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In this new authoritative collection The Environment and Transport, the editors have selected the most important articles published in the last twenty years concerning pollution, the effects of traffic on the environment and the development of controls on both a regional and national level. This important new reference work will prove an invaluable source to both practitioners and students in the field of environmental studies.
This modern and comprehensive book offers a broad survey of economic growth theory, with special emphasis on the impact of natural resources on long-term development. The book begins with the standard growth models of the 1950s and 1960s and extends its analysis to the so-called `new' growth theory, in which the long-term growth rate of an economy becomes an endogenous variable. The impact of positive spillovers, human capital formation, public services and innovation on the growth process are carefully studied. Using models and empirical illustration, the author evaluates to what extent growth theory is able to explain the huge international differences in living standards prevailing in the world today. The theoretical foundation is then used to consider the issue of sustainable growth under stricter environmental regulation. Growth Theory and Sustainable Development shows that the understanding of growth theory is an important key to predict the sustainability of long-term development, making it required reading for students of economic development and environmental economics.
In this controversial book Herman Daly, a leading commentator on the environment, offers lively criticism of existing work on ecological economics and the economics of ecology. The theme throughout the book is about changes in perspective, attitudes and policies required to avoid uneconomic growth - that is, the impoverishment that results when the environmental and social costs of growth exceed the benefits. Key issues addressed include: * growth economics * misunderstandings of thermodynamics * economic development and population * globalization * money * humans in the ecosystem. This major new book will be of interest to economists, ecologists, environmentalists, public policy scholars and activists as well as social philosophers.
This major annual publication is an authoritative state-of-the-art survey of current issues in environmental and resource economics written by the leading academics in the field. The discipline of environmental and resource economics has undergone a rapid evolution over the past three decades with the early literature focusing mainly on valuation, and the design of policy instruments to correct externalities and encourage optimal resource exploitation. In the past few years, the field has broadened its scope by making numerous links with other disciplines in economics as well as the natural and physical sciences. As a result there has been an explosion in the literature which has made it increasingly difficult to keep up with developments in the field. TheYearbook cuts through this by focusing on the principal issues of current interest. Considering both macroeconomic and microeconomic issues, this edition deals with environmental policy in economies in transition, green accounting, the impact of macroeconomic policies on the environment, the economics of fisheries management reactions to environmental policy within firms as well as means of incorporating uncertainty in environmental analysis and policy. The Yearbook will provide economists working in environmental and resource economics, as well as those who are interested in knowing more about the field, with a comprehensive overview of the main issues written by leading international scholars.
This path-breaking book focuses on the theory and practice of economic development as viewed from the perspective of sustainability, and the implications of sustainability for development policy. It demonstrates how various indicators can be developed and used to determine whether or not an economy is on a sustainable path of development. The book is concerned with measuring sustainability in a macroeconomic context so that decision makers are more aware of the real trends in the economy and the way in which their policies may affect these trends. The discussion on such measurement includes: the physical indicators of sustainability, resource and environmental accounting, savings and the empirical measurement of sustainable development, international trade and unsustainable development, ecological indicators, income distribution and social needs, and the assessment of structural adjustment policies and their implications for sustainable development. The authors conclude that the first step towards sustainable development is for a greater awareness of the effects of development on the environment, and the environment on human well-being. Measuring Sustainable Development will be particularly welcomed by policymakers and practitioners as well as researchers, academics and students of development economics and environmental economics.
This major annual publication is an authoritative state-of-the-art survey of current issues in environmental and resource economics written by the leading academics in the field. The discipline of environmental and resource economics has undergone a rapid evolution over the past three decades with the early literature focusing mainly on valuation and the design of policy instruments to correct externalities and encourage optimal resource exploitation. In the past few years, the field has broadened its scope by making numerous links with other disciplines in economics as well as the natural and physical sciences. As a result there has been an explosion in the literature which has made it increasingly difficult to keep up with developments in the field. The Yearbook cuts through this by focusing on the principal issues of current interest. In this edition, experts in their specific field consider the problems of the monitoring and enforcement of environmental policy and examine possible voluntary approaches to environmental protection. Topics examined include policies to counter tropical deforestation, the analysis of transportation and environmental policy, models of climate change control, environmental labelling and the use of cost-benefit analysis. The Yearbook will provide economists, scholars and practitioners working in environmental and resource economics with a comprehensive overview of the up-to-date issues written by the leading international scholars.
This book explores approaches to sustainability by linking the economy, society and the environment. The international group of experts uses concepts of sustainability from the physical and social sciences to develop a framework for creating policies for sustainability. Sustainability in Question goes beyond much of the existing literature on sustainability taking into account culture, institutions, knowledge and traditions. It sheds new light on the ability of humans to create institutional and social arrangements which are able to adapt to changing conditions. The authors consider the current state of environmental and institutional sustainability within the context of economic activity and public policy. They recognise that some of the basic economic notions such as universal substitutability, methodological individualism and the superiority of the price mechanism may be misplaced in the case of environmental protection. Sustainability in Question will be welcomed by those interested in environmental economics, science, management and environmental studies, as well as by those working in the fields of ecological economics, natural resource economics and environmental sociology.
Elgar Advanced Introductions are stimulating and thoughtful introductions to major fields in the social sciences and law, expertly written by the world's leading scholars. Designed to be accessible yet rigorous, they offer concise and lucid surveys of the substantive and policy issues associated with discrete subject areas. Any human endeavor is shaped by, and shapes, changes in the physical and biological environment. In this Advanced Introduction, Matthias Ruth draws on a diverse set of theories, methods and applications to critically assess key concepts in ecological economics. Understanding biophysical foundations of economic growth and development is at the core of ecological economics. The author provides a precise introduction to the interdependencies between economic and environmental change, focusing on the fundamental dependence of the economy on the environment, as a provider of energy, materials and waste assimilation services. Key features include: * an advanced introduction to theories, methods and applications of ecological economics that are reflective rather than enumerative * clarification of the differences between traditional resource and environmental economics * valuable insights from the Global South as well as from experiences in industrialized countries to explore the topic in depth. Offering a unique insight into a field that is still in its formative years of development, this concise and accessible Advanced Introduction will greatly benefit students, researchers and instructors in environmental science and ecological economics.
This book focuses on the impact and design of international environmental regimes which are established to preserve natural resources and reduce environmental degradation. The author addresses such regimes from both a conceptual and theoretical point of view as well as using comparative empirical evidence from issue areas such as marine pollution, acid rain, ozone layer depletion and global climate change. He examines specifically a number of controversial institutional issues in international environmental politics. Should, for instance, access to decision-processes be inclusive or exclusive in terms of non-governmental watchdogs? Similar choices and dilemmas exist with regard to decision-making rules, the role of the secretariat, the structuring of the agenda, the organization of the science-politics interface, and the design of verification and compliance mechanisms. Hence, he addresses real dilemmas faced by negotiators, in order to help formulate policies for achieving the most effective organization of international environmental institutions. This book will be welcomed by students and scholars interested in environmental political economy and institutions, and policymakers and practitioners involved in the negotiation process.
Why is it that market instruments have not been used to their full potential in environmental policy? Using a public choice perspective, this book critically analyses the political economy of environmental policy with special emphasis on the role of powerful interest groups which have blocked the introduction of market instruments. Drawing on new case studies of market instruments, Dr Dijkstra examines the attitudes of interest groups and how they influence environmental policy. He discusses the preferences of shareholders and workers in the polluting industry, the environmental movement and the environmental bureaucracy. He then investigates the circumstances under which market instruments will have low or no probability of being accepted, assuming that they are welfare-maximizing. The Political Economy of Environmental Policy will be of interest to environmental and ecological economists, policymakers, political scientists and public choice scholars.
Emissions trading has become a central feature of global efforts to control climate change. Its inclusion in the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change represents a victory for advocates of market-based instruments and builds upon twenty years of experience with trading schemes in the United States. However, the concept is controversial and attempts to introduce similar trading schemes in Europe have met with mixed results. This timely book provides a comprehensive overview of the theory and practice of emissions trading including the lessons learnt, the problems faced and the prospects for its extended use. It includes case studies of trading schemes in the US and Europe, and studies of international trading under the European acid rain regime. Problems of practical implementation, especially institutional feasibility and political acceptability, are given particular attention. The prospects for the international trading of greenhouse gases following the Kyoto Protocol are assessed, together with the potential conflict between emissions trading and established regulatory traditions. Pollution for Sale will be of great interest to policymakers, practitioners, researchers and students of environmental policy.
This major new book presents recent advances in the theory and practice of environmental valuation and resource management. Leading experts in the field present methodological and empirical evidence for applying valuation methods to ecological policy problems. The methodological contributions examine such themes as uncertainty, distributional conflict, positional analysis, weak comparability and the need for collective solutions to environmental problems. Case studies are incorporated to support these theoretical reflections. A number of empirical studies are used to demonstrate and evaluate valuation practices in a variety of institutional and policy settings. These range from international environmental issues such as climate change and transboundary atmospheric pollution, to species preservation and coastal ecosystem protection. The contributors conclude that effective approaches for the evaluation of environmental risks, degradation and benefits must be specifically designed as functions of institutional, social and ecological factors. Valuation and the Environment will be essential reading for students and scholars of environmental and ecological economics, environmental management and regulation, resource management and public policy.
Global Environmental Change and Agriculture offers a comprehensive perspective on the causes, consequences and possible policy solutions for climatic change as we move into the twenty-first century. It assesses the impact of potential future global climate change on agriculture and the need to sustain agricultural growth for economic development. The book begins by examining the role of international research institutions in overcoming environmental constraints on sustainable agricultural growth and economic development. The authors then discuss how agricultural research systems may be restructured to respond to global environmental problems such as climate change and loss of genetic diversity. The discussion then extends to consider environmental accounting and indexing, to illustrate how environmental quality can be included formally in measures of national income, social welfare and sustainability. The third part of the book focuses on the effects of and policy responses to climate change. Chapters examine the effect of climate change on production, trade, land use patterns and livelihoods. They consider impacts on the distribution of income between developed and developing countries and between different social classes within the developing world, where agriculture remains a major economic activity. Authors take on an economy-wide perspective to draw lessons for agricultural, trade, land use and tax policy. This book will be of special interest to agricultural, development and environmental economists as well as policy analysts in government and at international agencies confronting practical problems of environmental and economic assessment.
This important new book is a practical guide to the design of policies for effective energy conservation. Drawing on a wide range of European experiences, it analyses and evaluates the weaknesses of current conservation policies. The authors advance proposals that will ensure that political, administrative and energy conservation resources are used to maximum effect. Based on original investigations of conservation policies the book examines: * the use of grants and subsidies to encourage investment in the conservation of energy in domestic housing and public buildings * the use of information to inform householders of their conservation options and the implications of these options * the use of regulation to encourage the use of combined heating power * demand-side management by utility companies * institutional development as a means of engendering `bottom-up' conservation initiatives The main lesson is that it is not the policy per se but its design and execution which dictates performance. The key variables in shaping such performance are identified and discussed. This timely book will be invaluable for those responsible for designing and implementing energy conservation policies and will be of special interest to those researching the practice of energy conservation.
The prospect of simultaneously achieving a `greener' environment, increased tax revenues and lower levels of unemployment has made ecological taxes an increasingly popular proposition. This volume examines the possibility of ecological tax reform in the Nordic countries of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The potential for ecological tax reform is investigated on a theoretical and an empirical level. The social costs associated with environmental taxes are analysed and the impacts of a Swedish carbon tax are calculated by means of a static numerical model. Taxes on carbon, nitrogen and fertilisers are also examined. The authors find that the level of unemployment cannot be decreased by revenue neutral environmental taxes without any social costs and conclude that there are no easy ways to achieve full employment, a budget surplus and environmental sustainability. They conclude that further understanding of the functioning of the labour market, household decisions and the link between change in pollutant emissions and environmental damage is needed in order to make more concrete suggestions concerning ecological tax reforms. Green Taxes will be of immense use to academics and practitioners in the field of environmental economics.
Sustaining Development brings together, in one accessible volume, a selection of Daniel W. Bromley's path-breaking theoretical and empirical papers on economic development and environmental problems in the developing world. The book emphasizes the institutional dimensions of the environment and development problem, paying particular attention to the role of property regimes in understanding the causes and consequences of environmental degradation. Daniel W. Bromley, one of the world's leading environmental scholars, addresses the conceptual and empirical issues of alternative property rights, institutions and incentives as they relate to environmental resources. Drawing on empirical work, he sheds new light on the pressing problems faced by governments in the developing world as they struggle with the twin challenges of poverty and resource degradation. Throughout the book Professor Bromley pays careful attention to the policy implications and policy formulation of the issues under discussion. Sustaining Development will be welcomed by environmental and development economists as well as policymakers in both the industrialized and developing world.
The transfer study, a technique used in cost-benefit analysis, is an increasingly important tool used by government agencies to assess environmental regulatory policy. This innovative book develops protocols for using the transfer method to approach environmental problems and introduces several significant conceptual and methodological advances that refine the transfer process. The transfer approach to quantitative policy analysis adapts information and data from existing studies and so provides an economical way to assess potential benefits and costs for projects. The book presents a detailed framework for examining the transfer of information, outlines the basic steps of the method, and discusses solutions to frequently encountered problems. It then illustrates the method with an extensive case study of environmental externalities from electricity generation. This case study provides the opportunity to discuss salient aspects of the transfer method in more detail, including conceptual principles, the quality of original studies, empirical difficulties and estimation techniques. It also demonstrates the use of state-of-the-art techniques such as meta analysis to synthesise and transfer information from multiple studies and assesses the reliability of the transfer estimates with repeated computer simulations, a technique known as Monte Carlo analysis. Environmental Policy Analysis with Limited Information will appeal to environmental policy analysts and managers as well as environmental economists.
This important book addresses the prospects for reconciling economic competitiveness with sustainable development. It shows that we cannot simply assume that changes in public attitudes, business policies and government regulation will guarantee the conditions for long-term ecological, social and economic sustainability. On the basis of new original case studies, the authors consider corporate environmental strategies, technological change and sustainable development as a social partnership between firms, citizens and government. They suggest that competitiveness must be considered as a dynamic process requiring proactive and reactive adjustments by business and government institutions all working towards sustainability. Sustainbility and Firms combines intellectual rigour with accessibility to communicate fundamental ideas to help policy decision-makers, enterprise managers, environmental scientists and economists grapple effectively with the problems of competitiveness, technological change, strategies of firms, governance and sustainable development.
Does free trade contribute to the deterioration of the environment? This important book offers a fresh look at the trade-environment debate from a political-economic perspective. It provides an extensive analysis of the environmental consequences of free trade, and examines how trade affects environmental regulation in this age of regional and global economic integration. The book begins by providing a useful review of the literature on the environment-trade link and the effects of trade on environmental regulation. It is demonstrated that environmental regulation may affect trade and investment patterns, and as a consequence the competitiveness of a country or region. Using the North American Free Trade Agreement as a case study, the author examines the political influence of environmentalists and industry sub-groups on pollution standards in the United States. Rolf Bommer also discusses the European experience, and reveals that the European Union may affect pollution regulation considerably and increase the chance of higher environmental standards. He concludes that free trade offers the opportunity to introduce tighter pollution regulation due to the political influence of interest groups on environmental policy making. Economic Integration and the Environment will be welcomed by environmental economists, those interested in international economics as well as policymakers and practitioners.
Many different types of private investment are described and their impact on the environment analyzed, leading to the conclusion - surprising for many - that improved environmental performance can accompany foreign direct investment. The book, the first in-depth study of these important links, is built around a series of case studies of various industries in Mexico, Argentina, Brazil and Costa Rica. The authors, a multi-national, multi-disciplinary team of experts, show how governments of developing countries can actually attract foreign investors by integrating environmental considerations into their investment promotion efforts. The book also identifies points of leverage for actions by governments, investors, environmental groups, and customers to increase even further the environmental benefits that can accompany private capital flows. This book makes an important and timely contribution to the debate on foreign direct investment and sustainable development. It will be of great interest to scholars and students of environmental economics, development economics, international finance, law, and management as well as to policymakers, environmental advocates, and private investors.
This book provides a comparative overview of the environmental and resource problems experienced in the Nordic and Baltic regions. It considers policies to combat environmental challenges and evaluates future economic growth and economic integration between the region and Western Europe. Using eight country case studies, the contributors assess recent policies to address environmental problems in the region and examine the choice of policy instruments used in the various countries. They study the Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the Nordic countries of Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland and consider the relationship between environmental policies of these and other European countries. In addition they also debate issues such as: * international environmental cooperation * environmental problems within the context of political debate * international financial assistance for environmental projects * comparative aspects of economic theory and policy concerning resources, the environment and economic growth Environmental Transition in Nordic and Baltic Countries will be welcomed by academics interested in environmental economics and transition economies as well as policymakers in governmental and non-governmental organizations.
This volume contains 21 selected essays by Professor Sir Hans Singer written over the last two decades. The volume addresses:- * development economics in historical perspective and considers where it stands today * the early pioneers of `development' thinking including Smith and Keynes * growth, industrialization and trade * current questions of the terms of trade debate and import substitution * North-South and South-South linkages * foreign aid The author gives grateful thanks to Matthew Morris and Hans Ulrich Esslinger for their contributions to this book.
Do environmental regulations harm international competitiveness? In answer to this question, this book focuses on the impact of regulatory policies on competitiveness and employment at the firm level. It investigates the trade-off between environmental regulations and competitiveness across countries and regions throughout Europe, using the food processing industry as a case study. The authors compare and contrast the experiences of similar firms across Europe to examine the different costs firms face in applying environmental regulations and the different levels of competitiveness they achieve as a result. The investigation includes a detailed and thorough comparison of the European food processing industries using 67 company case studies. The results show that firms can achieve national or international levels of competitiveness even when they face a relatively unfavourable level of regulatory costs. These important findings will almost certainly have general application to small and medium sized firms in other industries. This book will be welcomed by policymakers, practitioners, researchers and academics interested in industrial economics, environmental management and environmental economics.
This book brings together some of the most important recent developments in the various aspects of environmental economics as well as providing an introduction to its theory and practice. Environmental valuation techniques, including exciting new approaches such as production function techniques, are outlined and applied to developed and developing countries, and to countries in transition from centrally planned to market based systems. The effectiveness of regulatory and market based policy instruments, including environmental taxation and tradeable permits, is analysed and applied to environmental problems such as the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from transport and the conservation of biological diversity.
The Handbook of Regional Science is a multi-volume reference work providing a state-of-the-art knowledge on regional science composed by renowned scientists in the field. The Handbook is intended to serve the academic needs of graduate students, and junior and senior scientists in regional science and related fields, with an interest in studying local and regional socio-economic issues.
The multi-volume handbook seeks to cover the field of regional science comprehensively, including areas such as regional housing and labor markets, regional economic growth, innovation and regional economic development, new and evolutionary economic geography, location and interaction, the environment and natural resources, spatial analysis and geo-computation as well as spatial statistics and econometrics.
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