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Feeding the world, climate change, biodiversity, antibiotics, plastics, pandemics - the list of concerns seems endless. But what is most pressing, and what should we do first? Do we all need to become vegetarian? How can we fly in a low-carbon world? How can we take control of technology? And, given the global nature of the challenges we now face, what on Earth can any of us do, as individuals? Mike Berners-Lee has crunched the numbers and plotted a course of action that is full of hope, practical, and enjoyable. This is the big-picture perspective on the environmental and economic challenges of our day, laid out in one place, and traced through to the underlying roots - questions of how we live and think. This updated edition has new material on protests, pandemics, wildfires, investments, carbon targets and of course, on the key question: given all this, what can I do?
Time-series analysis is used to identify and quantify periodic features in datasets and has many applications across the geosciences, from analysing weather data, to solid-Earth geophysical modelling. This intuitive introduction provides a practical 'how-to' guide to basic Fourier theory, with a particular focus on Earth system applications. The book starts with a discussion of statistical correlation, before introducing Fourier series and building to the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and related periodogram techniques. The theory is illustrated with numerous worked examples using R datasets, from Milankovitch orbital-forcing cycles to tidal harmonics and exoplanet orbital periods. These examples highlight the key concepts and encourage readers to investigate more advanced time-series techniques. The book concludes with a consideration of statistical effect size and significance. This useful book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in the Earth system sciences who are looking for an accessible introduction to time-series analysis.
The past few decades have witnessed remarkable growth in the application of passive seismic monitoring to address a range of problems in geoscience and engineering, from large-scale tectonic studies to environmental investigations. Passive seismic methods are increasingly being used for surveillance of massive, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing and development of enhanced geothermal systems. The theoretical framework and techniques used in this emerging area draw on various established fields, such as earthquake seismology, exploration geophysics and rock mechanics. Based on university and industry courses developed by the author, this book reviews all the relevant research and technology to provide an introduction to the principles and applications of passive seismic monitoring. It integrates up-to-date case studies and interactive online exercises, making it a comprehensive and accessible resource for advanced students and researchers in geophysics and engineering, as well as industry practitioners.
AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS IN FOSSIL BIOMINERALS An essential cross-disciplinary guide to the proteins that form biominerals and that are preserved in the fossil record Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals is an authoritative guide to the patterns of survival and degradation of ancient biomolecules in the fossil record. The author brings together new research in biomineralization and ancient proteins to describe mechanisms of protein diagenesis. The book draws on the author's experiences as well as current information from three research fields: geochemistry, archaeology and Quaternary sciences. The author examines the history of the study of ancient proteins, from the dating of Quaternary biominerals to the present advances in shotgun proteomics, and discusses their applications across archaeology, geology and evolutionary biology. This important guide: Explores the main components of biominerals Describes the breakdown of proteins in fossils Reviews the applications of ancient protein studies Written for students and researchers of biomolecular archaeology and palaeontology, Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals provides a cross-disciplinary guide to the proteins responsible for the formation of biominerals and to the survival of biomolecules in the archaeological and palaeontological record. This book forms one volume of the popular New Analytical Methods in Earth and Environmental Science Series.
The 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station led to serious radioactive contamination of the environment. Due to transportation by seasonal wind and ocean currents, these radioactive materials have now been observed in many places in the Northern Hemisphere. This book provides a unique summary of the environmental impact of the unprecedented accident. It covers how radioactive materials were transported through the atmosphere, oceans and land. The techniques used to investigate the deposition and migration processes are also discussed including atmospheric observation, soil mapping, forest and ecosystem investigations, and numerical simulations. With chapters written by international experts, this is a crucial resource for researchers working on the dispersion and impact of radionuclides in the environment. It also provides essential knowledge for nuclear engineers, social scientists and policymakers to help develop suitable mitigation measures to prepare for similar large-scale natural hazards in the future.
The book presents the current state and good practices of national forest inventories in monitoring wood resources and demonstrates pathways for harmonisation and improved common reporting. Beyond a general overview over availability and use of wood resources in different countries, it provides a unique collection of original contributions from national forest inventory experts with in-depth descriptions of current NFI methods in assessing wood availability and wood use in European countries, and selected countries from America and Asia.The main topics are national definitions and improvements in common reporting of forests available for wood supply, stem quality and assortments, estimation of change including growth and drain, and tree resources outside forest land. The book is a must-have for everyone who is contributing to national forest inventories either methodologically or operatively, for people who want or need to understand national forest inventory provided data and information on the availability of wood resources. By providing profound knowledge it is a valuable basis for scientists involved in scenario modelling and analysing effects of climate change, as well as individuals in private organisations and public administrations promoting the sustainable use of natural resources and the potential of green economy.
This book will cover several topics to elaborate how proteomics may contribute in our understanding of mechanisms involved in stress adaptation. The knowledge being accumulated by a wide range of proteomics technologies may eventually be utilized in breeding programs to enhance stress tolerance. This book presents comprehensive reviews about responses of crop and farm animals to environmental stresses. Challenges related to stress phenotyping and integration of proteomics and other omics data have also been addressed.
The polar regions are the 'canary in the coal mine' of climate change: they are likely to be hit the hardest and fastest. This comprehensive textbook provides an accessible introduction to the scientific study of polar environments against a backdrop of climate change and the wider global environment. The book assembles diverse information on polar environmental characteristics in terrestrial and oceanic domains, and describes the ongoing changes in climate, the oceans, and components of the cryosphere. Recent significant changes in the polar region caused by global warming are explored: shrinking Arctic sea ice, thawing permafrost, accelerating loss of mass from glaciers and ice sheets, and rising ocean temperatures. These rapidly changing conditions are discussed in the context of the paleoclimatic history of the polar regions from the Eocene to the Anthropocene. Future projections for these regions during the twenty-first century are discussed. The text is illustrated with many color figures and tables, and includes further reading lists, review questions for each chapter, and a glossary.
Master the art of vibration monitoring of induction motors with this unique guide to on-line condition assessment and fault diagnosis, building on the author's fifty years of investigative expertise. It includes: *Robust techniques for diagnosing of a wide range of common faults, including shaft misalignment and/or soft foot, rolling element bearing faults, sleeve bearing faults, magnetic and vibrational issues, resonance in vertical motor drives, and vibration and acoustic noise from inverters. *Detailed technical coverage of thirty real-world industrial case studies, from initial vibration spectrum analysis through to fault diagnosis and final strip-down. *An introduction to real-world vibration spectrum analysis for fault diagnosis, and practical guidelines to reduce bearing failure through effective grease management. This definitive book is essential reading for industrial end-users, engineers, and technicians working in motor design, manufacturing, and condition monitoring. It will also be of interest to researchers and graduate students working on condition monitoring.
Groundwater and Surface Water Pollution contains almost all the technical know-how required to clean up our water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters.
Computer Modeling Applications for Environmental Engineers in its second edition incorporates changes and introduces new concepts using Visual Basic.NET, a programming language chosen for its ease of comprehensive usage. This book offers a complete understanding of the basic principles of environmental engineering and integrates new sections that address Noise Pollution and Abatement and municipal solid-waste problem solving, financing of waste facilities, and the engineering of treatment methods that address sanitary landfill, biochemical processes, and combustion and energy recovery. Its practical approach serves to aid in the teaching of environmental engineering unit operations and processes design and demonstrates effective problem-solving practices that facilitate self-teaching. A vital reference for students and professional sanitary and environmental engineers this work also serves as a stand-alone problem-solving text with well-defined, real-work examples and explanations.
The diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) technique is a means of measuring the concentration and speciation of metals in natural waters. Edited by one of the pioneers of the technique, this unique volume provides a complete and authoritative guide to the theory and applications of DGT. The book includes explanations of the fundamental principles of DGT, accessible to readers with a modest background in chemistry, as well as more advanced chapters that provide a thorough treatment of the physical and chemical dynamics of this technique and evaluate how well it mimics the biological uptake process. Chapters on natural waters, soils and sediments illustrate the applications of DGT, and detailed instructions are included on how to use DGT in practice. Combining the fundamentals of DGT with more advanced principles, this is an indispensable text for students, researchers and professional scientists interested in the chemistry of natural waters, soils and sediments.
To provide useful and meaningful information, long-term ecological programs need to implement solid and efficient statistical approaches for collecting and analyzing data. This volume provides rigorous guidance on quantitative issues in monitoring, with contributions from world experts in the field. These experts have extensive experience in teaching fundamental and advanced ideas and methods to natural resource managers, scientists and students. The chapters present a range of tools and approaches, including detailed coverage of variance component estimation and quantitative selection among alternative designs; spatially balanced sampling; sampling strategies integrating design- and model-based approaches; and advanced analytical approaches such as hierarchical and structural equation modelling. Making these tools more accessible to ecologists and other monitoring practitioners across numerous disciplines, this is a valuable resource for any professional whose work deals with ecological monitoring. Supplementary example software code is available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521191548.
This textbook covers the entire spectrum of topics required to completely understand air pollution. It emphasizes the atmospheric processes governing air pollution (emissions, atmospheric dispersion, chemical transformations, deposition on surfaces and ecosystems). Other areas of focus include air pollutant emission control technologies, health and environmental impacts, regulations and public policies, and interactions between climate change and air pollution. Topics are first presented conceptually, and then in terms of their fundamental aspects. Actual case studies are incorporated throughout to illustrate major air pollution phenomena, such as the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere, and the development of strategies to reduce urban air pollution, mitigate acid rain, and improve atmospheric visibility. Graduate students, researchers, and air quality professionals will find the full coverage of these important matters to be well suited to their needs.
A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital representation of ground surface topography or terrain. It is also widely known as a digital terrain model (DTM). A DEM can be represented as a raster (a grid of squares) or as a vector based triangular irregular network (TIN). DEMs are commonly built using remote sensing techniques, but they may also be built from land surveying. DEMs are used often in geographic information systems, and are the most common basis for digitally-produced relief maps. The terrain surface can be described as compromising of two different elements; random and systematic. The random (stochastic) elements are the continuous surfaces with continuously varying relief. It would take an endless number of points to describe exactly the random terrain shapes, but these can be described in practice with a network of point. It is usual to use a network that creates sloping triangles or regular quadrants. This book examines how the methods and data sources used to generate DEMs and calculate land surface parameters have changed over the past 25 years. The primary goal is to describe the state-of-the-art for a typical digital terrain modeling workflow that starts with data capture, continues with data preprocessing and DEM generation, and concludes with the calculation of one or more primary and secondary land surface parameters. Taken as a whole, this book covers the basic theory behind the methods, the instrumentation, analysis and interpretation that are embedded in the modern digital terrain modeling workflow, the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods that the terrain analyst must choose among, typical applications of the results emanating from these terrain modeling workflows, and future directions. This book is intended for researchers and practitioners who wish to use DEMs, land surface parameters, land surface objects and landforms in environmental projects. The book will also be valuable as a reference text for environmental scientists who are specialists in related fields and wish to integrate these kinds of digital terrain workflows and outputs into their own specialized work environments.
This report reviews how biomaterials and biomass have been assessed within The Green Guide to Specification, including the application of the Environmental Profiles methodology, which underlies data. The way in which biomaterials and biomass are addressed within building-level environmental assessment schemes such as BREEAM and the Code for Sustainable Homes is also explained.
The report will give manufacturers and specifiers a general understanding of the significant benefits and impacts of biomaterials and biomass over their whole life cycle and help to identify opportunities for improvements to their environmental performance.
It is part of a series that provides comparable information on
windows, masonry and concrete, metals, floor finishes, cladding and
insulation to assess the environmental impact of specific
This book explores state-of-art techniques based on methodological and modeling aspects of solid and hazardous waste management, specifically focusing on the recent trends in data acquisition and robust modeling of the results obtained. In addition to an in-depth description of the recent regulatory paradigm for solid waste disposal and revealing insights into solid waste management models, the book also addresses significant case history and remediation methodologies for sustainable development in emerging economies like India, China and Brazil. The main emphasis is on a suitable regulatory framework with site-specific baseline calibration and aimed at the robust modeling of contaminant transport and its remediation. This is based on instructive case history in various locations/regions worldwide. The focus on recent modeling and quantification methods is the backbone of the book. One of the major aspects discussed is the application of non-invasive methods for studies related to the Earth's interior, which are increasingly preferred over invasive techniques thanks to their economic utility, as well as robust techniques for the interpretation of geophysical data. The increasing demand for groundwater and energy resources, especially for rapidly emerging countries with large populations like India and China, has made it vital to derive safe utilization approaches for our resources, including suitable waste disposal and remediation methodologies that can be adopted for 'contaminated sites.'
This book discusses techniques for predicting, preventing and controlling the hydrogeological instability of slopes consisting of cohesive soils. The proposed methodology is practical and innovative, and assumes a dynamic valence in defining the deformation process of underground failure as well as its activation through the assumption of a four-dimensional space-time continuum. This latter aspect is crucial for predicting a landslide in time to control it. At present, predicting, preventing and controlling hydrogeological instability in cohesive soils relies on mathematical modelling using specific software, the predictive reliability of which is rather deficient. Such modelling is based upon deterministic processes, which are entirely unsuitable for dealing with the complexity of vital processes occurring during the genesis of a landslide. In this work, the three-dimensional vision of a landslide as a set of distinct and independent phenomena is abandoned and the prediction and prevention of hydrogeological instability is pursued through the alternative of an indivisible totality of natural phenomena that includes the time factor. The book is of interest to graduates and researchers of applied geology, geotechnical, environmental and civil engineering, as well as professionals in the fields of hydrogeology and natural hazards.
The risks posed by climate change and its effect on climate extremes are an increasingly pressing societal problem. This book provides an accessible overview of the statistical analysis methods which can be used to investigate climate extremes and analyse potential risk. The statistical analysis methods are illustrated with case studies on extremes in the three major climate variables: temperature, precipitation, and wind speed. The book also provides datasets and access to appropriate analysis software, allowing the reader to replicate the case study calculations. Providing the necessary tools to analyse climate risk, this book is invaluable for students and researchers working in the climate sciences, as well as risk analysts interested in climate extremes.
Since the 1970s and particularly the works of Tuxen (1978) and Gehu & Rivas-Martinez (1981), dynamico-catenal phytosociology has facilitated the integration of vegetation dynamics by more precisely describing the trajectories of vegetation series. A national habitat mapping program (CarHAB), launched by France's Ministry of Ecology, aims to map the vegetation and vegetation series of metropolitan France at a scale of 1: 25,000 by 2025. In this context, Corsica has been selected as a pilot region, due to its unique characteristics regarding Mediterranean and alticole vegetation. This book describes in detail the vegetation series and geoseries (ecology, structure, dynamic trajectories, effects of anthropogenic factors on vegetation dynamics, catenal positioning in the landscape) of two Corsican sectors: Cap Corse and Biguglia pond. These two study sites were selected using two methods: * For Cap Corse, the typology and mapping are based on an inductive approach, which seeks to understand the dynamics of vegetation by drawing on the mature, substitutional, pioneering and anthropogenic associations likely to exist within a tessellar envelope. These various dynamic stages characterize "the vegetation series" (sigmetum or synassociation), the fundamental unit of symphytosociology (Gehu 2006; Biondi 2011). The aim of symphytosociology is, therefore, to define the vegetation series; in other words, it seeks to identify the repetitive combinations of syntaxa under homogeneous ecological conditions. * For Biguglia pond, the typology and mapping are based on a deductive approach, which combines (under SIG) the ecological descriptor maps with the vegetation mapping, in order to reveal the tesselas and the natural potential vegetation that underlies them. Thanks to the improvement of GIS techniques, this approach has been frequently used to characterize plant landscapes from vegetation to vegetation geoseries since the 2000s, with applications to the conservation management of natural and semi-natural environments.
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and hypoxia (low-oxygen conditions) in the marine waters and freshwaters of the United States negatively impact resources across thousands of miles of the Nations coastal and inland waters. Their prevalence and duration encompass scientifically complex and economically damaging aquatic issues. This book assesses threats posed by HABs and hypoxia and provides a comprehensive research plan and action strategy outlining Federal agencies roles and responsibilities for evaluating and managing them.
This book provides a broad account of various applied aspects of microbiology for quality and safety evaluations in food, water, soil, environment and pharmaceutical sciences. The work is timely, as the safety and quality of various commodities such as water and wastewater, food, pharmaceutical medications and medical devices are of paramount concern in developing countries globally for improved public health quality in areas ranging from food security to disease exposure. The book offers an introduction to basic concepts of biosafety and related microbiological practices and applies these methodologies to a multitude of disciplines in subject-focused chapters. Each chapter offers experiments and exercises pertaining to the specific area of interest in microbiological research, which will allow readers to apply the knowledge gained in a laboratory or classroom setting to see the microbiological methods discussed in practice. The book will be useful for industrialists, researchers, academics and undergraduate/graduate students of microbiology, biotechnology, botany and pharmaceutical sciences. The text aims to be a significant contribution in effectively guiding scientists, analysts, lab technicians and quality managers working with microbiology in industrial and commercial fields.
This book advances the scientific understanding and application of space-based technologies to address a variety of areas related to sustainable development; including environmental systems analysis, environmental management, clean processes, green chemistry, and green engineering. Geo-spatial techniques have gained considerable interest in recent decades among the earth and environmental science communities for solving and understanding various complex problems and approaches towards sustainable technologies. The book encompasses several scopes of interests on sustainable technologies in areas such as water resources, forestry, remote sensing, meteorology, atmospheric and oceanic modeling, environmental engineering and management, civil engineering, air and environmental pollution, water quality problems, etc. The book will appeal to people with an interest in geo-spatial techniques, sustainable development and other diverse backgrounds within earth and environmental sciences field.
One-stop weather database
Water has become a challenging resource that many countries worldwide are concerned with. Thus, water is often linked with health, society development, national income and even international geo-politics. Sometimes, water resources are unavailable, but successful management involves developing approaches and projects to assure water supply. However, there are some countries with available water resources, but unsatisfactory management, and thus complain about water supply becoming a national problem. This situation is prevalent in Lebanon, a country characterized by abundant water resources whether on the surface or sub-surface. It is a paradox that there is still imbalance in water supply/demand in Lebanon, and water resources are now under stress due to chaotic use. This has been exacerbated by the oscillating climatic conditions, increased population and improper management. Therefore, people receive less than one-third of their water needs, and most water supplied is of poor quality. The current status shows a descending trend. Undoubtedly, if the water sector in Lebanon continues this way, we should anticipate unfavourable (and may be severe) consequences. Many studies have been conducted on water and related disciplines in Lebanon; however, all of them focus on specific themes and sometimes defined regions. Nevertheless, the occurred changes on the influencers (natural and man-made) have not been considered. This book is the first of its type for Lebanon, and it shows all aspects of water resources with updated measurements and findings obtained by adopting new techniques. It diagnoses in-depth the major elements of water flow/storage mechanism that have never been covered in such a comprehensive manner before. Also, this book introduces and analyses the existing challenges and proposes solutions. It represents a comprehensive investigation of the water resources in Lebanon.
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