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Written by the pioneers of Viagra, the first blockbuster PDE
Authored by the world's leading kinase experts, this is a comprehensive introduction to current knowledge and practice within this emerging field. Following an overview of the major players and pathways that define the kinome, the major part of this work is devoted to current strategies of kinome investigation and manipulation. As such, kinase engineering, peptide substrate engineering, co-substrate design and kinase inhibitor design are discussed in detail, and their potential applications in kinome analysis and kinome-based pharmacotherapy are shown. The result is a toolbox for every kinase researcher: By addressing and comparing current approaches to the study of kinase action, both novice and established researchers will benefit from the practical knowledge contained in this invaluable reference.
This book presents basic and extensive information on the physiological and pathological significance of the protein-modifying enzymes, transglutaminases, which are involved in multiple biological events by catalyzing a unique and important posttranslational modification reaction, cross-linking of proteins, and interacting with a large number of proteins inside and outside of cells. Although several of their essential physiological roles have been revealed, many unknown and so far not fully understood functions have remained. In humans, there are eight active isozymes having distinct tissue and subcellular distribution patterns with different substrates and physiological roles. Accordingly, aberrant regulation of the enzyme reactions or expression may lead to or has been implicated in various pathologies including neurodegeneration, fibrosis, cancer, inflammation, celiac disease, and hemostasis disorders.To provide those who are new to the field with basic knowledge and recent information on transglutaminase structures and reactions, the mechanism by which transglutaminases modify substrate proteins and their contributions to multiple biological phenomena as well as disease phenotypes, the publication of the present transglutaminase book was planned, to consist of review articles by 17 expert investigators working in this exciting area of research. The book contains detailed information related to several transglutaminases from aspects in chemical and cellular biology, medical sciences, and biotechnology that will also supply starting points for drug discovery. Although many prominent findings have been published in recent years, this type of comprehensive review book has been missing in the scientific literature. This volume will be useful for investigators who either currently work on or will start addressing transglutaminase-related research, and beyond that, for a broad audience in the scientific community.
The past decade has seen the reappearance of natural products as a valuable source of potent therapeutics. Here, experts on bioactive natural products cover the full spectrum of clinically relevant enzymes that are known to be targeted by natural products. Key enzymes include acetylcholine esterase, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme, cyclooxygenase, dihydrofolate reductase, phospholipase A2, respiratory complexes, and many more. By connecting the diversity of medicinal natural product sources with their potential clinical applications, this volume serves as a companion for the medicinal chemist looking for innovative small molecule compounds as well as for pharmacologist interested in the clinical effects and mode of action of herbal and traditional medicines.
This text examines in detail mathematical and physical modeling, computational methods and systems for obtaining and analyzing biological structures, using pioneering research cases as examples. As such, it emphasizes programming and problem-solving skills. It provides information on structure bioinformatics at various levels, with individual chapters covering introductory to advanced aspects, from fundamental methods and guidelines on acquiring and analyzing genomics and proteomics sequences, the structures of protein, DNA and RNA, to the basics of physical simulations and methods for conformation searches. This book will be of immense value to researchers and students in the fields of bioinformatics, computational biology and chemistry. Dr. Dongqing Wei is a Professor at the Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China. His research interest is in the general area of structural bioinformatics.
The best of enzymatic and organic synthesis.
Enzyme biocatalysis is a fast-growing area in process biotechnology that has expanded from the traditional fields of foods, detergents, and leather applications to more sophisticated uses in the pharmaceutical and fine-chemicals sectors and environmental management. Conventional applications of industrial enzymes are expected to grow, with major opportunities in the detergent and animal feed sectors, and new uses in biofuel production and human and animal therapy. In order to design more efficient enzyme reactors and evaluate performance properly, sound mathematical expressions must be developed which consider enzyme kinetics, material balances, and eventual mass transfer limitations. With a focus on problem solving, each chapter provides abridged coverage of the subject, followed by a number of solved problems illustrating resolution procedures and the main concepts underlying them, plus supplementary questions and answers. Based on more than 50 years of teaching experience, Problem Solving in Enzyme Biocatalysis is a unique reference for students of chemical and biochemical engineering, as well as biochemists and chemists dealing with bioprocesses. Contains: Enzyme properties and applications; enzyme kinetics; enzyme reactor design and operation 146 worked problems and solutions in enzyme biocatalysis.
This second edition of a bestselling textbook offers an instructive and comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of biocatalysis and enzyme technology. The book now contains about 40% more printed content. Three chapters are completely new, while the others have been thoroughly updated, and a section with problems and solutions as well as new case studies have been added. Following an introduction to the history of enzyme applications, the text goes on to cover in depth enzyme mechanisms and kinetics, production, recovery, characterization and design by protein engineering. The authors treat a broad range of applications of soluble and immobilized biocatalysts, including wholecell systems, the use of non-aqueous reaction systems, applications in organic synthesis, bioreactor design and reaction engineering. Methods to estimate the sustainability, important internet resources and their evaluation, and legislation concerning the use of biocatalysts are also covered.
An important reference for researchers in the field of metal-enzyme hybrid catalysis Artificial Metalloenzymes and MetalloDNAzymes in Catalysis offers a comprehensive review of the most current strategies, developed over recent decades, for the design, synthesis, and optimization of these hybrid catalysts as well as material about their application. The contributors--noted experts in the field--present information on the preparation, characterization, and optimization of artificial metalloenzymes in a timely and authoritative manner. The authors present a thorough examination of this interesting new platform for catalysis that combines the excellent selective recognition/binding properties of enzymes with transition metal catalysts. The text includes information on the various applications of metal-enzyme hybrid catalysts for novel reactions, offers insights into the latest advances in the field, and contains an informative perspective on the future: Explores the development of artificial metalloenzymes, the modern and strongly evolving research field on the verge of industrial application Contains a comprehensive reference to the research area of metal-enzyme hybrid catalysis that has experienced tremendous growth in recent years Includes contributions from leading researchers in the field Shows how this new catalysis combines the selective recognition/binding properties of enzymes with transition metal catalysts Written for catalytic chemists, bioinorganic chemists, biochemists, and organic chemists, Artificial Metalloenzymes and MetalloDNAzymes in Catalysis offers a unique reference to the fundamentals, concepts, applications, and the most recent developments for more efficient and sustainable synthesis.
In this first comprehensive resource to cover the application of
single molecule techniques to biological measurements, the pioneers
in the field show how to both set up and interpret a single
Offers an integrated overview of enzyme use in household detergents, from product development and manufacturing to safety and health-related issues. The text details the major types of enzymes, structure-function relationships, life cycle analyses, protein-engineering techniques, cleaning mechanisms, and past, present and future applications.
This book provides the basis for understanding the elastic properties of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), the methods used to manipulate them (e.g. optical, magnetic and acoustic tweezers and traps), and how to observe their interactions with proteins (e.g. fluorescence microscopy, FCS, FRET, etc.). It then exemplifies the use of these various methods in the study of three families of DNA enzymes: polymerases, helicases and topoisomerases. The book aims not to be exhaustive, but rather to stimulate the imagination of readers in the application of these single molecule approaches to the study of DNA/RNA and their interactions.
Modern Methods in Carbohydrate Synthesis presents in one volume a
sequence of chapters leading from classical methods through to
today's newest state-of -the-art technology for oligosaccharide
synthesis. It places particular emphasis on the most recent
breakthroughs in the field, including emerging technologies for
both oligosaccharide and glycoconjugate synthesis. Chapters
describing the synthesis of increasingly important glycosidic
linkage analogs, as well as the oligosaccharides containing
derivatives and analogs of natural sugars are included. While
chemical-synthetic methods constitute the major part of the book,
completing the volume is a section on the rapidly expanding and
important field of enzymatic synthesis, also covering combined
chemical and enzymatic synthesis.
The reduction of nitrate to nitrogen by metalloenzymes is a vital step in the nitrogen cycle. The importance of this pathway has inspired efforts to understand in greater depth the mechanisms involved. This book presents and discusses the latest information on multiple aspects of denitrification. Written by recognized specialists in the field, this book describes the bioinorganic aspects and the key enzymes involved in denitrification, including their structure, function and mechanisms. Active site modelling, novel methodologies for monitoring denitrification in vivo and biotechnological methods for water treatment are discussed. The book also focusses on the environmental implications of denitrification, such nitrate accumulation and the release of nitrous oxide into the atmosphere from excessive fertiliser use. An important topic in many biological, environmental and agricultural contexts, this book will aid teaching and help bioinorganic chemists and biotechnologists gain an up-to-date picture of the science behind the denitrification process.
This book summarizes the most recent progress in the studies of lipid mediators from the molecular to clinical level and introduces newly created tools for analysis including imaging mass spectrometry. Comprising 29 chapters divided into four major parts, the book describes the molecular natures of enzymes, transporters, and receptors for lipid mediators (Part I), the function of lipid mediators in Drosophila and Zebrafish (Part II), the relationships between lipid mediators and various diseases (Part III), and detailed procedures of extraction, preparation, and quantification of lipid mediators (Part IV). Research on lipid mediators initially started with analysis of the action of aspirin, and subsequent biochemical experiments identified many enzymes and receptors responsible for the biosynthesis and signal transduction of individual lipid mediators. Through the phenotypic analyses of transgenic and knockout mice, it has been shown that the dysregulation of some lipid mediators causes inflammatory, immune, or oncogenic disorders. Lipid mediators have attracted increased attention because their structures are conserved among different species, and their biosynthetic and signaling pathways have been deciphered at the molecular level. Many drugs that target lipid mediators are already being used in hospitals, and this book suggests further possibilities for development of a wide variety of such drugs. Very recently, highly sensitive mass spectrometry has begun to be used to identify novel lipid mediators that are present only in trace amounts in tissues but with robust biological activity. Written by international experts, this book provides readers a comprehensive view of lipid mediators and related topics and helps in the process of determining research targets for the near future.
The book will cover the bio-, inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry of molybdenum containing enzymes, including mononuclear molybdenum-containing enzymes, the complex Fe/Mo enzyme nitrogenase, and also tungsten enzymes. The full range of physicochemical methods that are used to investigate their and function will be covered. There has been no comprehensive book in this area for the past 30 years, despite great progress in our understanding of molybdenum enzymes and relevant inorganic complexes of molybdenum, and as a result the proposed book will both fill an enormous gap in coverage of the field and at the same time document the latest research. The book will be useful for workers in the field of metal-containing enzymes, graduate students and young investigators interested in developing new research programs in the area. It will also serve as a useful reference for researchers outside the field. Cross promotion: Journals: Dalton Transactions and Metallomics. Books: "Iron-Containing Enzymes", Visser and Kumar, 2011; "Binding, Transport and Storage of Metal Ions in Biological Cells", Maret and Wedd, 2014.
Based on results previously restricted for military use and inaccessible to the public, this practice-oriented handbook introduces the use of enzymes for fast and efficient decontamination of B/C weapons in various scenarios, including terrorist attacks. It draws on the internationally recognized technological leadership of the German armed forces, whose anti-B/C technology is among the most advanced worldwide. The text is rounded off with a look at future perspectives.
This book is a compilation of articles on various aspects of bioresources and the processes employed for its judicious utilization. Biodiversity and conservation, food security, gene banks and repositories, laws governing biodiversity, bioprospecting, bioresources in traditional medicine and biodiversity mining are some of the important topics covered in the book. The unique contents of the book make it an important source of information for conservation scientists, academics, activists and to those who are actively involved in product oriented research from bioresources.
Presenting a comprehensive overview of the multifaceted field of proteases in the extracellular matrix environment, this reference focuses on the recently elucidated functions of complex proteolytic systems in physiological and pathological tissue remodeling. The proteases treated include both serine proteases such as plasminogen activators and TTSPs, metalloproteases such as MMPs and ADAMS and cysteine protease cathepsins. The text specifically addresses the role of extracellular proteases in cancer cell invasion, stroke and infectious diseases, describing the basic biochemistry behind these disease states, as well as therapeutic strategies based on protease inhibition. With its trans-disciplinary scope, this reference bridges the gap between fundamental research and biomedical and pharmaceutical application, making this required reading for basic and applied scientists in the molecular life sciences.
This enzymology textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students covers the syllabi of most universities where this subject is regularly taught. It focuses on the synchrony between the two broad mechanistic facets of enzymology: the chemical and the kinetic, and also highlights the synergy between enzyme structure and mechanism. Designed for self-study, it explains how to plan enzyme experiments and subsequently analyze the data collected. The book is divided into five major sections: 1] Introduction to enzymes, 2] Practical aspects, 3] Kinetic Mechanisms, 4] Chemical Mechanisms, and 5] Enzymology Frontiers. Individual concepts are treated as stand-alone chapters; readers can explore any single concept with minimal cross-referencing to the rest of the book. Further, complex approaches requiring specialized techniques and involved experimentation (beyond the reach of an average laboratory) are covered in theory with suitable references to guide readers. The book provides students, researchers and academics in the broad area of biology with a sound theoretical and practical knowledge of enzymes. It also caters to those who do not have a practicing enzymologist to teach them the subject.
This volume covers the science of ALDH enzymes in relation to chronic disease processes and the future therapeutic potentials of targeting ALDH in these processes. It thoroughly reviews the roles of ALDH family in alcohol metabolism, as well as recent findings of their emerging roles in a variety of human pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, stroke, cancer, liver diseases and kidney diseases. Delicate contribution of ALDH enzymes in the therapeutics against chronic diseases is also discussed. It demonstrates the unique value of targeting genetic polymorphism in ALDH enzymes in personalized medicine. The book will appeal to scientists, physicians, graduate and professional students in the fields of ALDH enzymes, alcohol metabolism, cardiometabolic and other chronic diseases. Pharmaceutical and other companies developing new tools for cardiometabolic and chronic diseases treatment will also find this a valuable resource.
Aerobic organisms have evolved to utilise the intrinsic oxidising power of oxygen from the atmosphere. This so-called 'activation' of oxygen is often catalysed by a heme-containing enzyme. This book highlights the many and varied catalytic activities of O2-dependent heme-iron enzymes, including monoxygenases and cytochrome P450, dioxygenases, oxidases and model heme systems. Dioxygen-dependent Heme Enzymes will be a useful resource for postgraduate students and researchers in biochemistry and metallobiology working in, or moving into, research areas involving heme proteins.
This volume focuses on screening and profiling kinase inhibitors or activators. Chapters in this book cover several facets of the drug discovery processes starting with target identification, and assay development and screening chemical libraries for hit identification and lead optimization. The profiling portion of Kinase Screening and Profiling: Methods and Protocols discusses several strategies and techniques that are required to minimize off target hits and reduce cellular toxicities that are caused by liability kinases. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Timely and authoritative, Kinase Screening and Profiling: Methods and Protocols, will benefit scientists and researchers who are interested in exploring the role of kinases in academic, as well as pharmaceutical research.
Filling a gap in the literature, leading expert editor5s and top international authors present he field of biooxidation from an academic and industrial point of view, taking many examples from modern pharmaceutical research. Topics range from the characterization to technical applications of different oxidoreductases, making this volume of high interest not only for those working in biotechnology but also for organic synthetic chemists, among others.
Keywords: Biocatalytic Applications of PQQ-and FAD-Dependent Dehydrogenases, Laccase, Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenases, and Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases Bioreactors for Drug-Discovery, -Development and -Biotechnology Engineering Substrate Specificity; Enantio-and Regioselectivity Approaches to Cofactor Recycling and Substituting
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