conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation is discussed, as are the arguments for state provision of parks and protected areas. Asian elephants, kangaroos and whales are selected examples of species used to illustrate applications of the underlying principles. Forestry management is also reviewed, drawing upon the experiences of China and India. Clem Tisdell aims to demonstrate how economics can help to clarify and resolve social conflicts about nature conservation, while also highlighting the limits of economics in providing answers such as those of an intrinsic value. Doubts are thrown upon some widely accepted concepts, such as the Environmental Kuznets curve, when applied to the relationship between nature conservation and economic growth. The Economics of Conserving Wildlife and Natural Areas will be warmly welcomed by academics and policymakers in the areas of ecological and environmental economics as well as natural resource economists and managers and those with a linked interest to development studies.
In this important book Tim Jeppesen investigates environmental regulation in a federal system and addresses the underlying question of whether regulation should be decided centrally, by EU institutions, or de-centrally, by individual member states. Whilst simple economic reasoning presumes that transboundary externalities require central solutions and local externalities need local solutions, the author finds that the real answer is much more complicated. Part of the problem is the fact that EU institutions are complex organisations and their rationale and decision making is not always in the interests of economic efficiency alone, but is often based upon other criteria. The author demonstrates this using the example of subsidiarity, a principal which directly affects the distribution of competencies between the EU and individual member states. Although subsidiarity is supposedly underpinned by economic efficiency, he finds that it is in fact, first and foremost, a political concept shaped by EU institutions. The author goes on to examine the balance between the costs and benefits of central and de-central environmental policies, and demonstrates how an environmental regulatory authority can be allocated most efficiently among federal and state governments. Tim Jeppesen extends the basic theoretical issues to investigate the challenging problems which arise in the actual determination of policy measures in the context of the EU. This wide-ranging study of both the conceptual and practical dimensions of environmental regulation in a federal system will be welcomed by economists, political scientists, policymakers and students.
The literature and research on environmental and resource economics has exploded in recent years. This major annual publication provides a cutting-edge survey of current research by the leading experts in the field. The Yearbook includes contributions on: * climate change policy * general equilibrium models in environmental and resource economics * hedonic property value techniques for policy and litigation * progress and problems in the economics of sustainability * valuing the health effects of pollution * the economics of carbon sequestration in agricultural soils * tradable permits for air quality * linking environmental ethics and environmental policy.
There has been an explosion in the literature and research on environmental and resource economics in recent years. This major annual publication provides a cutting-edge survey of current research by the leading experts in the field. The latest Yearbook includes contributions on: * environmental valuation in developing countries * electricity restructuring * industrial ecology * experimental economics in natural resource and environmental management * interest groups and the demand for environmental policy * modelling sustainable ecological economic development * environmental risk management and the business firm.
The siting of locally obnoxious but nationally relevant and necessary facilities such as sewage treatment plants, landfills, dams and nuclear power stations is an important issue in public policy planning. In view of the negative externalities such as declining property prices, health threats, and air, water and noise pollution imposed on the local communities that house them, the location of these facilities generates a consensus among the general public aptly termed `not-in-my-backyard' or NIMBY syndrome. Drawing on the experiences of North America, Europe, Oceania and Asia, this book offers a comprehensive review of existing conflict-resolution instruments used in the siting of these facilities. The authors highlight in particular legal and command instruments such as zoning and compulsory acquisition of land, and economic incentives such as compensation and mitigation. Using elements from areas such as game theory and risk analysis and the use of compensation auction mechanisms, the authors present a series of decision steps to provide a credible alternative methodology designed to minimise such conflicts. This innovative study will be welcomed by all those with an interest in environmental and public policy planning.
This book asks an important question of how management of the environment may benefit firms. The authors take an objective, neutral perspective on the extent to which environmental issues should, or should not, be addressed within the management of business corporations. The Environment in Corporate Management includes an up-to-date treatment of business practices, norms and standards, using the tools of microeconomic and industrial organisation analysis to provide an ordered and consistent picture. The analysis is couched within stakeholder theory, which determines how costs and benefits are defined for the firm. Utilising the most recent information the book also focuses on the underlying long-term trends. Actual examples and case studies illustrate the discussions. The authors conclude by highlighting the inevitable need to link environment and finance, for better stakeholder relationships and business performance. This unique book is written clearly and accessibly, but with a firm grounding in academia to challenge scholars and researchers in areas including environmental studies, business, economics and finance. Practitioners will also find the book of great interest.
The market for residential solid waste management and disposal has experienced dramatic changes over the past 20 years. This collection of outstanding published research examines these changes and thoroughly analyzes the strategies popularized by municipal governments over the past two decades. Kerbside recycling, unheard of in the 1970s, is currently available to 46% of Americans. Thousands of towns across the nation have also implemented user fees requiring households to pay a fee for every bag of garbage they generate. These policy shifts have attracted the attention of environmental economists interested in knowing the best strategy for managing solid waste. The editors, both long-time scholars of these trends, offer theoretical solutions for the optimal pricing of garbage and recycling collection. They provide original data collection and suggest appropriate econometric techniques that correct for statistical biases. A policy focus provides information relevant to municipal governments as well as researchers. This excellent volume will be useful for policymakers, students and scholars in environmental economics.
This important collection reprints the most significant papers and case studies on the prevention and resolution of conflict over water resources. It focuses in particular on the human dynamics that are involved when conflicts over water resources impact on different interest groups, economic sectors and legal or political boundaries. It addresses key issues which arise at both the local and the international level, including amongst others: How do people interact in these situations of conflict? What methods do they use to find a compromise? What institutions do they create - either jointly or unilaterally - to help overcome problems in the future? This interdisciplinary collection will be essential reading for professional water practitioners throughout the world, including engineers, economists, geographers, geologists, and political scientists concerned with water disputes and conflict resolution. It will make a significant contribution to the study of water as an essential theme in the increasingly important topic of environmental security.
Nature and agriculture both shape the European countryside and one of the main challenges for the years to come will be to strengthen their interaction for the future development of rural areas. In this valuable and highly topical book, the authors demonstrate how economics and ecology can play a critical role in maintaining and sustaining this relationship. The book identifies the dilemmas facing European agriculture and explores their economic and ecological consequences. The authors believe a better understanding of these problems will be crucial in recognising the potential options for the future role of agriculture and nature policy and will guide the identification of suitable policy instruments. They highlight current threats to the relationship between agriculture and nature - such as abandonment and intensification - and demonstrate how these problems can be resolved by a rational policy mix. The book also provides extensive empirical evidence from four case studies and concludes by scrutinising the major changes in market conditions and the Common Agricultural Policy which could upset this important but fragile balance between agriculture and nature. Providing a state-of-the-art overview of current thinking on the relationship between agriculture and nature in the context of EU policy, this book will be welcomed by policymakers and those studying and working in the fields of agricultural and resource economics, geography, and agri-business.
This important volume brings together an authoritative selection of the leading papers on the subject of maritime transport. With a new introductory essay by the editors, the collection provides a thorough examination of the topics associated with this area, including maritime economics, transport law and policy. Part I includes articles on carrier management and operations. Part II looks in detail at competition policy and pricing. Part III discusses finance, the fiscal treatment of shipping and flag of registry issues. Part IV covers the area of law and policy and Part V examines market and structures. Finally, Part VI focuses on ports. This collection will be an invaluable resource for major maritime academies and to students and researchers in the subject of maritime transport.
How will the industrial changes implicit within new biotechnologies affect modern agriculture? This book investigates these changes and provides an economic analysis of the industrial and distributional impacts of new biotechnologies, addressing in detail the significant consequences for developing countries. One of the most important facets of biotechnological change is the development of new technologies for appropriating the value of innovations in related industries. In agriculture these new appropriation technologies are known as `genetic use restriction technologies', which enable the innovator to capture the value of innovative plant varieties by preventing their reproduction after purchase. This book analyses the implications of such technologies in terms of global agricultural production, the rate of innovation at the technological frontier and, in particular, the diffusion of these innovations across the globe. The authors set forth the economic and institutional framework within which innovations are occurring, focusing on the impacts on the least technologically advanced nations and their incentives to conserve genetic resources for use in future research and development. This stimulating book should be widely read by agricultural and resource economists, development economists, and scholars and researchers of environmental economics. Policymakers in developing countries will also gain valuable insights into the distribution of the potential benefits from biotechnology.
The Economics of Industrial Water Use presents an authoritative collection of the most important articles to have applied economic models and measurement techniques to the topic of industrial water use over the last thirty years. It includes an original introductory chapter which summarizes and critically assesses the literature on this important subject. These papers employ a range of modelling approaches including econometric estimation, linear programming, input-output models, non-market valuation and integrated river basin planning models. They also provide empirical evidence of the significant role played by economic forces in determining industrial water intake, discharge and recirculation. This comprehensive volume will be an indispensable reference source for those with an interest in water's role in industrial applications.
Sustainable development is a concept that is receiving increasing attention from world decision makers. This timely volume contains a selection of both the seminal papers and a cross-section of current thinking. It will be invaluable to researchers, students and practitioners interested in this important topic. Part I presents early articles linking the macroeconomy with the environment. Part II contains general surveys of the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation. Included in Part III are papers with mathematical models seeking to incorporate environmental variables into macroeconomic frameworks. Part IV focuses on the linkages between international trade and the environment. The final section examines progress on the greening of the system of national accounts - an important prerequisite for environmental-macroeconomic policy making.
Water Resources and Climate Change presents an authoritative collection of key articles which explore the impact and effect of climatic change on all aspects of the hydrologic cycle. The articles selected focus upon the hydrological implications of climate change and its potential impact on water systems and water use, issues in climate impact assessment, planning and adaptation strategies and socioeconomic assessments of particular case studies. This important volume will be an essential source of reference for water managers and planners as well as those interested in understanding the hydrological, ecological, and socioeconomic implications of climate change.
Including work by some of the world's leading economists, engineers, ecologists and social scientists, Water Resources and Economic Development is a unique collection due to its global perspectives and specific focus upon the recent experiences of the developing regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America. It explores important topics such as basin and regional development, irrigation and agricultural development, water supply, sanitation and health, legal and institutional issues, water pricing and water markets, and policy trends and emerging issues. This authoritative volume will be an invaluable source for students, researchers and policymakers and also for those who would like to be more informed in this key area of development studies.
Economic activities that degrade the environment do not simply pit humans against nature. They also pit some humans against others. Some benefit from these activities; others bear net costs from pollution and resource depletion. In a provocative and original analysis, James K. Boyce examines the dynamics of environmental degradation in terms of the balances of power between the winners and the losers. He provides evidence that inequalities of power and wealth affect not only the distribution of environmental costs, but also their overall magnitude: greater inequalities result in more environmental degradation. Democratization - movement toward a more equitable distribution of power - therefore is not only a worthwhile objective in its own right, but also an important means toward the social goals of environmental protection and sustainable development. Combining theoretical analysis with empirical evidence from around the world, James K. Boyce demonstrates that changes in our relationship with nature ultimately require changes in our relationships with each other. He maintains that a more democratic and environmentally sustainable future is possible, but warns that it is not inevitable. This book will appeal to students, scholars, policymakers and other readers interested in the environment, economics and public policy.
Greening the Budget regards the fundamental cause of environmental degradation as government and market failure and proposes the use of budgets as an instrument of environmental policy to rectify this problem. The book focuses on the elements of the public budget which currently affect the environment and explores the scope for greening both revenue and expenditure through specific measures. The authors begin by considering the effects of removing environmentally damaging subsidies and the potential for correcting market failure by way of appropriate pricing. They go on to examine the introduction of new taxes following the `polluter pays' principle and, in contrast, the allocation of incentives for those who take the environmentally preferred course of action. They also explore the environmental and budgetary implications of European Union financial transfers by looking at a case study of the agricultural sector. The book concludes by addressing public purchasing and administration. This book will be of particular interest and value to scholars of environmental economics, researchers involved in environmental policy, and environmental consultants, practitioners and policymakers.
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