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This major new reference work includes a selection of the most important articles and papers on urban economic theory published during the last twenty years. Analytical Urban Economics focuses on a branch of urban economic theory that attempts to analyze economic behaviour in cities by referring to geographical space rather than dealing with a spaceless world. The contributing authors to this volume are drawn from some of the most prominent urban economists in the world and from leading economic journals, especially those focusing on urban economics. This volume, with a new introduction written by the editors, is divided into ten sections including `The Distribution of Income and Utility over Space', `Dynamics' and `Alternatives to Monocentric Models'. This book will be an essential reference text for urban economists and will be important background reading for graduate courses on urban economics.
The Economics of Environmental Degradation provides an institutional economics approach to analyse the underlying causes of continuing environmental degradation: poverty, population, poor policies and trade. After a critical, up-to-date survey of the most recent literature, the authors consider whether there is some common or deeper explanation of environmental degradation. They conclude that a problem results whenever human exploitation of the environment outruns the capacity of human institutions to adapt and to evolve methods for managing exploitation. Environmental degradation will persist because it is the static result of the ongoing dynamic contest between opportunistic individuals and institutional adaptation. The book assumes no prior knowledge of economics or the environment and will appeal to a wide readership of policymakers and students with a background in economics, geography, conservation biology, environmental studies and development studies.
The Economics of Pollution Control in the Asia Pacific adapts environmental economics to the special conditions of the Asia Pacific region, emphasizing the importance of local conditions and culture. Global warming, air pollution and water pollution are all addressed by a distinguished group of authors who rigorously apply economics to the analysis of pollution control in societies undergoing rapid industrialization. As this pioneering volume demonstrates, citizens of rapidly developing Taiwan and Korea are willing to pay substantial amounts for the protection and improvement of air and water quality, and face potentially huge losses from global climate change. A number of the papers also point to some cost effective alternatives for helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emission. As this major book reveals, the make-up of Asian politico-economic systems has a direct impact on environmental policies, from benefit estimation to instrument choice. As the authors argue, policymakers and researchers in the Asia Pacific cannot draw on European and American methods, arguments and conclusions without considerable modification for regional conditions.
Economic Policy for the Environment and Natural Resources presents some of the most important recent work on the theory and application of environmental policy at both the national and international level. At the national level it focuses on instruments for pollution control. At the international level it discusses measures to promote international cooperation for the protection of the environment. This book covers a wide range of major issues including the legal aspects of environmental protection, environmental policy under oligopolistic conditions, voluntary agreements as a policy instrument, participation in international coalitions and environmental policy in dynamic trade models. In discussing the applications of environmental policy, it includes issues such as the profitability of emission saving techniques, water management and acid rain models. This book will be essential reading for both policymakers and professional economists who are concerned with environmental policy.
The environmental, social and financial dimensions of sustainability rest on the ethical principles of avoiding harm and doing good. This means diminishing the environmental impact of societies, organizations and individuals and avoiding waste in all its forms wherever possible. Doing good means leaving a positive environmental and social footprint and throughout, this text the focus is on all three levels. Based on theory and practice it takes the student through the key issues focusing on the hospitality industry, particularly the hotel sector. It analyses environmental, economic and social value in the industry, and what can be done to maximise the good for all the stakeholders in the long term. In an accessible and structured manner, it delivers: * A clear focus on the four major areas in which value is created in the hotel industry- distribution; buildings; procurement and operations; * A clear description and analysis of the key sustainability challenges faced in each area; * A wide range of international industry cases; * Chapters structured with clear introductions, summaries and learning outcomes. It is an ideal text for students on bachelors and masters courses in Hospitality Management, Hotel Management and Tourism Management and for practitioners in the hospitality sector.
Contingent Valuation and Endangered Species provides a comprehensive and rigorous examination of the contingent valuation method as applied to the profound social problem of biodiversity conservation. The contingent valuation method allows the explicit identification and valuation of the non-use values of species in a way which has not been possible before. This new book offers a rigorous state-of-the-art evaluation of the theoretical and statistical issues central to the contingent valuation method as well as a hands-on account of the design, implementation and analysis of contingent valuation surveys of the benefits of species conservation. Contingent Valuation and Endangered Species includes a comprehensive account of efforts at endangered species protection in Australia and New Zealand as well as current developments in the United States. This comprehensive appraisal of the problems and economics of biodiversity conservation will be welcomed by researchers and practitioners as an explicit hands-on application of the contingent valuation method.
Acid Rain and Environmental Degradation is a succinct yet comprehensive survey of emission trading - a significant research and policy field of increasing importance for both Europe and the USA. Against the background of environmental policy instruments in general, Dr Klaassen presents a state-of-the-art survey of both the theory and actual applications of tradable permits. This survey also analyses international theory and experience. Later chapters examine the European acid rain issue and discuss how it can be addressed by means of tradable permits with particular relevance to sulphur emissions. Acid Rain and Environmental Degradation responds to current European policy discussions to apply emission trading on a continental scale. Because of its unique blend of theory and practice, this volume not only sets the tone for future discussions in Europe on transboundary pollution control, but also offers something for the academic economist, the environmentalist and the policymaker.
Models of sustainable development are increasingly used to address large scale environmental problems ensuring that responses to present day needs do not compromise the prospects of future generations. In this new book a wide range of approaches to modelling sustainable development is examined, including neoclassical, evolutionary, ecological economics and neo-Ricardian models. Recognizing that the application of sustainable development requires the reorientation of economic analysis on several fundamental points, a distinguished group of authors re-examines such key issues as intra- and intergenerational equity, the treatment of the very long-term, the irreversibility of ecological change, fundamental uncertainty and system complexity, and processes of technological change. The achievements and limitations of different models of sustainable development are explored, with particular reference to their value in support of decision-making. Researchers and graduate students in environmental economics will welcome this volume's rigorous approach to environmental sustainability as well as its consideration of a wide range of different modelling approaches and, in particular, the assumptions which sustain them.
National parks and game reserves are under threat from exploitation by tourists and by people living on their borders. Parks, although highly valued by conservationists, are not protected from unregulated economic behaviour within and outside their borders. In The Economics of Third World National Parks, Anup Shah argues that parks and reserves are worth preserving, rigorously analyses the problem and advocates solutions drawing on a wide range of sources. Issues discussed include the effects of economic activity on a national park, the tourist problem, valuing a national park and the use of cost-benefit decision making. Dr Shah uses economic analysis to explore institutional arrangements which would compensate for externalities resulting from exploitation and over-use by tourists and local communities. The price mechanism, he argues, is not a satisfactory tool with which to protect areas of rich bio-diversity. The Economics of Third World National Parks presents a clear and thoughtful application of economic thought, and especially the concept of externalities, to a key problem which current institutional structures seem unable to resolve.
This major volume features a key selection of Wilfred Beckerman's work on the determinants of economic growth in the post-war world, income distribution and environmental policy. Economic growth is the focus of the first part of this volume which includes papers on the causes of differentiated rates of growth in the post-war years, its relationship to welfare, and the desirability of economic growth. The relationship between growth and the state of the environment is the subject of the second part of the volume which includes discussion of the economics of climate change, obligations to future generations and the justification of discounting. In this part of the book, Wilfred Beckerman also questions the value of sustainable development. The third part of the book, on inequality and poverty, focuses on the distribution of incomes, the conceptual problems of poverty measurement and the impact of social security payments in Britain. This volume also features an extensive introduction in which the author looks back on his career both as an academic and as a civil servant. Iconoclastic and thought-provoking, Growth, the Environment and the Distribution of Incomes will be welcomed as a wide-ranging and unconventional discussion of economic approaches to the environment, wealth distribution and growth.
The strategic management of socio-economic systems is becoming increasingly difficult with traditional economic models which are unable to handle environmental and technological factors. In Evolutionary Dynamics and Sustainable Development, Norman Clark, Francisco Perez-Trejo and Peter Allen offer a new approach which emphasizes the evolutionary nature of socio-economic systems. This major book begins with a critical evaluation of conventional economic approaches to development planning and then explores how modern general systems theory can show economic development as a process of structural change. The discussion includes the use of decision tools which can simultaneously handle spatial and temporal evolution. The authors develop a model which they explore through case studies of both Senegal and Crete. The model is combined with risk analysis to show how it can be used in computer-based scenarios, before its properties as an aid to decision making are summarized in the last chapter. Defining development as a process of structural change in economic systems rather than in terms of economic output, this volume will be welcomed for its advocacy of non-linear models as decision tools and for its special reference to issues of economic development and environmental stability in Third World countries.
California has a worldwide reputation as a pioneer of innovative policies for the control of air pollution by motor vehicles. Autos, Smog and Pollution Control analyses the difficulties which have been encountered in developing and implementing these policies. Professor Grant uses an analytical framework drawn from the leading theories of public policy formation, such as policy communities, to address the issues raised by California's policy making experience. This study shows how an ambitious attempt to encourage the use of electrically powered vehicles has faced technological constraints, consumer resistance and political opposition. Other policies developed in the state such as dealing with `gross emitters', trip reduction programmes and the construction of light rail and subway systems are also critically examined. The concluding chapter relates Californian experience to the developing debate in Britain and the European Union about air pollution from motor vehicles. Autos, Smog and Pollution Control will be welcomed for its critical analysis of California's air pollution control policies as well as for the light which it sheds on contemporary theories of policy formation and the changing forces affecting environmental policymaking.
This important volume features essays dealing with a wide range of theoretical, measurement and policy issues in environmental and resource economics. Anthony Fisher is an internationally acclaimed environmental economist whose work combines relevance with intellectual rigour. The integration of environmental considerations into decisions about extractive resource has been a central theme of Professor Fisher's work. The essays in this collection range from exercises in the pure theory of resource depletion to applications of theoretical and empirical techniques on the management of energy and water resources. Particular attention is given to uncertainty about environmental values and the irreversibility of certain kinds of resource depletion. Featuring work on a wide range of topics and adopting a breadth of approaches, Environmental and Resource Economics will be welcomed by researchers, practitioners and policymakers.
This book provides an analytical discussion of the status of disaster risk reduction and governance in an Indian context, drawing examples and lessons from the output of the national and regional level programs and projects and from other relevant experiences in the country. Different types of disasters faced by Indian states are covered, including geophysical and hydrometeorological hazards. The book incorporates and draws upon some of the key lessons from the pre-disaster phase through the disaster phase and finally to the post-disaster phase, thus establishing an effective framework in the form of key lessons learned. The rich content of the book is based on contributions from various stakeholders, from academicians and practitioners to decision makers and nongovernment organizations related to disaster risk management systems in an Indian context. Special emphasis is given to analyzing field experiences from academic perspectives and pointing out key issues along with the relevance of risk governance of disaster risk reduction. The book works as a comprehensive reference in disaster risk governance for disaster managers in India and other countries. The book has 19 chapters organized into four parts. Part I provides the outline and basics of disaster risk governance perspectives at the national level with supporting examples from a global point of view. Part II specifically emphasizes the detailed perspectives on risk governance at the regional and local levels. Part III is devoted to approaches and issues of disaster risk governance and development at various levels, stressing the practices and clear examples of disaster risk governance, policy options, institutional organization, risk-reduction strategies, and key lessons learned. Finally, Part IV highlights risk reduction and cross-cutting issues, focusing on risk mitigation and scientific intervention for disaster risk reduction.
Over the last two decades economic analysis has begun to offer increasingly sophisticated and useful insights into environmental problems. Tom Tietenberg has had a significant impact on recent innovations which have enlarged the range of economic policy instruments at our disposal as well as transforming the roles of the various institutions responsible for implementation and enforcement. Economics and Environmental Policy includes Professor Tietenberg's most important essays on economics and environmental policy written over a 20 year period. It includes papers on the integration of economic incentives into pollution control which cover theoretical work and empirical studies as well as overviews of emission trading and emission charges. Later papers concentrate on the judicial role in environmental policy, including the perverse incentives created by specific legal doctrines, and environmental enforcement, which deals with issues such as creative penalty structures and the empowerment of nongovernmental organizations. The final papers deal with sustainable development and, in particular, the role of poverty, the need for technology and capital transfers, and the pricing of depletable resources. The essays in this collection address not only theoretical and practical matters associated with environmental policy, but also design and implementation issues. By improving access to Tom Tietenberg's many important contributions, this volume makes a significant addition to the literature on environmental theory and practice.
Build a better society through happiness policy Thomas Jefferson said that "the purpose of government is to enable the people of a nation to live in safety and happiness." Yet only now, 270 years later, is the happiness of citizens starting to be taken seriously as the purpose of government. While happiness science is advancing rapidly, and governments and organizations are creating indices for measuring happiness, there is little practical information on how to create policy to advance happiness. Drawing from a deep well of expertise and experience, The Happiness Policy Handbook is the first step-by-step guide for integrating happiness into government policy at all levels. Coverage includes: A concise background on happiness science, indices and indicators, and happiness in public policy Tools for formulating happiness policy and integrating happiness into administrative functions A concept menu of happiness policies Communicating happiness policy objectives to media and engaging with the community A happiness policy screening tool for evaluating the happiness contribution of any policy Policy perspectives from seasoned experts across sectors. The Happiness Policy Handbook is the essential resource for policymakers and professionals working to integrate happiness and well-being into governmental processes and institutions. Laura Musikanski is Executive Director of the Happiness Alliance and lives in Seattle, WA. Rhonda Phillips is the Dean of Purdue Honors College, Interim Dean of Libraries, and Professor of Agricultural Economics at Purdue University, and lives in West Lafayette, IN. Jean Crowder was as a member of parliament in the Canadian government, has extensive policymaking experience, and lives in Duncan, BC.
This open access volume is the first comprehensive assessment of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) region. It comprises important scientific research on the social, economic, and environmental pillars of sustainable mountain development and will serve as a basis for evidence-based decision-making to safeguard the environment and advance people's well-being. The compiled content is based on the collective knowledge of over 300 leading researchers, experts and policymakers, brought together by the Hindu Kush Himalayan Monitoring and Assessment Programme (HIMAP) under the coordination of the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD). This assessment was conducted between 2013 and 2017 as the first of a series of monitoring and assessment reports, under the guidance of the HIMAP Steering Committee: Eklabya Sharma (ICIMOD), Atiq Raman (Bangladesh), Yuba Raj Khatiwada (Nepal), Linxiu Zhang (China), Surendra Pratap Singh (India), Tandong Yao (China) and David Molden (ICIMOD and Chair of the HIMAP SC). This First HKH Assessment Report consists of 16 chapters, which comprehensively assess the current state of knowledge of the HKH region, increase the understanding of various drivers of change and their impacts, address critical data gaps and develop a set of evidence-based and actionable policy solutions and recommendations. These are linked to nine mountain priorities for the mountains and people of the HKH consistent with the Sustainable Development Goals. This book is a must-read for policy makers, academics and students interested in this important region and an essentially important resource for contributors to global assessments such as the IPCC reports.
The Economics of the Environment is a working collection of the leading papers in the field of environmental economics. It presents within the compass of a single volume the two central issues in environmental economics: the theory and practice of economic regulation and the valuation of environmental amenities. Wallace E. Oates has included both the classics, the seminal papers in the field, and some of the recent work that is making an important contribution to the economic analysis of environmental problems.
The demand for water resulting from massive population and economic growth in the southwestern U.S. overwhelmed traditional uses of riparian areas. As a consequence, many of these uniquely-structured ecosystems have been altered or destroyed. Within recent years people have become increasingly aware of the many uses and benefits of riparian zones and have emphasized ecosystem restoration and the resolution of multiple-use conflicts.
This book presents water insecurity issues in urban areas while developing a water security index and explores the innovative approaches to water development and management with examples from Asian cities. The urban water crisis is a global phenomenon, but it is more obvious in the megacities of the developing world. Urban drought, although not a familiar term, will pose a significant threat to humankind in the near future, especially in the context of increasing population in cities. Many cities are already unable to provide safe, clean water for their citizens. Some of the world's largest cities depend heavily on groundwater for their water supply. It is unlikely that dependence on aquifers, which take many years to recharge, will be sustainable. As urban populations grow, water use will need to shift from agriculture to municipal and industrial uses, making decisions about allocating between different sectors difficult. Inefficient water-use practices by households and industries, fragmented management of water between sectors and institutions, climate-induced water shortages, environmental degradation of water sources, and inadequate use of alternate sources are also issues of major concern. Despite recent advances in the literature, there exists a considerable gap in attempting an integrated water-resource management approach. Covering all aspects of urban drought and water insecurity, this book is a valuable resource for students, researchers, academics, policy makers, and development practitioners.
This work offers a multidisciplinary approach to legal and policy instruments used to prevent and remedy global environmental challenges. It provides a theoretical overview of a variety of instruments, making distinctions between levels of governance (treaties, domestic law), types of instruments (market-based instruments, regulation, and liability rules), and between government regulation and private or self-regulation. The book's central focus is an examination of the use of mixes between different types of regulatory and policy instruments and different levels of governance, notably in climate change, marine oil pollution, forestry, and fisheries. The authors examine how, in practice, mixes of instruments have often been developed. This book should be read by anyone interested in understanding how interactions between different instruments affect the protection of environmental resources.
This book is an attempt to acknowledge the discipline `wetland science' and to consolidate research findings, reviews and synthesis articles on different aspects of the wetlands in South Asia. The book presents 30 chapters by an international mix of experts in the field, who highlight and discuss diverse issues concerning wetlands in South Asia as case studies. The chapters are divided into different themes that represent broad issues of concern in a systematic manner keeping in mind students, researchers and general readers at large. The book introduces readers to the basics and theory of wetland science, supplemented by case studies and examples from the region. It also offers a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers in allied fields such as environmental studies, limnology, wildlife biology, aquatic biology, marine biology, and landscape ecology. To date the interdisciplinary field `wetland science' is still rarely treated as a distinct discipline in its own right. Further, courses on wetland science aren't taught at any of the world's most prestigious universities; instead, the topics falling under this discipline are generally handled under the disciplines `ecology' or under the extremely broad heading of `environmental studies'. It is high time that `Wetland Science' be acknowledged as an interdisciplinary sub-discipline, which calls for an attempt to consolidate its various subtopics and present them comprehensively. Thus, this book also serves as a reference base on wetlands and facilitates further discussions on specific issues involved in safeguarding a sustainable future for the wetland habitats of this region.
One of Asia's best-respected writers on business and economy, Hong Kong-based author Mark L. Clifford provides a behind-the-scenes look at what companies in China, India, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Thailand are doing to build businesses that will lessen the environmental impact of Asia's extraordinary economic growth. Dirty air, foul water, and hellishly overcrowded cities are threatening to choke the region's impressive prosperity. Recognizing a business opportunity in solving social problems, Asian businesses have developed innovative responses to the region's environmental crises. From solar and wind power technologies to green buildings, electric cars, water services, and sustainable tropical forestry, Asian corporations are upending old business models in their home countries and throughout the world. Companies have the money, the technology, and the people to act--yet, as Clifford emphasizes, support from the government (in the form of more effective, market-friendly policies) and the engagement of civil society are crucial for a region-wide shift to greener business practices. Clifford paints detailed profiles of what some of these companies are doing and includes a unique appendix that encapsulates the environmental business practices of more than fifty companies mentioned in the book.
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