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Every year, droughts, floods, and fires impact hundreds of millions of people and cause massive economic losses. Climate change is making these catastrophes more dangerous. Now. Not in the future: NOW. This book describes how and why climate change is already fomenting dire consequences, and will certainly make climate disasters worse in the near future. Chris C. Funk combines the latest science with compelling stories, providing a timely, accessible, and beautifully-written synopsis of this critical topic. The book describes our unique and fragile Earth system, and the negative impacts humans are having on our support systems. It then examines recent disasters, including heat waves, extreme precipitation, hurricanes, fires, El Ninos and La Ninas, and their human consequences. By clearly describing the dangerous impacts that are already occurring, Funk provides a clarion call for social change, yet also conveys the beauty and wonder of our planet, and hope for our collective future.
Every person on our home planet is affected by a worldwide deluge of man-made chemicals and pollutants - most of which have never been tested for safety. Our chemical emissions are six times larger than our total greenhouse gas emissions. They are in our food, our water, the air we breathe, our homes and workplaces, the things we use each day. This universal poisoning affects our minds, our bodies, our genes, our grandkids, and all life on Earth. Julian Cribb describes the full scale of the chemical catastrophe we have unleashed. He proposes a new Human Right - not to be poisoned. He maps an empowering and hopeful way forward: to rid our planet of these toxins and return Earth to the clean, healthy condition which our forebears enjoyed, and our grandchildren should too.
All the laws, terms, documents, and guidance on environmental impact assessment you need -- in one book!
Our most powerful tool to reverse the global epidemic of chronic disease, heal the environment, reform politics, and revive economies is food. What we eat has tremendous implications not just for our waistlines, but also for the planet, society, and the global economy. What we do to our bodies, we do to the planet; and what we do to the planet, we do to our bodies. In Food Fix, New York Times best-selling author Mark Hyman explains how food and agriculture policies are corrupted by money and are driving a global crises: the spread of obesity and food-related chronic disease, climate change, poverty, violence, educational achievement gaps, and more. He provides solutions for citizens, businesses, and policy makers to create a healthier world, society, and planet. Pairing the latest developments in nutritional and environmental science with an unflinching look at the dark realities of the global food system and the policies that make it possible, Food Fix is a passionate call to arms that will change the way you think about - and eat - food forever. 'If you're overwhelmed by the scale of the world's problems, and wondering what you can do in your own life to start, Food Fix is for you. Dr. Hyman deftly connects the dots between education, health, climate science, and the food we eat every day, showing that the choices we make about the food we put on our plates has consequences that ripple around the world.' - Arianna Huffington
This book highlights the water-energy-food nexus as one of the most important and fundamental global environmental issues facing the world. Climate and social changes are putting increased pressure on water, energy and food resources. As water is the central aspect within this cluster, the book focuses on the inherent tradeoffs in water resources between producing/consuming energy and food. In addition, it discusses an inter- and trans-disciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of the water-energy-food nexus system, and creating policy options to reduce the tradeoffs among resources. The content integrates a variety of academic disciplines, including not only the natural sciences (e.g. hydrology, coastal oceanography, costal aquatic bioscience, fisheries, environmental earth science etc.) but also the humanities and social sciences (e.g. marine policy, environmental energy policy, resource governance, policy process theory etc.). The book can be used as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate-level sustainability science courses. Further, its practical content and trans-disciplinary approach to addressing nexus issues with stakeholders offers vital information for practitioners and administrators alike.
This book describes the importance of water resources for socio-economic and ecological development including geomorphic and ecological environments. Hence, conservation, management and development of water resources have become necessary for the all-around development of global populations and the environment. It is the outcome of valuable contributions made by eminent scientists and research scholars who have developed alternative strategies, solutions and models for sustainable water resources through research, monitoring and experiments varying from regional to global scale. This book is of immense use to the policymakers, environmentalists, ecologists, academician, research scholars and people in general concerned with water resources management.
Cities are playing an ever more important role in the mitigation and adaption to climate change. This book examines the politics shaping whether, how and to what extent cities engage in global climate governance. By studying the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, and drawing on scholarship from international relations, social movements, global governance and field theory, the book introduces a theory of global urban governance fields. This theory links observed increases in city engagement and coordination to the convergence of C40 cities around particular ways of understanding and enforcing climate governance. The collective capacity of cities to produce effective and socially equitable global climate governance is also analysed. Highlighting the constraints facing city networks and the potential pitfalls associated with a city-driven global response, this assessment of the transformative potential of cities will be of great interest to researchers, graduate students and policymakers in global environmental politics and policy.
Psychoanalytic Ecology applies Freudian concepts, beginning with the uncanny, to environmental issues, such as wetlands and their loss, to alligators and crocodiles as inhabitants of wetlands, and to the urban underside. It also applies other Freudian concepts, such as sublimation, symptom, mourning and melancholia, to environmental issues and concerns. Mourning and melancholia can be experienced in relation to wetlands and to their loss. The city is a symptom of the will to fill or drain wetlands. This book engages in a talking cure of psychogeopathology (environmental psychopathology; mental land illness; environ-mental illness) manifested also in industries, such as mining and pastoralism, that practice greed and gluttony. Psychoanalytic Ecology promotes gratitude for generosity as a way of nurturing environ-mental health to prevent the manifestation of these psychogeopathological symptoms in the first place. Melanie Klein's work on anal sadism is applied to mining and Karl Abraham's work on oral sadism to pastoralism. Finally, Margaret Mahler's and Jessica Benjamin's work on psycho-symbiosis is drawn on to nurture bio- and psycho-symbiotic livelihoods in bioregional home habitats of the living earth in the symbiocene, the hoped-for age superseding the Anthropocene. Psychoanalytic Ecology demonstrates the power of psychoanalytic concepts and the pertinence of the work of several psychoanalytic thinkers for analysing a range of environmental issues and concerns. This book will be of great interest to students and scholars of environmental psychology, psychoanalysis and the environmental humanities.
It is common practice to evaluate wastewater to understand drug consumption, from antibiotics to illegal narcotics, and even to analyze dietary habits and trends. Evaluating contaminants in wastewater enables researchers, environmental scientists, and water quality experts to gain valuable information and data. Wastewater-based epidemiology is an emerging science that has proven to be a cost- and time-effective biomonitoring tool. This book provides a roadmap for detecting wastewater-borne pathogenic contaminants such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and others. It provides a basic, fundamental discussion of how sampling and monitoring of wastewater using epidemiological concepts and practices can aid in determining the presence of the COVID-19 virus in a community, for example, and may help predict future outbreaks. Features * Offers a unique discussion of the detection of bacteria, fungi, and COVID-19, and other viruses in wastewater * Presents the fundamentals of wastewater chemistry and microbiology * Explains biomonitoring, sampling, testing, and health surveillance in a practical manner Fundamentals of Wastewater-Based Epidemiology: Biomonitoring of Bacteria, Fungi, COVID-19, and Other Viruses is an invaluable resource to a wide array of readers with varying interests and backgrounds in water science and public health.
This volume presents a comprehensive overview of the science and application of the Exposome through seventeen chapters from leaders in the field. At just over ten years since the term was coined by Christopher Wild in 2005, this is the first, field-defining volume to offer a holistic picture of the important and growing field of Exposomics. The term "Exposome" describes the sum of all exposures (not only chemical) that an individual can receive over a lifetime from both exogenous sources (environmental contaminants, food, lifestyle, drugs, air, etc.) and endogenous sources (metabolism, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, chemicals synthesized by the microbiome, etc.). The first section of this book contains chapters that discuss how the Exposome is defined and how the concept fits into the fields of public health and epidemiology. The second section provides an overview of techniques and methods to measure the human Exposome. The third section contains methods and applications for measuring the Exposome through external exposures. Section four provides an overview on statistical and computational techniques- including big data analysis - for characterizing the Exposome. Section five presents a global collection of case studies
Food--how we produce, prepare, share and consume it--is fundamental to our wellbeing. It also connects the human body to the complex and dynamic systems of our environment. This is more significant than ever before in human history, as climate change and increasing population impact on global ecosystems. This fourth edition of Food and Nutrition has been completely rewritten to reflect an ecosystems approach to human health. It is shaped around four dimensions of human nutrition: biology, society, environment and economy. Food and Nutrition provides a comprehensive overview of food components and the biochemistry of foods and digestion. It outlines nutrition needs at different life stages, dietary disorders, and social and cultural influences on food selection and consumption. It also explores the increasing influence of technology on agriculture and food preparation, and recent research into intergenerational nutrition and nutrigenomics. At every stage it points to how you can impact your own health and the health of others as a global citizen and as a health or other food-system-related professional. Extensively illustrated with informative graphs, diagrams and data, and with examples, glossaries and reflective exercises, Food and Nutrition is the ideal introduction to the field of nutrition and dietetics for the 21st century, and a valuable professional reference for early career dietitians.
Ours is the Age of Food. Food is a central obsession in all cultures, nations, the media, and society. Our future supply of food is filled with risk, and history tells us that lack of food leads to war. But it also presents us with spectacular opportunities for fresh human creativity and technological prowess. Julian Cribb describes a new food system capable of meeting our global needs on this hot and overcrowded planet. This book is for anyone concerned about the health, safety, affordability, diversity, and sustainability of their food - and the peace of our planet. It is not just timely - its message is of the greatest urgency. Audiences include consumers, 'foodies', policymakers, researchers, cooks, chefs and farmers. Indeed, anyone who cares about their food, where it comes from and what it means for them, their children and grandchildren.
This book is about the roles and importance of Ultraviolet (UV) light from sun and from man-made UV lamps in our daily life, on health and diseases, also its application in sterilization and treatment. The key words are: reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, UV mutagenicity, skin cancers, polymorphous light eruption, Xeroderma pigmentosum, vitiligo, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular diseases, dermatology, photobiology, photodermatosis, vitamin D synthesis, vitamin D efficiency, water sterilization, blood sterilization, phototherapies, skin tanning and UV dosimeter. The book starts with introduction to UV light and the history of development of UV lamps and its applications. It then moves to describing the interaction of this light with biological components and the production of reactive oxygen species, their roles in cell signaling, cellular defense from foreign invaders, in mutagenesis leading to skin diseases including vitiligo, polymorphous light eruption and various forms of skin cancer. Then it presents the synthesis and importance of UV light and diseases, induced due to the deficiency of vitamin D. Roles of UV light in sterilization, disinfection, phototherapies are depicted in the next part and finally use and abuse of UV light in tanning salon and the availability and importance of use of UV dosimeter are highlighted. The three main focuses of this book are: - Damage to biological systems by UV light leading to certain skin diseases; most importantly skin cancers. - Importance of UV light in the in vivo synthesis of vitamin D when human bodies are exposed to it. - Diseases caused due to the deficiency of vitamin D and the use of UV lamps in phototherapy and sterilization processes. The editor has considerable experience in publishing medical books and has used it critically selecting the matters which will attract the readers from many areas of medical and non-medical fields. It is hoped that the materials presented in this book will give great benefit and will stimulate both novice and expert researchers in the field. The book gives excellent overviews of the current status of research and pointers to the future research achievements. Clinicians, medical general practitioners, technicians and staff working in UV related industries and especially those working in tanning salon should benefit from the information presented in safe handling of this light.
The polar regions are the 'canary in the coal mine' of climate change: they are likely to be hit the hardest and fastest. This comprehensive textbook provides an accessible introduction to the scientific study of polar environments against a backdrop of climate change and the wider global environment. The book assembles diverse information on polar environmental characteristics in terrestrial and oceanic domains, and describes the ongoing changes in climate, the oceans, and components of the cryosphere. Recent significant changes in the polar region caused by global warming are explored: shrinking Arctic sea ice, thawing permafrost, accelerating loss of mass from glaciers and ice sheets, and rising ocean temperatures. These rapidly changing conditions are discussed in the context of the paleoclimatic history of the polar regions from the Eocene to the Anthropocene. Future projections for these regions during the twenty-first century are discussed. The text is illustrated with many color figures and tables, and includes further reading lists, review questions for each chapter, and a glossary.
This book compares how governments in 192 countries perceive climate change related health risks and which measures they undertake to protect their populations. Building on case studies from the United Kingdom, Ireland, South Korea, Japan and Sri Lanka, The Politics of the Climate Change-Health Nexus demonstrates the strong influence of epistemic communities and international organisations on decision making in the field of climate change and health. Jungmann shows that due to the complexity and uncertainty of climate change related health risks, governments depend on the expertise of universities, think tanks, international organisations and researchers within the public sector to understand, strategize and implement effective health adaptation measures. Due to their general openness towards new ideas and academic freedom, the book shows that more democratic states tend to demonstrate a higher recognition of the need to protect their populations. However, the level of success largely depends on the strength of their epistemic communities and the involvement of international organisations. This volume will be of great interest to students and scholars of climate change and public health. It will also be a valuable resource for policymakers from around the world to learn from best practices and thus improve the health adaptation work in their own countries.
The introduction of artificial lighting extends the time of wakefulness after dark and enables work at night, thus disturbing the human circadian rhythm. The understanding of the physiological mechanisms of visual and non-visual systems may be important for the development and use of proper light infrastructure and light interventions for different workplace settings, especially for shift work conditions. Visual and Non-Visual Effects of Light: Working Environment and Well-Being presents the impact of lighting in the working environment on human health, well-being and visual performance. The physiological explanation of the visual and non-visual effects of light on humans which discusses the biological bases of image and non-image forming vision at the cellular level may be of particular interest to any professional in the field of medicine, physiology, and biology. It is one of the intentions of this book to put forward some recommendations and examples of lighting design which take into account both the visual and non-visual effects of light on humans. These may be of particular interest to any professional in the field of lighting, occupational safety and health, and interior design. "What effects on health can a light 'overdose' or light deficiency have? What is bad light? The authors of the monograph provide answers to these questions. Just as for a physicist, the dual nature of light comprises an electromagnetic wave and a photon, the duality of light for a physician comprises visual and non-visual effects." --------------------------------------------------------Prof Jacek Przybylski, Medical University of Warsaw "This is a unique publication in the field of lighting technology. The authors have skillfully combined both the technical and biomedical aspects involved, which is unprecedented in the literature available. As a result, an important study has been created for many professional groups, with a significant impact on the assessment of risks associated with LED sources." --------------------------------------------Prof Andrzej Zajac, Military University of Technology, Warsaw
The international legal framework for valuing the carbon stored in forests, known as 'Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation' (REDD+), will have a major impact on indigenous peoples and forest communities. The REDD+ regime contains many assumptions about the identity, tenure and rights of indigenous and local communities who inhabit, use or claim rights to forested lands. The authors bring together expert analysis of public international law, climate change treaties, property law, human rights and indigenous customary land tenure to provide a systemic account of the laws governing forest carbon sequestration and their interaction. Their work covers recent developments in climate change law, including the Agreement from the Conference of the Parties in Paris that came into force in 2016. The Impact of Climate Change Mitigation on Indigenous and Forest Communities is a rich and much-needed contribution to contemporary understanding of this topic.
Given the success and positive reviews of the first edition, Friis has kept in tact the features that work well. The author has instead focused on completing a thorough update of tables, figures and data. Major updates: * New chapter (Chapter 14) on injuries * All Web-based sources updated throughout to include the most recent information * Expanded discussion of the history of environmental health, e.g., contributions of John Snow, Lemuel Shattuck, and Walter Reed * New case study on pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 * Coverage of recent environmental controversies, such as use of bisphenol A in plastics This best-selling offering from the APHA/Jones & Bartlett Learning Essential Public Health series is a clear and comprehensive study of the major topics of environmental health, including: * Background of the field and "tools of the trade" (environmental epidemiology, environmental toxicology, and environmental policy and regulation). * Environmental diseases (microbial agents, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation). * Applications and domains of environmental health (water and air quality, food safety, waste disposal, and occupational health). With a straightforward, non-technical approach, the author has included many examples and illustrations of environmental health issues. Perfect for the beginning student as well as the experienced health professional, each chapter concludes with study questions and exercises to engage the reader in further study. Looking for more real-life evidence? Check out Cases 7, 13, 14, & 16 in Essential Case Studies in Public Health, Putting Public Health into Practice.
There are thousands of substances manufactured in the United States to which the public is routinely exposed and for which toxicity data are limited or absent. Some insist that uncertainty about the severity of potential harm justifies implementing precautionary regulations, while others claim that uncertainty justifies the absence of regulations until sufficient evidence confirms a strong probability of severe harm. In this book, Levente Szentkiralyi overcomes this impasse in his defense of precautionary environmental risk regulation by shifting the focus from how to manage uncertainty to what it is we owe each other morally. He argues that actions that create uncertain threats wrongfully gamble with the welfare of those who are exposed and neglect the reciprocity that our equal moral standing demands. If we take the moral equality and rights of others seriously, we have a duty to exercise due care to strive to prevent putting them in possible harm's way. The Ethics of Precaution will be of great interest to researchers, educators, advanced students, and practitioners working in the fields of environmental political theory, ethics of risk, and environmental policy.
This book explains how the U.S. federal system manages environmental health issues, with a unique focus on risk management and human health outcomes. Building on a generic approach for understanding human health risk, this book shows how federalism has evolved in response to environmental health problems, political and ideological variations in Washington D.C, as well as in-state and local governments. It examines laws, rules and regulations, showing how they stretch or fail to adapt to environmental health challenges. Emphasis is placed on human health and safety risk and how decisions have been influenced by environmental health information. The authors review different forms of federalism, and analyse how it has had to adapt to ever evolving environmental health hazards, such as global climate change, nanomaterials, nuclear waste, fresh air and water, as well as examining the impact of robotics and artificial intelligence on worker environmental health. They demonstrate the process for assessing hazard information and the process for federalism risk management, and subsequently arguing that human health and safety should receive greater attention. This book will be essential reading for students and scholars working on environmental health and environmental policy, particularly from a public health, and risk management viewpoint, in addition to practitioners and policymakers involved in environmental management and public policy.
This book focuses on the health impacts of air pollution in China, especially the epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for the mortality, morbidity, and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, and mental health related to pollution. It also provides the latest estimates of the magnitude of the adverse effects of air pollution on the health of the Chinese population. By providing a better understanding of the impact of air pollution on health, it improves the scientific basis of risk assessment, and also helps governments develop policies and other health protection initiatives to reduce the impacts of air pollution. The book offers environmental scientists, engineers, researchers and students a comprehensive and organized body of information in the area of air pollution.
This book provides a survey of technologies available to tackle the problems associated with climate change in the energy, water and food security nexus with a special focus on the Middle East. It is divided into three main sections. The energy Section consists of six chapters, the water section of seven chapters and finally the food security section has six chapters. The individual chapters are authored by experts and provide discussions and in-depth views on the current status of each topic.
Emerging contaminants are chemical and biological agents for which there is growing concern about their potential health and environmental effects. The threat lies in the fact that the sources, fate and toxicology of most of these compounds have not yet been studied. Emerging contaminants, therefore, include a large number of both recently discovered and well-known compounds such as rare earth elements, viruses, bacteria, nanomaterials, microplastics, pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, hormones, personal care products, cosmetics, pesticides, surfactants and industrial chemicals. Emerging contaminants have been found in many daily products, and some of them accumulate in the food chain. Correlations have been observed between aquatic pollution by emerging contaminants and discharges from wastewater treatment plants. Most actual remediation methods are not effective at removing emerging contaminants. This first volume presents comprehensive knowledge on emerging contaminants with a focus on analysis, toxicity, antibiotic resistance and human health.
Many countries experience lack of harmony among economic development, environmental management and human health. As a consequence, public health, the integrity of ecosystems, and the efforts to reach environmental sustainability, have been adversely affected. The complexity, frequency and magnitude of those impacts is increasingly parallel to the technological revolution, rising population, and increasing per capita consumption. The burden of the concerns about how humans inflict natural and man-made enclaves tends to rely in highly industrial societies. However, many of the world environmental alterations are been achieved by non-industrial societies. This book examines and discusses multidisciplinary aspects of the impacts that humans had on the physical environment, the biota, and human health, focusing on the scenario of developing and under developing countries. Among the areas covered are environmental degradation, pollution, occupational health, risk management, epidemiology and toxicology. This book will help scientists, resource managers, administrators, educators, policy makers and college students interpret that risk management and the advancement of research in sustainable development is of utmost importance for all parties involved in seeking solutions for the protection of natural and anthropogenic systems, and human health.
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