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The first concerns that come to mind in relation to pollution from road vehicles are direct emissions of carbon dioxide and toxic air pollutants. These are, of course, important but the impacts of road traffic are altogether more substantial. This volume of the Issues in Environmental Science and Technology Series takes a broader view of the effects on the environment and human health, excluding only injury due to road traffic accidents. By looking across the environmental media, air, water and soil, and taking account also of noise pollution, the volume addresses far more than the conventional atmospheric issues. More importantly, however, it examines present and future vehicle technologies, the implications of more extensive use of batteries in electric vehicles and the consequences of recycling vehicles at the end of use. Finally, examples of life-cycle analysis as applied to road vehicles are reviewed. This book is a comprehensive source of authoritative information for students studying pollution, and for policy-makers concerned with vehicle emissions and road traffic impacts more generally.
This second edition of Natural Enemies will give students, professionals, and anyone wishing to learn the basics of biological control a fully updated and thorough introduction. The book discusses the huge diversity of organisms used in the control of pests, weeds and plant pathogens, and compares the many different strategies referred to as 'biological control': the introduction of exotic natural enemies, application of predators, parasitoids, and microorganisms as biopesticides, and manipulation of the environment to enhance natural enemy populations. The authors present the ecological concepts which form the bases of biological control and discuss recent changes to make biological control safe for the environment. Case studies are included throughout, providing in-depth examples of the use of different organisms and strategies in a variety of ecosystems. A new chapter covers the current challenges; the impact of climate change, the problem of invasive species, and how biological control can aid sustainability.
This book presents selected papers presented during the International Symposium on Earthen Structures held in IISc Bangalore. The papers in this volume cover the theme of earthen structures, with technical content on materials and methods, structural design and seismic performance, durability, seismic response, climatic response, hygrothermal performance and durability, design and codes, architecture, heritage and conservation, and technology dissemination. This book will be of use to professionals, academics, and students in architecture and engineering.
This book summarizes studies on climate and ecosystem change adaptation and resilience in Africa (CECAR-Africa), a collaboration with the goal of creating an integrated resilience enhancement strategy as a potential model for semi-arid regions across Sub-Saharan Africa by combining climate change and ecosystem change research. The case studies were conducted at multiple scales - local, national, and regional - and incorporate the natural sciences, social sciences and engineering in a transdisciplinary manner while also integrating the needs of local communities. The book chiefly addresses three thematic areas, namely: Forecast and assessment of climate change impacts on agro-ecosystems; Risk assessment of extreme weather hazards and development of adaptive resource management methods; and Implementing capacity development programs for local leaders and practitioners. The collaborative nature of the project and the use of various quantitative and qualitative research technique s and methods - such as field surveys, questionnaires, focus group discussions, land use and cover change analysis, and climate downscaled modeling - make the book truly unique. Especially at a time when both long-term climate change and short-term extreme weather events such as droughts and floods are worsening, this book offers potential approaches to developing an integrated framework for assessing the local ability to cope with floods and droughts, and for enhancing the resilience of farming communities in developing countries, which are the most vulnerable to these changes and extreme weather events. As such, it will be of interest to a wider audience, including academics, professionals, and government officials alike.
The little-known story of the systems that bring us our drinking water, how they were developed, the problems they are facing, and how they will be reinvented in the near future Turn on the faucet, and water pours out. Pull out the drain plug, and the dirty water disappears. Most of us give little thought to the hidden systems that bring us water and take it away when we're done with it. But these underappreciated marvels of engineering face an array of challenges that cannot be solved without a fundamental change to our relationship with water, David Sedlak explains in this enlightening book. To make informed decisions about the future, we need to understand the three revolutions in urban water systems that have occurred over the past 2,500 years and the technologies that will remake the system. The author starts by describing Water 1.0, the early Roman aqueducts, fountains, and sewers that made dense urban living feasible. He then details the development of drinking water and sewage treatment systems-the second and third revolutions in urban water. He offers an insider's look at current systems that rely on reservoirs, underground pipe networks, treatment plants, and storm sewers to provide water that is safe to drink, before addressing how these water systems will have to be reinvented. For everyone who cares about reliable, clean, abundant water, this book is essential reading.
Imprinted on license plates, plastered on billboards, stamped on the tail side of the state quarter, and inscribed on the state map, the peach is easily Georgia's most visible symbol. Yet Prunus persica itself is surprisingly rare in Georgia, and it has never been central to the southern agricultural economy. Why, then, have southerners - and Georgians in particular - clung to the fruit? The Georgia Peach: Culture, Agriculture, and Environment in the American South shows that the peach emerged as a viable commodity at a moment when the South was desperate for a reputation makeover. This agricultural success made the fruit an enduring cultural icon despite the increasing difficulties of growing it. A delectable contribution to the renaissance in food writing, The Georgia Peach will be of great interest to connoisseurs of food, southern, environmental, rural, and agricultural history.
One of the most exciting new trends in water quality management today is the movement by many cities, counties, states, and private-sector developers toward the increased use of Low Impact Development (LID) to help protect and restore water quality. LID comprises a set of approaches and practices that are designed to reduce runoff of water and pollutants from the site at which they are generated. By means of infiltration, evapotranspiration, and reuse of rainwater, LID techniques manage water and water pollutants at the source and thereby prevent or reduce the impact of development on rivers, streams, lakes, coastal waters, and ground water. This book summarizes 17 case studies of developments that include Low Impact Development (LID) practices and concludes that applying LID techniques can reduce project costs and improve environmental performance. This book also compares green energy programs and policies in China and the United States.
In the last three decades of the twentieth century, the environmental movement experienced a quiet revolution. In This is Our Land, Ferguson documents this little-noted change as he describes the efforts of three representative grassroots groups - in Montana, Arizona, and Tennessee - revealing how quite ordinary citizens fought to solve environmental problems. Here are stories of common people who, confronting environmental threats to the health and safety of their families and communities, bonded together to protect their interests. These stories include successes and failures as citizens learned how to participate in their democracy and redefined what participation meant. Equally important, Ferguson describes how several laws passed in the seventies - such as the National Environmental Policy Act - gave citizens the opportunity and the tools to fight for the environment. These laws gave people a say in the decisions that affected the world around them, including the air they breathed, the water they drank, the land on which they made their living, and the communities they called home. Moreover, Ferguson shows that through their experiences over the course of the 1970s, '80s, and '90s, these citizen activists broadened their understanding of "this is our land" to mean "this is our community, this is our country, this is our democracy, and this is our planet." As they did, they redefined political participation and expanded the ability of citizens to shape their world. Challenging us to see activism in a new way, This is Our Land recovers the stories of often-unseen citizens who have been vitally important to the environmental movement. It will inspire readers to confront environmental threats and make our world a safer, more just, and more sustainable place to live.
By 2050, the world's population is estimated to grow to 10 billion. To feed everyone, we will have to double our food production, to produce more food in the next 40 years than in the whole of the last 6,000. Changing the Food Game shows how our unsustainable food production system cannot support this growth. In this prescient book, Lucas Simons argues that the biggest challenge for our generation can only be solved by effective market transformation to achieve sustainable agriculture and food production. Lucas Simons explains clearly how we have created a production and trading system that is inherently unsustainable. But he also demonstrates that we have reason to be hopeful - from a sustainability race in the cocoa industry to examples of market transformation taking place in palm oil, timber, and sugarcane production. He also poses the question: where next? Provocative and eye-opening, Changing the Food Game uncovers the real story of how our food makes it on to our plates and presents a game-changing solution to revolutionize the industry.
This book consists of two parts. The first part describes the context in which the Prefectures of Minamisoma and Kesennuma need to operate and what the meaning is of the multiple disasters that occurred in the area. The second part illuminates the design process and content of the Minamisoma and Kesennuma designs. Thirdly, the chapters are alternated with reflections on the design and analyses of the disaster on specific themes: energy, demographics and economic factors, environment, water and ecology. The book ends with observations and transcripts of participants in the process, highlighting the benefits of the approach, the appraisal of the process, the appreciation of the design and the parts that could be improved. This final element will lead to recommendation how to implement these kinds of approaches in the area itself and how to spread out over the Tohuku region (the tsunami hit region) and other regions in Japan and Worldwide.
This open access book, written by world experts in aquaponics and related technologies, provides the authoritative and comprehensive overview of the key aquaculture and hydroponic and other integrated systems, socio-economic and environmental aspects. Aquaponic systems, which combine aquaculture and vegetable food production offer alternative technology solutions for a world that is increasingly under stress through population growth, urbanisation, water shortages, land and soil degradation, environmental pollution, world hunger and climate change.
The Research Handbook on Emissions Trading examines the origins, implementation challenges and international dimensions of emissions trading. It pursues an interdisciplinary approach drawing upon law, economics and, at times, political science, to present relevant research strands in a clear and multifaceted way. Its comprehensive mix of theoretical analysis and experiences from existing trading systems offers insights that can be applied around the world. The expert contributors bring together views from different disciplinary and geographic perspectives. This multifaceted examination of economic and legal origins, implementation problems and the emerging international aspect of emissions trading identifies key bodies of research for both upcoming and seasoned academics in the field and highlights future research opportunities. Its broad and accessible approach touches on climate law, environmental law and environmental governance. This Research Handbook will appeal strongly to academics and postgraduate students, as well as providing valuable insights for regulators, government officials and practitioners who are involved in emissions trading.
When Deng Xiaoping introduced market reforms in the late 1970s, few would have imagined what the next four decades would bring. China's GDP has grown on average nearly 10 percent annually since, and its economy is now the second largest in the world. Forty years ago, the Flying Pigeon bicycle ruled the roads; today, China is the world's largest car market. And if forty years ago you looked out across the Huangpu River from the Bund in Shanghai, you would have seen farmland and a few warehouses and wharves; now you see the stunning, futuristic cityscape of Pudong. The material progress of the past forty years has been staggering-a source of pride for the Chinese people, as well as a source of legitimacy for the ruling Chinese Communist Party. But that progress has come at great cost: the extreme pollution of China's air, water, and soil has taken a stark toll on human health. In Environmental Pollution in China: What Everyone Needs to Know (R), Daniel K. Gardner examines the range of factors-economic, social, political, and historical-contributing to the degradation of China's environment. He also covers the public response to the widespread pollution; the measures the government is taking to clean up the environment; and the country's efforts to lessen its dependence on fossil fuels and develop clean sources of energy. Concise, accessible, and authoritative, this book serves as an ideal primer on one of the world's most challenging environmental crises.
India has been traditionally well-endowed with large freshwater reserves, but increasing population, urbanization and agricultural growth in recent decades are causing overexploitation of surface and groundwater. As consumption of water grows, wastewater increases significantly and in the absence of proper measures for treatment and management, is polluting existing freshwater reserves. As a result, water pollution has emerged as one of the nation's gravest environmental threats. This book draws a link between water pollution generated by different industries and the various economic activities of the Indian economy using the Input-output framework. It constructs a detailed water pollution coefficient matrix involving different types of water pollutants. The book estimates the total amount of water pollution generated directly and indirectly in different sectors and activities, and also calculates the water pollution content in India's foreign trade sector. It also accounts for defensive expenditure from water pollution and estimates Green GDP for the extent and scope of environmental challenges. Analysis of the result indicates the variation in the pollution content of different economic activities. Finally, the book offers a portfolio of policies and assesses the implications of such policies on pollution generation in India.
Food, Water, First Aid, and Self-Defense Tips for Surviving Natural Disasters, Extreme Weather, Pandemics, Biological Threats, Terrorist Attacks, and Riots It could be a fire, flood, hurricane, tornado, or hailstorm. Financial system collapse or bioterrorism. Governmental shutdown or societal breakdown. The world is full of possible threats, and they seem to be coming at us from all sides these days. Jason Ryder Adams covers everything you need to know prepare your home, keep your family safe, and get ready to leave if the worst happens. You'll learn how to: Prep with children and pets (and do test runs ahead of time) Plan for staying put, sealing yourself in, and leaving depending on the threat Choose and protect a safe location and develop an escape route Defend your family with self-defense training and firearms Put together a 72-hour emergency kit, bug-out bag, and first aid kit So don't panic-prepare! Prepping today is for everyone. Survival Prepping is written for ordinary folks who want to get started on preparing for the worst. Adams shares bug-out plans for every scenario, safety tips, and invaluable checklists for acquiring the right supplies for emergency situations. Survival Prepping will help you ensure your family survives-and hopefully thrives-should a disaster strike.
An Introduction to Sustainable Tourism provides a comprehensive, pragmatic, and realistic look at integrating sustainability into tourism. It adopts a systems-perspective, looking at the whole tourism supply chain to provide an integrated viewpoint of sustainability in the tourism industry and asks: * How does policy encourage or discourage sustainability? * How do intermediaries influence the sale of sustainable tourism? * What are the operator's concerns, how do tourists themselves respond to it? * What are the values of sustainability in tourism and what are the impacts `trade-offs' to the tourist experience? Using first-hand research projects and packed with international case studies, it combines theoretical and applied knowledge with a scaffolded learning approach and takes a comprehensive look at practical management tools, certifications and innovation as part of the process of operationalising and implementing sustainable tourism. Complete with online resources and accompanied by video materials An Introduction to Sustainable Tourism is an essential text for tourism students across all levels, undergraduate and postgraduate studies.
A pragmatic new business model for sustainability that outlines eight steps that range from exploring a mission to promoting innovation; with case studies. Many recent books make the case for businesses to become more sustainable, but few explain the specifics. In this book, Francisco Szekely and Zahir Dossa offer a pragmatic new business model for sustainability that extends beyond the traditional framework of the triple bottom line, describing eight steps that range from exploring a vision and establishing a strategy to implementing the strategy and promoting innovation. Szekely and Dossa argue that businesses and organizations need to move away from the business case for sustainability toward a sustainable business model. That is, businesses should go beyond the usual short-term focus on minimizing harm while maximizing profits. Instead, businesses on the path to sustainability should, from the start, focus on addressing a societal need and view profitability not as an end but as a means to support the sustainable organization. Szekely and Dossa explore key problems organizations face when pursuing a sustainability agenda. Each chapter presents one of the eight steps, describes a business dilemma for sustainability, provides a theoretically grounded strategic framework, offers case studies that illustrate the dilemma, and summarizes key findings; the case studies draw on the experiences of such companies as Tesla Motors, Patagonia, TOMs, and Panera. The book emphasizes leadership, arguing that leaders who question the status quo, inspire others, and take risks are essential for achieving sustainable business practices.
This volume is an interdisciplinary mix of perspectives and studies on social issues in fisheries from a diverse range of case studies and research disciplines. The case is made regarding the dearth of attention to socio-cultural considerations which to date have been largely treated as an externality of fisheries policy. It will be valuable to researchers and decision makers interested in understanding the social dimension of fisheries and provides a timely and relevant compilation of research and analysis on some of the critical socio-cultural issues facing fisheries management and fishing communities today.
Did you know that there are nearly two dozen tappable trees across the United States? Chances are you have at least one in your very own backyard. Want to bring more healthy food and sustainability into your life? In Sweet Maple, sugarmaker Michelle Visser and her family guide you through every step of all-natural syrup production-with directions for tapping one tree or dozens. In addition to sugaring techniques, tips from sugar shacks, and fun stories of multi-generational family operations, she shares many of her own family's tried-and-true maple recipes while detailing the life-changing benefits of using maple products in place of refined sugar in the kitchen. Join Michelle on her family's sweet journey, from tap to table.
Towns and villages are sometimes viewed as minor, even quaint, spots, whereas this book boldly reconceptualizes these places as important dynamic environmental 'hotspots'. Multitudes of towns and villages with nearly half the world's population characterize perhaps half the global land surface. The book's pages feature ecological patterns, processes, and change, as well as human dimensions, both within towns and in strong connections and effects on surrounding agricultural land, forest land, and arid land. Towns, small to large, and villages are examined with spatial and cultural lenses. Ecological dimensions - water, soil and air systems, together with habitats, plants, wildlife and biodiversity - are highlighted. A concluding section presents concepts for making better towns and better land. From a pioneer in both landscape ecology and urban ecology, this highly international town ecology book opens an important frontier for researchers, students, professors, and professionals including environmental, town, and conservation planners.
This book is a comprehensive volume dealing with climate change impacts on agriculture, and which can help guide the redesign of agricultural management and cropping systems. It includes mitigation techniques such as use of bioenergy crops, fertilizer and manure management, conservation tillage, crop rotations, cover crops and cropping intensity, irrigation, erosion control, management of drained wetlands, lime amendments, residue management, biochar and biotechnology. It also includes Management of GHG emissions Crop models as decision support tools QTL analysis Crop water productivity Impacts of drought on cereal crops Silvopastoral systems Changing climate impact on wheat-based cropping systems of South Asia Phosphorous dynamics under changing climate Role of bioinformatics The focus of the book is climate change mitigation to enhance sustainability in agriculture. We present various kinds of mitigation options, ways to minimize GHG emissions and better use of the latest techniques in conservation and environmental-sustainability.
Under Executive Order 12866, agencies are required, to the extent permitted by law, "to assess both the costs and the benefits of the intended regulation and, recognising that some costs and benefits are difficult to quantify, propose or adopt a regulation only upon a reasoned determination that the benefits of the intended regulation justify its costs". The purpose of the "social cost of carbon" (SCC) estimates presented here is to allow agencies to incorporate the social benefits of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into cost-benefit analyses of regulatory actions that have small, or "marginal", impacts on cumulative global emissions. The estimates are presented with an acknowledgement of the many uncertainties involved and with a clear understanding that they should be updated over time to reflect increasing knowledge of the science and economics of climate impacts. This book presents a summary of the interagency process that developed these SCC estimates.
Highlights and examines the growing convergence between the food and agricultural industries--the technological, environmental, and consumer-related drivers of this change, and the potential outcomes This is the first book of its kind to connect food and the food industry with agriculture, water resources, and water management in a detailed and thorough way. It brings together a small community of expert authors to address the future of the food industry, agriculture (both for plants and animals), and water--and its role in a world of increasing demands on resources. The book begins by highlighting the role of agriculture in today's food industry from a historical perspective--showing how it has grown over the years. It goes on to examine water management; new ways of plant breeding not only based on genetic modification pathways; and the attention between major crops (soy, corn, wheat) and so-called "orphan crops" (coffee, cocoa, tropical fruits). The book then turns towards the future of the food industry and analyzes major food trends, the new food, and "enough" food; discusses possible new business models for the future food industry; and analyzes the impact that the "internet of everything" will have on agriculture and the food industry. Finally, Megatrends in Food and Agriculture: Technology, Water Use and Nutrition offers scenarios about how agriculture, food, and the food industry might undergo some radical transformations. Assesses the evolution of food production and how we arrived at today's landscape Focuses on key areas of change, driven by both innovation and challenges such as new technologies, the demand for better nutrition, and the management of dwindling resources Highlights the role of better-informed consumers who demand transparency and accountability from producers Is written by industry insiders and academic experts Megatrends in Food and Agriculture: Technology, Water Use and Nutrition is an important resource for food and agriculture industry professionals, including scientists and technicians as well as decision makers, in management, marketing, sales, and regulatory areas, as well as related NGOs.
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