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Marine mammal conservation remains a hot-button international environmental issue, but progress towards addressing key conservation and management issues within existing governance structures-most notably the International Whaling Commission-has stalled. Cameron Jefferies offers a fresh look at the future of international marine mammal management in a way that advances the ongoing dialog surrounding UNCLOS implementation and effective living marine resource management, while employing the comprehensive rational decision-making model as a theoretical framework. Marine Mammal Conservation and the Law of the Sea lays out and critiques the marine mammal regulatory landscape. It introduces the rational conservation model, and details the modern threats to marine mammals, including climate change, by-catch, environmental pollution, ship strikes. Next, it discusses options for reform under UNCLOS and existing treaties, and finally introduces a new holistic treaty regime based on the rational conversation model, based in part on the UN Fish Stocks Agreement. This book will appeal to scholars, practitioners, and policymakers across public international law, international relations, political science, and environmental policy in the academic, governmental, IO, and NGO spheres.
This volume provides insight into whether or how sport hunting might play a strategic role in the conservation and management of polar bear in Canada's North, and examines the economic benefits to Inuit and their communities, both in terms of its monetary and sociocultural importance by examining Inuit participation in the polar bear sporthunt in the communities of Taloyoak, Resolute Bay, and Clyde River. At first glance, sport hunting may appear to have little to offer by way of insight about resource co-management. Yet, there are several important lessons to be learned from the way this aspect of the Inuit-polar bear relationship has evolved. For Inuit, the cultural, economic, and social aspects of polar bear hunting, including that carried out by visitors seeking tangible trophies, are equally intertwined.
In 1984 Swiss shepherd Bruno Manser trekked through the virgin rainforests of Borneo to live among the jungle's last nomads. In six years among the Penan people, Manser witnessed the wholesale destruction of one of the world's most diverse ecosystems through rapid deforestation. He swore to do everything he could to stop it. Manser's globetrotting campaign brought the world's attention to tropical deforestation. It also made him an enemy of Asia's timber barons. In 2000 he disappeared without a trace.
In the first detailed study of how a major environmental NGO works transnationally, Brian Doherty and Timothy Doyle examine the relationships between the 74 national organizations of Friends of the Earth International. Drawing from a rich mix of survey data, interviews, archival sources and access to internal meetings, they show how FoEI has developed a distinctive international environmentalism, which allows for the differences in context between regions and across the North-South divide. Following the expansion of FoEI into the global South, the challenges it then faced over questions of ideology, organization and campaign strategy are examined over a twenty year period. The book demonstrates the development of an FoEI tradition of solidarity which accounts for its ability to overcome internal crises and pursue joint campaigns despite conflicting understandings of politics between its national organizations.
Climate change has had a significant impact globally, predominantly for those vulnerable to its influence. The first book of its kind, The Climate Resilient Organization assesses the issues that have mounted for decision-makers in the field, while providing strategies to tackle them. With a particular focus on building climate-resilient pathways for private sector organisations, the expert authors offer practical tools and decision-making criteria for evaluating adaptation needs, costs and benefits. Split into two parts, this book begins with an analysis of the subject on a global scale; it continues by translating the science surrounding it while presenting it in a manner suited to local decision-makers. Sustainability and climate adaptation scholars as well as managers will equally find this book to be an insightful read. Government officers and risk management professionals will also find the topics discussed beneficial to their work.
Published Under the Garamond Imprint
The social and political contest over the meaning of the term "sustainable development" is vital. Those who win will dictate the agenda and the policies around future environmental issues. This book proposes a radical definition of sustainability, reclaiming the word from the rhetoric typically used by corporations and governments to facilitate unrelenting economic growth and the notion of "business as usual."
The authors base their approach on the classic notion of the "commons." This key concept in environmental circles traditionally refers to commonly held, or shared, rights and property such as water, air, and other resources necessary for human survival. In this book the idea of the commons is also extended to include what the authors call the "social commons," encompassing areas such as community knowledge and culture.
The authors argue that the social commons should be democratically controlled, and at all levels of ecological reality from the local to the global. Here the "commons" are seen as operating in a spatially fluid manner, across not only geographical boundaries, but also human generations and ecological timescapes. The authors stress the complex interrelations that exist at local, regional, national, continental, and global levels of human organization and observe that there can be no simple solution confined to one particular scale of action. They critique advocates of an exclusive concentration on localism just as much as those who argue it is enough simply to write global treaties. This book seeks to reclaim public power against private interests, thus creating an empowered, sustainable ecological community.
Academics please note that this is a title classified as having a restricted allocation of complimentary copies. Restricted titles remain available to adopters and to academics very likely to adopt in the coming semester. When adoption possibilities are less strong and/or further in the future, academics are requested to purchase the title, with the proviso that UTP Higher Education will happily refund the purchase price if the book is indeed adopted.
The new framework for cooperative approaches and mechanisms under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement charts a path for the resurgence of carbon markets. However, the modalities, rules, and guidance are yet to be fully elaborated. Article 6 is a key part of the Paris Agreement. It allows Parties to voluntarily cooperate to meet their Nationally Determined Contributions, providing for international transfers of mitigation outcomes, a new mechanism for mitigation and sustainable development, and non-market approaches. Article 6 establishes the foundation for a post 2020 carbon market, but there are still many complex issues to be discussed and decided among Parties to finalize the Paris Agreement rulebook by the end of 2018. This publication examines the options for establishing guidance, rules, and modalities for the key elements of Article 6, decoding issues such as internationally transferred mitigation outcomes, environmental integrity, double counting and corresponding adjustments.
Africa's future is the subject of fierce debate, with the media full of warnings about environmental and economic collapse. Development workers continue to create supposed solutions to the problems they see, with little effect and much controversy. While these outsiders haggle over projections and prophecies, Africans are working on a variety of small, grassroots projects that may change the course of their future.
The Green Belt Movement is an internationally acclaimed tree-planting movement founded by Kenyans and run by and for Kenyans. The organization, which has planted millions of trees throughout East Africa in order to provide sources of fuel, food and a way to stop soil erosion and environmental degradation, is one example of an indigenous movement working to influence Africa's future. Many of its workers are women.
In The Green Belt Movement, founder Wangari Maathai tells its story: why it started, how it operates, and where it is going. She includes the philosophy behind it, its challenges and objectives, and the specific steps involved in starting a similar grassroots environmental and social justice organization. The Green Belt Movement is the inspiring story of people working at the grassroots level to improve their environment and their country. Their story offers ideas about a new and hopeful future for Africa and the rest of the world.
"Despite the fact that I have studied environmental justice from a women's-centered perspective for the last twenty years, every page of this book taught me something new. I found it so engaging that I couldn't bear to put it down." --Celene Krauss, professor, women's studies and sociology, Kean University "Keeping to its core of the environmental justice movement, where women shape the leadership of the grassroots, New Perspectives on Environmental Justice captures the historical and contemporary roles of gender and sexuality in environmental justice studies. A truly transformative collection whose leading insights every student, teacher, and scholar of environmental justice must confront." --Robert Figueroa, university studies, program coordinator of environmental studies and Latin American studies, Colgate University Women make up the vast majority of activists and organizers of grassroots movements fighting against environmental ills that threaten poor and people of color communities. New Perspectives on Environmental Justice is the first collection of essays that pays tribute to the enormous contributions women have made in these endeavors. The writers offer varied examples of environmental justice issues such as children's environmental-health campaigns, cancer research, AIDS/HIV activism, the Environmental Genome Project, and popular culture, among many others. Each one focuses on gender and sexuality as crucial factors in women's or gay men's activism and applies environmental justice principles to related struggles for sexual justice. Drawing on a wide variety of disciplinary perspectives, the contributors offer multiple vantage points on gender, sexuality, and activism. Feminist/womanist impulses shape and sustain environmental justice movements around the world, making an understanding of gender roles and differences crucial for the success of these efforts. Rachel Stein is professor of English and director of women's and multicultural studies at Siena College in New York. She is the author of Shifting the Ground: American Women Writers' Revisions of Nature, Gender and Race, and is coeditor of The Environmental Justice Reader: Politics, Poetics, and Pedagogy.
This book examines the importance of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and how it can provide models for a time-tested form of sustainability needed in the world today. The essays, written by a team of scholars from diverse disciplinary backgrounds, explore TEK through compelling cases of environmental sustainability from multiple tribal and geographic locations in North America and beyond. Addressing the philosophical issues concerning indigenous and ecological knowledge production and maintenance, they focus on how environmental values and ethics are applied to the uses of land. Grounded in an understanding of the profound relationship between biological and cultural diversity, this book defines, interrogates, and problematizes, the many definitions of traditional ecological knowledge and sustainability. It includes a holistic and broad disciplinary approach to sustainability, including language, art, and ceremony, as critical ways to maintain healthy human-environment relations.
Based on interviews with members of grassroots organisations, media and government institutions, Green Politics in China provides an in-depth and engaging account of the novel ways in which Chinese society is responding to its environmental crisis, using examples rarely captured in Western media or academia. Joy Y. Zhang and Michael Barr explain how environmental problems are transforming Chinese society through new developments such as the struggle for clean air, low-carbon conspiracy theories, new forms of public fund raising and the international tactics of grassroots NGOs. In doing so, they challenge static understandings of state-society relations in China. Green Politics in China is an illuminating and detailed investigation which provides crucial insights into how China is both changing internally and emerging as a powerful player in global environmental politics.
Much environmental activism is caught in a logic that plays science against emotion, objective evidence against partisan aims, and human interest against a nature that has intrinsic value. Radical activists, by contrast, play down the role of science in determining environmental politics, but read their solutions to environmental problems off fixed theories of domination and oppression. Both of these approaches are based in a modern epistemology grounded in the fundamental dichotomy between the human and the natural. This binary has historically come about through the colonial oppression of other, non-Western and often non-binary ways of knowing nature and living in the world. There is an urgent need for a different, decolonised environmental activist strategy that moves away from this epistemology, recognises its colonial heritage and finds a different ground for environmental beliefs and politics. This book analyses the arguments and practices of anti-GMO activists at three different sites - the site of science, the site of the Bt cotton controversy in India, and the site of global environmental protest - to show how we can move beyond modern/colonial binaries. It will do so in dialogue with Gilles Deleuze, Bruno Latour, Maria Lugones, and Gayatri C. Spivak, as well as a broader range of postcolonial and decolonial bodies of thought.
The Campaign to Protect Rural England (CPRE) is one of the world' s longest running environmental groups, marshalling the conservation movement in England since 1926. This book celebrates the achievements of the CPRE and associated groups in bequeathing to the present generation a countryside that is still a repository of beauty and tranquillity, despite 300 years of sustained development and population growth. 22 Ideas That Saved the English Countryside re-asserts the vision and durability of the CPRE' s key arguments and those of historic partners including The National Trust, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) and the Ramblers' Association. public. This book contains contributions from leading thinkers, campaigners and high-profile supporters, including Julia Bradbury, Tony Robinson, John le Carre , Andrew Motion and Simon Jenkins, as well as archive images and beautiful colour photography of present day landscapes, which show what has been saved, what has been protected for ever, and, on occasion, what has been lost - often the most poignant images of all. The ideas include: Controlling Ribbon Development One of CPRE's earliest campaigns was to curtail urban sprawl alongside arterial roads. Through the coordination of public and political support, the Restriction of Ribbon Development Act of 1935 protected views of the countryside from the encroachments of suburbia. National Parks Wordsworth' s 1810 description of the Lakes as a ` sort of national property' culminated in CPRE' s long campaign for National Parks, which in turn was inspired by the world' s first National Parks like Yellowstone in 1874. The Green and Pleasant Land According to historian David Cannadine, 'the English countryside was . . . the very embodiment of decency, Englishness, national character and national identity'. This theme has been expressed by authors from Shakespeare and Spencer through to Kenneth Grahame and George Orwell. As more of us live in cities, the English obsession with escaping to the countryside has grown. Urban Regeneration Every home built on a previously developed 'brownfield' site saves a piece of green field. The efficient renovation of derelict buildings and and land offer a new opportunity to create new urban housing to be set against unspoiled countryside. The creation of new public spaces and pedestrianised zones since the 1960s have made cities more pleasant places to live.
The late nineteenth and early twentieth century were a brutal time for American wildlife, with many species pushed to the brink of extinction. (Some are endangered to this day.) And yet these decades also saw the dawn of the conservationist movement. Into this contradictory era came William Temple Hornaday, a larger-than-life dynamo who almost uncannily embodies these conflicting threads in our history.
In "The Most Defiant Devil, " a compelling new biography of this complex figure, Gregory Dehler explores the life of Hornaday the hunter, museum builder, zoologist, author, conservationist, and anti-Bolshevist crusader. A deeply religious man, he was nonetheless anything but peaceful and was racist even by his era's standards, going so far as to display an Mbuti pygmy as a "living specimen" in a zoo. A passionate hunter, Hornaday killed thousands of animals, including some of the last wild buffalo in America, but he was far ahead of his time in his influential views on the protection of wildlife. Hornaday designed and built the New York Zoological Park (which became the Bronx Zoo) and was chief taxidermist for what would later become the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History.In this single, fascinating individual, we can discern some of the Progressive Era's most destructive forces and some of its most enlightened visions.
Over the past two decades, a select group of small but highly effective grassroots organizations have achieved remarkable success in protecting endangered species and forests in the United States. "The Rebirth of Environmentalism" tells for the first time the story of these grassroots biodiversity groups. Author Douglas Bevington offers engaging case studies of three of the most influential biodiversity protection campaigns - the Headwaters Forest campaign, the 'zero cut' campaign on national forests, and the endangered species litigation campaign exemplified by the Center for Biological Diversity - providing the reader with an in-depth understanding of the experience of being involved in grassroots activism. Based on first-person interviews with key activist in these campaigns, the author explores the role of tactics, strategy, funding, organization, movement culture, and political conditions in shaping the influence of the groups. He also examines the challenging relationship between radicals and moderate groups within the environmental movement, and addresses how grassroots organizations were able to overcome constraints that had limited the advocacy of other environmental organizations. Filled with inspiring stories of activists, groups, and campaigns that most readers will not have encountered before, "The Rebirth of Environmentalism" explores how grassroots biodiversity groups have had such a big impact despite their scant resources, and presents valuable lessons that can help the environmental movement as a whole - as well as other social movements - become more effective.
The existence and urgency of global climate change is a matter of scientific consensus. Yet the global politics of climate change have been anything but consensual. In this context, a wave of global climate activism has emerged in the last decade in response to the perceived failure of the political negotiations. This book provides a unique comparative study of environmental movements in USA, Japan, Denmark and Sweden, analyzing their interaction with the international climate institutions of the United Nations, with national governments, and with currents in the global climate movement. It documents how and why the movement evolved between the Copenhagen Summit of 2009 and the Paris Summit of 2015, altering its strategies and tactics while attracting new actors to the issue area. Further, it demonstrates how the development of global environmental networks has increased contact between environmental movements in the Global North and those from the Global South, resulting in the establishment of `climate justice' as a political cause and unifying frame for global climate activism.
Ocean Country is an adventure story, a call to action, and a poetic meditation on the state of the seas. But most importantly it is the story of finding true hope in the midst of one of the greatest crises to face humankind, the rapidly degrading state of our environment. After a near-drowning accident in which she was temporarily paralyzed, Liz Cunningham crisscrosses the globe in an effort to understand the threats to our dazzling but endangered oceans. This intimate account charts her thrilling journey through unexpected encounters with conservationists, fishermen, sea nomads, and scientists in the Mediterranean, Sulawesi, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and Papua, New Guinea.
Conservation biology is the study of attempts to protect and preserve biodiversity. It focuses on both the biological and social factors that affect the success of conservation efforts and on determining ecosystems and species whose conservation is a high priority. With the growing human population and consumption of resources, global environmental change and degradation have been shown to us. Attentions were also drawing on damages to biodiversity, habitat conservation and exotic species. Convention on biological diversity has been brought up, from three levels: genes, species and habitats. Conservation biology is an interdisciplinary study aiming at protecting species, habitats and ecosystems from extinction and erosion of biotic interactions. The field seeks to integrate conservation policy with theories from the fields of ecology, demography, taxonomy, and genetics. The principles underlying each of these disciplines have direct implications for the management of species and ecosystems, captive breeding and reintroduction, genetic analyses, and habitat restoration. Conservation biology has become a burgeoning discipline since it originated in the early 1980s. Theories from the fields of island biogeography, genetics, demography, and population ecology have been broadly applied to the design and management of reserves, captive breeding programs, and the classification of endangered species. This book entitled Conservation Biology reviewed species, landscape, and ecosystem approaches to conservation; high quality research works about science and practice of conserving biodiversity are addressed too. Methods of habitat restoration, features of ecosystem resilience, how factors influenced on conservation, and assessment of conservation effects are given. The book covers research articles spanning a diverse range of fields that contribute to the biological, sociological, and economic dimensions of conservation and natural resource management. The primary aim of conservation biology is to present the science and practice of conservation, or which demonstrate the application of conservation principles for natural resource management and policy. Therefore it will be of interest to a broad international readership. Conservation biology as a discipline aims to provide answers to specific questions that can be applied to management decisions. The main goal is to establish workable methods for preserving species and their biological communities. Specific methods have been developed for determining the best strategies for protecting threatened species, designing nature reserves, initiating breeding programs to maintain genetic variability in small populations, and reconciling conservation concerns with the needs of local people. For this to be successful, communication among all sectors of the conservation community is necessary.
Our ancient religious texts and epics give a good insight into the water storage and conservation systems that prevailed in those days. Water management is the management of water resources under set policies and regulations. Water, once an abundant natural resource, is becoming a more valuable commodity due to droughts and overuse. Over the years rising populations, growing industrialization, and expanding agriculture have pushed up the demand for water. Efforts have been made to collect water by building dams and reservoirs and digging wells; some countries have also tried to recycle and desalinate water. Water conservation involves reducing the usage of water and recycling of waste water for various purposes such as cleaning, irrigation and manufacturing. Another method for implementing water conservation is by improving water management practices. These improve the use of water resources to benefit people and the environment. Conserving water is important because water is a finite and vulnerable resource that sustains life, economic development and the environment. Water conservation has become the need of the day. The idea of ground water recharging by harvesting rainwater is gaining importance in many cities. In the forests, water seeps gently into the ground as vegetation breaks the fall. This groundwater in turn feeds wells, lakes, and rivers. Protecting forests means protecting water `catchments'. In urban areas, the construction of houses, footpaths and roads has left little exposed earth for water to soak in. In parts of the rural areas of India, floodwater quickly flows to the rivers, which then dry up soon after the rains stop. If this water can be held back, it can seep into the ground and recharge the groundwater supply. This has become a very popular method of conserving water especially in the urban areas. Rainwater harvesting essentially means collecting rainwater on the roofs of building and storing it underground for later use. Not only does this recharging arrest groundwater depletion, it also raises the declining water table and can help augment water supply. Conservation of water in the agricultural sector is essential since water is necessary for the growth of plants and crops. A depleting water table and a rise in salinity due to overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has made matters serious. Various methods of water harvesting and recharging have been and are being applied all over the world to tackle the problem. In areas where rainfall is low and water is scarce, the local people have used simple techniques that are suited to their region and reduce the demand for water. Rainwater harvesting and artificial recharging are becoming very important issues. It is essential to stop the decline in groundwater levels, arrest sea-water ingress, i.e. prevent sea-water from moving landward, and conserve surface water run-off during the rainy season.
The international conference People, Wildlife, and Hunting: Emerging Conservation Paradigms brought together hunters, outfitters, community representatives, wildlife managers, researchers and conservationists from across Canada and overseas to explore the relationship linking trophy hunting, wildlife conservation, large-mammal management, community economies, and community sustainability in rural areas. This report focuses more particularly (but not exclusively) upon community-based conservation hunting programs operating in the Canadian North. Papers by: William A. Wall; Peter J. Ewins; James Pokiak; Sylvia Birkholz, Naomi Krogman, Marty Luckert and Kelly Semple; Jon Hutton; George W. Wenzel and Martha Dowsley; H. Dean Cluff and Ernie Campbell; Frank Pokiak; Kai Wollscheid; Lee Foote; Graham Van Tighem, Thomas S. Jung, and Michelle Oakley; Drikus Gissing; Marco Fiesta-Bianchet; Barney Smith and Harvey Jessup;
The energy world is dangerously divided between fossil fuel producers and environmentalists. A vicious head-on fight that affects everything - world poverty, governments, environmental catastrophe, big business. David Howell - Lord Howell of Guidlford - outlines the how we got here and the way ahead
Local campaigns are the most persistent and ubiquitous forms of environmental contention. National and transnational mobilisations come and go and the attention they receive from mass media ebbs and flows, but local campaigns persist. The persistence or re-emergence of local campaigns is also a reminder that it remain possible to mobilise people around environmental issues, and they have often served as sources of innovation in and re-invigoration of national organisations that have allegedly been co-opted by the powerful and incorporated into the established political and administrative system. But local environmental campaigns have been relatively neglected in the scientific literature. Drawing on examples from Britain, France, Greece, Ireland and Italy, this book seeks to redress that neglect by examining the networks among actors and organisations that connect local mobilizations to the larger environmental movement and political systems, the ways in which local disputes are framed in order to connect with national and global issues, and the persistent impacts of the peculiarities of place upon environmental campaigns. This book was previously published as a special issue of Environmental Politics
This volume summarizes the origins and development of the organization ecology approach to the study of interest representation and lobbying, and outlines an agenda for future research. Multiple authors from different countries and from different perspectives contribute their analysis of this research program.
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