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This major, definitive anthology of writings is a complete and up-to-date guide to environmental literacy. This major anthology is the first to apply a fully interdisciplinary approach to environmental studies. A comprehensive guide to environmental literacy, the book demonstrates how the sciences, social sciences, and humanities all contribute to understanding our interrelationships with the natural world. Though not specialized, Environment is a book that even specialists can learn from. Ten innovative case studies--climate shock, species endangerment, nuclear power, biotechnology, sustainable development, deforestation, environmental security, globalization, wilderness, and the urban environment-are followed by readings from specific disciplines. These can be integrated with the case studies to shape individual interests and teaching strategies. The volume presents an imaginative array of texts, from scientific papers to poetry, legal decisions to historical accounts, personal essays to economic analysis. Taken together, these selections provide a balanced, authoritative, and up-to-date treatment of key issues in environmental studies.
Safeguarding economic prosperity, whilst protecting human health and the environment, is at the forefront of scientific and public interest. This book provides a practical and balanced view on toxicology, control, risk assessment and risk management, addressing the interplay between science and public health policy. This fully revised and updated new edition provides a detailed analysis on chemical and by-product exposure, how they enter the body and the suitability of imposed safety limits. New chapters on dose, with particular emphasis on children and vulnerable subpopulations, reproductive and developmental toxicants and toxicity testing are included. With updated and comprehensive coverage of international developments of risk management and safety, this will have broad appeal to researchers and professionals involved in chemical safety and regulation as well as the general reader interested in environmental pollution and public health.
Tucked away in the northeastern corner of Alaska is one of the most contested landscapes in all of North America: the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Considered sacred by Indigenous peoples in Alaska and Canada and treasured by environmentalists, the refuge provides life-sustaining habitat for caribou, polar bears, migratory birds, and other species. For decades, though, the fossil fuel industry and powerful politicians have sought to turn this unique ecosystem into an oil field. Defending the Arctic Refuge tells the improbable story of how the people fought back. At the center of the story is the unlikely figure of Lenny Kohm (1939-2014), a former jazz drummer and aspiring photographer who passionately committed himself to Arctic Refuge activism. With the aid of a trusty slide show, Kohm and representatives of the Gwich'in Nation traveled across the United States to mobilize grassroots opposition to oil drilling in the refuge. Together, images and Indigenous voices helped build a political movement that galvanized the citizenry and transformed the debate into a struggle for environmental justice. In a time of escalating climate change, species extinction, and threats to Indigenous lands and cultures, this book demonstrates the power of collective action to defend human rights and ecosystems and the ability of diverse alliances to take on multinational corporations and change the world.
Feeding the world, climate change, biodiversity, antibiotics, plastics, pandemics - the list of concerns seems endless. But what is most pressing, and what should we do first? Do we all need to become vegetarian? How can we fly in a low-carbon world? How can we take control of technology? And, given the global nature of the challenges we now face, what on Earth can any of us do, as individuals? Mike Berners-Lee has crunched the numbers and plotted a course of action that is full of hope, practical, and enjoyable. This is the big-picture perspective on the environmental and economic challenges of our day, laid out in one place, and traced through to the underlying roots - questions of how we live and think. This updated edition has new material on protests, pandemics, wildfires, investments, carbon targets and of course, on the key question: given all this, what can I do?
After a cascade of failures left residents of Flint, Michigan, without a reliable and affordable supply of safe drinking water, citizens spent years demanding action from their city and state officials. Complaints from the city's predominantly African American residents were ignored until independent researchers confirmed dangerously elevated blood lead levels among Flint children and in the city's tap water. Despite a 2017 federal court ruling in favor of Flint residents who had demanded mitigation, such efforts have been incomplete at best. Assessing the challenges that community groups faced in their attempts to advocate for improved living conditions, Tainted Tap offers a rich analysis of conditions and constraints that created the Flint water crisis. Katrinell Davis contextualizes the crisis in Flint's long and troubled history of delivering essential services, the consequences of regional water-management politics, and other forms of systemic neglect that impacted the working-class community's health and well-being. Using ethnographic and empirical evidence from a range of sources, Davis also sheds light on the forms of community action that have brought needed changes to this underserved community.
Florida has long beckoned retirees seeking to spend their golden years in the sun, but, for many, the American dream of owning a home there was financially impossible. That changed in the 1950s, when the so-called "installment land sales industry" appeared out of nowhere to hawk billions of dollars of Florida residential property, sight unseen, to retiring northerners. For only $10 down and $10 a month, working-class pensioners could buy a piece of the Florida dream: a graded homesite that would be waiting for them in a planned community when they were ready to build. The result created Cape Coral, Port St. Lucie, Deltona, Port Charlotte, Palm Coast, and Spring Hill, among many others-sprawling exurban communities with no downtowns and little industry but millions of residential lots. As Jason C. Vuic recounts in this raucous history, these communities allowed generations of northerners to move to Florida cheaply, but at a price: high-pressure sales tactics begat fraud; poor urban planning begat sprawl; developers cleared forests, drained wetlands, and built thousands of miles of roads in grid-like subdivisions, which, fifty years later, played an inordinate role in the 2008 subprime mortgage crisis.
Now revised and updated, Van Jones's provocative and cutting edge New York Times bestseller The Green Collar Economy delivers a viable plan for solving the two biggest issues facing the country today--the economy and the environment.
Hydraulic Fracturing in the Karoo: Critical Legal and Environmental Perspectives explores a broad-ranging set of questions related to proposed hydraulic fracturing or `fracking' in the Karoo. The book is multidisciplinary, with contributors including natural scientists, social scientists, and academics from the humanities, all concerned with the ways in which scientific facts and debates about fracking have been framed and given meaning. The work comprises four parts: Part 1 provides an international, legal, energy, economic, and revenue overview of the topic. Part 2 has a physio-geographic theme, with chapters on the inter-related aspects of water, geology, geo-hydrology, seismicity and biodiversity, as well as archaeological and palaeontological considerations. Part 3 focuses on public health, and sociological and humanities-related aspects, and Part 4 addresses the relevant laws, emphasising their implementation and the role of governance. The underlying theme of Hydraulic Fracturing in the Karoo: Critical Legal and Environmental Perspectives is one of caution. The book emphasises the need for collaboration between the natural and social sciences and the responsibilities of those charged with the implementation and governance of the fracking enterprise if South Africa hopes to effectively manage fracking at all.
Introduction to Environmental Science: Earth and Man provides a comprehensive and fully integrated interdisciplinary introduction to our planet, covering the complex interactions between chemistry, physics, biology, geology, hydrology, climatology, social science and environmental policy. Written in a lively and engaging style, it aims to stimulate interest in this dynamic and important area, and facilitate new ways of thinking about how environmental problems should be critically evaluated and solved.
This book presents a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research on water treatment methods for the removal of cyanobacteria, taste and odour compounds, and cyanotoxins. The topics covered include practically all technologies that are currently used or are in a state of research and development e.g. membrane filtration, adsorption, biological treatment, chemical disinfection-oxidation, advanced oxidation processes, reviewing their effects on cyanotoxins with regards to degradation, detoxification, mineralization and relative mechanisms. The book highlights strong and weak points regarding the applicability of these techniques on a large scale, discusses issues regarding the quality of treated water, and identifies research gaps and future research needs on the topic. Topics covered include: * Introduction to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins * Cyanotoxins and human health * Physical treatment for the removal of cyanobacteria/cyanotoxins * Biological treatment for the destruction of cyanobacteria/cyanotoxins * Conventional disinfection and/or oxidation processes * Advanced oxidation processes * Removal and/or destruction of taste and odour compounds. * Integrated drinking water processes. * Transformation products of cyanobacterial metabolites during water treatment. The book concludes with a section of case studies and real life examples, followed by a review of the research gaps and future perspectives. This book has been developed within the frame of the COST-funded CYANOCOST Action http://cyanocost.com/index.php and is edited by experienced scientists in the field. Chapters are authoritative and written by an internationally recognized team of experts in specific research topics related to water treatment for purification from cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins.
Through a wide range of demographic, economic, social, and environmental data, A Louisiana Coastal Atlas shows cartographically how the inherent resilience of coastal communities manifests itself over time. By illustrating the adaptability of residents to their environment and economy, this resource shows how historical processes can inform planners to more effectively respond to and recover form future ecological events.
Hurricanes, floods, oil spills, disease, and disappearing wetlands are some of the many environmental disasters that impact the Gulf South. The contributors to Environmental Disaster in the Gulf South explore the threat, frequency, and management of this region's disasters from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Scholars from the fields of history, sociology, and anthropology examine the underlying causes of vulnerability to natural hazards in the coastal states while also suggesting ways to increase resilience. Greg O'Brien considers the New Orleans flood of 1849; Andy Horowitz, the Galveston storm of 1900; and Christopher M. Church, the 1928 hurricane in Florida and the Caribbean. Urmi Engineer Willoughby delves into the turn-of-the-century yellow fever outbreaks in New Orleans and local attempts to eradicate them, while Abraham H. Gibson and Cindy Ermus discuss the human introduction of invasive species and their long-term impact on the region's ecosystem. Roberto E. Barrios looks at political-ecological susceptibility in New Orleans's Lower Ninth Ward, and Kevin Fox Gotham treats storm- and flood-defense infrastructures. In his afterword, Ted Steinberg ponders what the future holds when the capitalist state supports an unwinnable battle between land developers and nature. These case studies offer new ways of understanding humans' interactions with the unique, and at times unforgiving, environment of the Gulf South. These lessons are particularly important as we cope with the effects of climate change and seek to build resilience and reduce vulnerability through enhanced awareness, adequate preparation, and efficient planning.
Our politics is intimately linked to the environmental conditions - and crises - of our time. The challenges of sustainability and the discovery of ecological limits to growth are transforming how we understand the core concepts at the heart of political theory. In this essential new textbook, leading political theorist Steve Vanderheiden examines how the concept of sustainability challenges - and is challenged - by eight key social and political ideas, ranging from freedom and equality to democracy and sovereignty. He shows that environmental change will disrupt some of our most cherished ideals, requiring new indicators of progress, new forms of community, and new conceptions of agency and responsibility. He draws on canonical texts, contemporary approaches to environmental political theory, and vivid examples to illustrate how changes in our conceptualization of our social aspirations can inhibit or enable a transition to a just and sustainable society. Vanderheiden masterfully balances crystal clear explanation of the essentials with cutting-edge analysis to produce a book that will be core reading for students of environmental and green political theory everywhere.
Our future is closely tied to that of the variety of life on Earth, and yet there is no greater threat to this than us. From population explosions and habitat destruction to climate change and mass extinctions, John Spicer explores the causes and consequences of our biodiversity crisis. In this revised and updated edition, he examines how grave the situation has become over the past decade and outlines what we must do now to protect and preserve nature's wonders before it's too late.
The purpose of this book is to help engineers and scientists better understand dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination of groundwater and the methods and technology used for characterization and remediation. Remediation of DNAPL source zones is very difficult and controversial and must be based on state-of-the-art knowledge of the behavior (transport and fate) of nonaqueous phase liquids in the subsurface and site specific geology, chemistry and hydrology. This volume is focused on the characterization and remediation of nonaqueous phase chlorinated solvents and it is hoped that mid-level engineers and scientists will find this book helpful in understanding the current state-of-practice of DNAPL source zone management and remediation.
The Encyclopedia of Estuaries, part of Springer's Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, provides a single, state-of-the-art, comprehensive reference volume on estuaries for research scientists, educators, students, and others. Consisting of almost 270 subject entries in an easy-to-use format, this volume covers the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of estuaries. In total more than 225 authors from around the world have contributed to the encyclopedia on such diverse subjects as biotic communities, essential habitats, food webs, fisheries, hydrology, pollution, conservation, and many more. The Encyclopedia of Estuaries will meet the needs of professionals worldwide by supplying detailed information from world-class estuarine and marine scientists as well as experts from other fields of study.
This exciting new textbook introduces the concepts and tools essential for upper-level undergraduate study in water resources and hydraulics. Tailored specifically to fit the length of a typical one-semester course, it will prove a valuable resource to students in civil engineering, water resources engineering, and environmental engineering. It will also serve as a reference textbook for researchers, practicing water engineers, consultants, and managers. The book facilitates students' understanding of both hydrologic analysis and hydraulic design. Example problems are carefully selected and solved clearly in a step-by-step manner, allowing students to follow along and gain mastery of relevant principles and concepts. These examples are comparable in terms of difficulty level and content with the end-of-chapter student exercises, so students will become well equipped to handle relevant problems on their own. Physical phenomena are visualized in engaging photos, annotated equations, graphical illustrations, flowcharts, videos, and tables.
Time-series analysis is used to identify and quantify periodic features in datasets and has many applications across the geosciences, from analysing weather data, to solid-Earth geophysical modelling. This intuitive introduction provides a practical 'how-to' guide to basic Fourier theory, with a particular focus on Earth system applications. The book starts with a discussion of statistical correlation, before introducing Fourier series and building to the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and related periodogram techniques. The theory is illustrated with numerous worked examples using R datasets, from Milankovitch orbital-forcing cycles to tidal harmonics and exoplanet orbital periods. These examples highlight the key concepts and encourage readers to investigate more advanced time-series techniques. The book concludes with a consideration of statistical effect size and significance. This useful book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in the Earth system sciences who are looking for an accessible introduction to time-series analysis.
Tapping the Oceans provides a detailed analysis of the political and ecological debates facing water desalination in the twenty-first century. Water supplies for cities around the world are undergoing profound geographical, technological and political transformations. Increasingly, water-stressed cities are looking to the oceans to fix unreliable, contested and over-burdened water supply systems. Yet the use of emerging desalination technologies is accompanied by intense debates on their economic cost, governance, environmental impact and poses wider questions for the sustainable and just provision of urban water. Through a series of cutting-edge case studies and multi-subject approaches, this book explores the perspectives, disputes and politics surrounding water desalination on a broad geographical scale. As the first book of its kind, this unique work will appeal to those researching water and infrastructure issues in the fields of political ecology, geography, environmental science and sustainability. Industry and water managers who wish to understand the political debates around desalination technology more fully will also find this an informative read.
Numerous laws - including the Green New Deal - have been proposed or passed in cities, states, and countries to transition from fossil fuels to 100% clean, renewable energy in order to address climate change, air pollution, and energy insecurity. This textbook lays out the science, technology, economics, policy, and social aspects of such transitions. It discusses the renewable electricity and heat generating technologies needed; the electricity, heat, cold, and hydrogen storage technologies required; how to keep the electric power grid stable; and how to address non-energy sources of emissions. It discusses the history of the 100% Movement, which evolved from a collaboration among scientists, cultural leaders, business people, and community leaders. Finally, it discusses current progress in transitioning to 100% renewables, and the new policies needed to complete the transition. Online course supplements include lecture slides, answers to the end-of-chapter student exercises, and a list of extra resources.
For upper-division undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in civil and environmental engineering. The Eighth Edition of this bestselling text has been revised and modernized to meet the needs of today's environmental engineering students who will be engaged in the design and management of water and wastewater systems. It emphasizes the application of the scientific method to problems associated with the development, movement, and treatment of water and wastewater. Recognizing that all waters are potential sources of supply, the authors present treatment processes in the context of what they can do, rather than dividing them along clean water or waste water lines. An abundance of examples and homework problems amplify the concepts presented.
Landscape architect Lake Douglas employs written accounts, archival data, historic photographs, lithographs, maps, and city planning documents -- many of which have never before been published -- to explore public and private outdoor spaces in New Orleans and those who shaped them. The result offers the first in-depth examination of the city's landscape history.
Douglas presents this "beautiful and imposing" city as a work of art crafted by numerous influences. His survey from the colonial period to the twentieth century finds that geography, climate, and, above all, the multicultural character of its residents have made New Orleans unique in American landscape design history. French and Spanish settlers, Africans and Native Americans, as well as immigrants from Germany, Ireland, Italy, and other parts of the world all participated in creating this community's unique public and private landscapes. Places such as Congo Square, Audubon Park, the river levees, and "neutral grounds" -- local residents' own term for medians -- together with ordinary residential gardens are all testaments to the city's international imprint.
Douglas identifies five types of public and private designed landscapes in New Orleans: squares, linear open spaces, urban parks, commercial pleasure gardens, and domestic gardens. Discussing their design, function, and content, he shows how specific examples of each contribute to the city's unique character and also fit within the larger context of American landscape design history. Each type has its own complexion and reflects the influence of those who occupied it. Though New Orleanians lived in strata according to language, cultural identity, economics, and race, they found common ground, literally, in their community's landscapes.
Douglas's sweeping study, illustrated with over 90 color and black-and-white images, includes an exploration of archival horticultural books, almanacs, and periodicals; information about laborers who actually built landscapes; details of horticultural commerce, services, and marketing materials; and an exhaustive inventory of plants grown in New Orleans for agricultural, medicinal, and ornamental uses.
Public Spaces, Private Gardens provides an informative look at two hundred years of the designed landscapes and horticulture of New Orleans and a fresh perspective on one of America's most interesting and historic cities.
Geomicrobiology is the study of microbes and microbial processes and their role in driving environmental and geological processes at scales ranging from the nano, micron, to meter scale. This growing field has seen major advances in recent years, largely due to the development of new analytical tools and improvements to existing techniques, which allow us to better understand the complex interactions between microbes and their surroundings. In this comprehensive handbook, expert authors outline the state-of-the-art and emerging analytical techniques used in geomicrobiology. Readers are guided through each technique including background theory, sample preparation, standard methodology, data collection and analysis, best practices and common pitfalls, and examples of how and where the technique has been applied. The book provides a practical go-to reference for advanced students, researchers and professional scientists looking to employ techniques commonly used in geomicrobiology.
Field and laboratory studies are essential components of undergraduate training in Environmental Science alongside transferable skills such as computing and study skills. Practical work must be fully understood and effectively presented, but many students under-perform as they aim to acquire complex skills across a range of disciplines with limited opportunities for practice. Practical Skills in Environmental Science provides students with easy-to-read guidance for fieldwork, sampling, laboratory studies, project work and computing and communication skills, building on the strong reputation of the Practical Skills series as essential texts for those who wish to succeed. Practical Skills in Environmental Science is an indispensable book for undergraduate students in environmental science. This book supplements any practical course in environmental science and provides useful support at all stages of a degree course. It is also a valuable resource for teachers in secondary schools.
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