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I m going to love my baby and give her lots of attention, Jade said. I ll show my mum she s wrong.
Jade, 17, is pregnant, homeless and alone when she s brought to live with Cathy. Jade is desperate to keep her baby, but little more than a child herself, she struggles with the responsibilities her daughter brings.
Cathy is worried as soon as Jade arrives: she s never looked after a pregnant teenager before, but none of the mother and baby carers is free, and seventeen years old, seven months pregnant and homeless Jade is in a desperate situation.
But Jade doesn t want to listen or advice and although her daughter is born safely it isn t long before Jade s in trouble with the police.
Cathy knows that Jade loves her daughter with all her heart, but will she be able to get through to Jade in time to make her realise just how much she might lose?"
aAt her best, Moore has a frank, breezy manner that may be partly
due to her practical experience outside academe. . . . Sperm Counts
is a lively, funny read.a
aWhile nearly every point she makes about the hidden significance of sperm is a home run, ultimately, this is an academic sociological study written in an appropriately starchy style. . . . [that] results in a fascinating read packed with conclusions.a -- "City Paper"
aSo fascinating and fresh. . . . Should be required reading for scholars in sexuality/queer studies, womenas and gender studies, social studies of science and cultural studies. . .. Essential.a--"Choice"
aSperm Counts is careful to include the history of semen
research, as well as examining its role today. . . . [Moore]
approach[es] the topic of semen with precision and
aCartoon line-drawings of sperm wriggle over each page of text
in this dissection of the ways societal views of sperm shape
culture. A feminist account backed by sociological and scientific
research, Mooreas academic tome is accessible to the masses.a
Moore has analyzed religious, social, erotic and medical-scientifc investments in sperm, singular and plural.a--"Feminist Review"
aIn Sperm Counts, Moore's new book about the cultural meanings
of sperm, she tells this story to illustrate her own childhood
naivetA(c) about a substance that, as she now sees it, is far from
simple. These days, according to Moore, sperm has tremendous
cultural meaning--and looking at it in its many contexts, from
children's books to pornography, can tell us a great deal about the
skittish state of American masculinity. . . .Sperm Counts is a
serious book, and the first on its subject. But it also includes
anecdotes from Mooreas life, lending it a more conversational tone
than most academic works. The bookas margins are even squiggled
with sketches of sperm--flip the pages and they swim around. (This
is a subject matter, after all, that requires a certain degree of
levity.) Moore happily lists spermatic nicknames (ababy gravy, a
agentlemenas relish, a apimp juicea) before skewering, in a later
chapter, the burgeoning home sperm-test industry (sample ad slogan:
aI donat know how that semen got in my underwear!a).a
a[Moore] examines how sperm is seen through a variety of social
lenses, including pornography, sperm banking, childrenas books on
reproduction and criminal DNA evidence.a
aIrresistable. . . . A really rich read.a
aIncredibly well researched and captivating read.a
aA clever yet comprehensive look at the asubstancea of manhood.
Moore goes where few scholars dare to tread, and uses bodily fluids
as a revealing window through which to observe the current nature
of sexuality and gender relations.a
aSperm Counts is a serious book, and the first on its subject.
But it also includes anecdotes from Moore's life, lending it a more
conversational tone than most academic works. The book's margins
are even squiggled with sketches of sperm -- flip the pages and
they swim around. (This is a subject matter, after all, that
requires a certain degree of levity.) Moore happily lists spermatic
nicknames ("baby gravy," "gentlemen'srelish," "pimp juice") before
skewering, in a later chapter, the burgeoning home sperm-test
industry (sample ad slogan: "I don't know how that semen got in my
"In this intriguing feminist sociological account of sperm,
Moore takes a subject we think we knew all about and proceeds to
examine the multi-dimensional facets of its cultural subtexts. What
is so unusual about this provocative book is the way Moore meshes
history, technology, medicine, criminology, gender studies,
children's books, and porn in her depiction of sperm as a
manifestation of masculinity. Sperm Counts is witty, erudite, and
informative-- a gem of social constructionist scholarship."
aMoore has crafted a smart and surprisingly funny book about
semen. Original and refreshing, Sperm Counts follows the alittle
guysa through laboratories, childrenas books, sex work, crime
scenes, and bodies, illuminating varied meanings and
representations of manhood and masculinity. This is engaged
feminist scholarship at its best.a
It has been called sperm, semen, seed, cum, jizz, spunk, gentlemen's relish, and splooge. But however the "tacky, opaque liquid that comes out of the penis" is described, the very act of defining "sperm" and "semen" depends on your point of view. For Lisa Jean Moore, how sperm comes to be known is based on who defines it (a scientist vs. a defense witness, for example), under what social circumstances it is found (a doctor's office vs. a crime scene), and for what purposes it will be used (invitro fertilization vs. DNA analysis). Examining semen historically, medically, and culturally, Sperm Counts is a penetrating exploration of its meaning and power.
Using a "follow that sperm" approach, Moore shows how representations of sperm and semen are always in flux, tracing their twisting journeys from male reproductive glands to headline news stories and presidential impeachment trials. Much like the fluid of semen itself can leak onto fabrics and into bodies, its meanings seep into our consciousness over time. Moore's analytic lens yields intriguing observations of how sperm is "spent" and "reabsorbed" as it spurts, swims, and careens through penises, vaginas, test tubes, labs, families, cultures, and politics.
Drawn from fifteen years of research, Sperm Counts examines historical and scientific documents, children's "facts of life" books, pornography, the Internet, forensic transcripts and sex worker narratives to explain how semen got so complicated. Among other things, understanding how we produce, represent, deploy and institutionalize semen-biomedically, socially and culturally-provides valuable new perspectives on the changing social position of men and the evolving meanings of masculinity. Ultimately, as Moore reveals, sperm is intimately involved in not only the physical reproduction of males and females, but in how we come to understand ourselves as men and women.
View the Table of Contents
aThoughtful, persuasive, solidly constructed, and likely to endure the test of time.a--"Choice"
aHalf the 14 essays in this interdisciplinary study of
seventeenth- through nineteenth-century America are
reprints--though it's useful to have work that appeared in academic
journals collected in one place. Among original work, Ramon A.
Gutierrez's revisionist perspective on Native American "berdache"
will raise the most eyebrows: rather than exalt their same-sex
spirituality, fashionable among gay liberationists and radical
faeries alike, the author's theory is that they led lives of sexual
ahumiliation and endless work, not of celebration and veneration.a
Among the reprints, Caleb Crain's account of a romantic triangle
among three Philadelphia men that began in 1786, culled from their
diaries, is the sweetest. Several essays draw on court records
dating back as far as three hundred years to unearth queer lives,
while others glean an intriguing and instructive glimpse of the
past through a reading of Colonial-era fiction and
aIlluminate[s] the complexity, breadth, and social impact of sexuality in history.a--"The Gay & Lesbian Review"
aAn excellent introduction to the dynamic new work on sexuality
in colonial and early national America, which not only expands our
understanding of early America but forces us to rethink paradigms
and periodizations that have long governed histories of sexuality
in the U.S. A valuable contribution.a
aThis splendid collection illustrates the maturation of lesbian
and gay history. The early American era emerges as arich period for
understanding same-sex desire in both law and culture. It also
proves critical for re-evaluating the dominant interpretations of
the emergence of modern homosexual identities.a
aThis book fills a huge gap in research on same-sex sexuality,
and usefully complicates our historical understanding of acts and
identities. Long before Stonewall there were sexual identities! But
their character will surprise you.a
aRepresents an important contribution to American historical and sexuality studies.a--"The Gay & Lesbian Review/Worldwide"
"A major, ground-breaking study of early America. Readers will
come away with a fresh sense of the centrality of sexuality to any
understanding of the formation of the new Republic."
"This splendid collection, interdisciplinary but deeply
historical, illustrates the maturation of lesbian and gay history
as it has expanded its chronological and regional scope and its
Although the 1969 Stonewall riots in New York City symbolically mark the start of the gay rights movement, individuals came together long before the modern era to express their same-sex romantic and sexual attraction toward one another, and in a myriad of ways. Some reflected on their desires in quiet solitude, while others endured verbal, physical, and legal harassment for publicly expressing homosexual interest through words or actions.
Long Before Stonewall seeks touncover the many iterations of same-sex desire in colonial America and the early Republic, as well as to expand the scope of how we define and recognize homosocial behavior. Thomas A. Foster has assembled a path-breaking, interdisciplinary collection of original and classic essays that explore topics ranging from homoerotic imagery of black men to prison reform to the development of sexual orientations. This collection spans a regional and temporal breadth that stretches from the colonial Southwest to Quaker communities in New England. It also includes a challenge to commonly accepted understandings of the Native American berdache. Throughout, connections of race, class, status, and gender are emphasized, exposing the deep foundations on which modern sexual political movements and identities are built.
Positive and practical, this guide is designed to offer a route to recovery from grief and loss after adoption or long-term foster care. Children growing up in adoptive families or foster care often have complicated feelings about the loss of their birth parents - feelings which become all the more complex as they gain independence and become young adults, and which can endure throughout their lives. Common life events such as entering new relationships, building a family or losing a loved one can give rise to difficult questions about their own childhood and identity. In this book, Renee Wolfs provides an accessible explanation of the feelings of loss and grief commonly experienced by adults who grew up in adoptive families or foster care, and how debilitating they can be. She provides grounded advice and strategies to aid recovery and provides the reader with a useful tool: The Circle of Connecting. The Circle provides strategies for healing from loss, spanning all seven elements of your life: your body, mind, heart, environment, past, present and future. This book is essential reading for older teens and adults who need help in addressing feelings of grief and loss, as well as those who support them including adoptive and foster parents, social workers, counsellors and therapists.
American families today are often noted for their wide variety of guises. Among the mix are single-parent families, childless-by-choice marriages, nuclear families, multigenerational families, and same-sex couples. This diversity among family life that has come under the scrutiny of everyone from politicians to the media, however, is not a recent development of contemporary culture. Although nuclear families with a mother, father, and children tend to be the presumed historic norm, people have always resided, to varying extents, in an assortment of family formations. Bringing together essays by twenty-one distinguished scholars who have helped shape the field of family sociology in the last decade, this interdisciplinary anthology examines variation within family experience, especially as it has evolved across racial, ethnic, social, gender, and generational lines. The essays place historical and institutional frameworks at the center of the discussion. Part one focuses on the development of socially constructed dominant ideologies, demographic shifts in family composition, and historical perspectives on family rituals and mythmaking, including courtship practices and family bonding time. Essays in the second part provide a historical perspective on the interdependence between the family as a social institution and other institutions. Selections highlight changes in women's roles, the impact of economic, racial, and social inequalities on household labor and child care, the effects of war and military service, and the implications of the political climate for family welfare policy. In-depth chapter introductions, along with critical questions to spark class discussion make this an ideal text for courses focusing on family composition, trends, and controversies in the United States.
The ultimate guide to finding your soul mate -- for the smart, sophisticated 35+ womanAre you looking for the right man with whom to spend the rest of your life? Still waiting for "the one" and fed up with dates that go nowhere? Janis Spindel, called a "matchmaker extraordinaire" by the New York Post, has all the advice you need to help you find your perfect match. With more than seven hundred marriages to her credit, Spindel lays out a clear road map for women who are single -- but don't want to be. She explains how to set your priorities, update your look, maximize your dating opportunities, and enter into a lasting and satisfying commitment. Get ready to succeed with helpful questionnaires, sidebars, lively tips, and candid, age-specific advice geared toward women who are already established in their lives and careers.And here's the great news: The marriage of your dreams is within reach! Prepare to laugh, prepare to do some serious thinking, and prepare to find the love of your life with this ultimate guide to unlocking your soul mate's heart -- and your own.
While the practice of surrogacy has existed for millennia, new fertility technologies have allowed women to act as gestational surrogates, carrying children that are not genetically their own. While some women volunteer to act as gestational surrogates for friends or family members, others get paid for performing this service. The first ethnographic study of gestational surrogacy in the United States, Labor of Love examines the conflicted attitudes that emerge when the ostensibly priceless act of bringing a child into the world becomes a paid occupation. Heather Jacobson interviews not only surrogate mothers, but also their family members, the intended parents who employ surrogates, and the various professionals who work to facilitate the process. Seeking to understand how gestational surrogates perceive their vocation, she discovers that many regard surrogacy as a calling, but are reluctant to describe it as a job. In the process, Jacobson dissects the complex set of social attitudes underlying this resistance toward conceiving of pregnancy as a form of employment. Through her extensive field research, Jacobson gives readers a firsthand look at the many challenges faced by gestational surrogates, who deal with complicated medical procedures, delicate work-family balances, and tricky social dynamics. Yet Labor of Love also demonstrates the extent to which advances in reproductive technology are affecting all Americans, changing how we think about maternity, family, and the labor involved in giving birth.
The Cambridge Handbook of the Global Work-Family Interface is a response to growing interest in understanding how people manage their work and family lives across the globe. Given global and regional differences in cultural values, economies, and policies and practices, research on work-family management is not always easily transportable to different contexts. Researchers have begun to acknowledge this, conducting research in various national settings, but the literature lacks a comprehensive source that aims to synthesize the state of knowledge, theoretical progression, and identification of the most compelling future research ideas within field. The Cambridge Handbook of the Global Work-Family Interface aims to fill this gap by providing a single source where readers can find not only information about the general state of global work-family research, but also comprehensive reviews of region-specific research. It will be of value to researchers, graduate students, and practitioners of applied and organizational psychology, management, and family studies.
This book challenges prevailing assumptions about family, courts of law, and the nature of modernity in Muslim societies against the backdrop of Haifa and Jaffa during ""the long nineteenth century"". The popular image of the family and the court of law in Muslim societies is one of traditional, unchanging social frameworks. Iris Agmon suggests an entirely different view, grounded in a detailed study of nineteenth-century Ottoman court records from the flourishing Palestinian port cities of Haifa and Jaffa. She depicts the Sharia Muslim court of law as a dynamic institution, capable of adapting to rapid and profound social changes - indeed, of playing an active role in generating these changes. Court and family interact and transform themselves, each other, and the society of which they form part. Agmon's book is a significant contribution to scholarship on both family history and legal culture in the social history of the Middle East.
"One of the best books written about interracial relationships to date. . . . Childs offers a sophisticated and insightful analysis of the social and ideological context of black-white interracial relationships." --Heather Dalmage, author of Tripping on the Color Line "A pioneering project that thoroughly analyzes interracial marriage in contemporary America." --Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, author of Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and The Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States Is love color-blind, or at least becoming increasingly so? Today's popular rhetoric and evidence of more interracial couples than ever might suggest that it is. But is it the idea of racially mixed relationships that we are growing to accept or is it the reality? What is the actual experience of individuals in these partnerships as they navigate their way through public spheres and intermingle in small, close-knit communities? In Navigating Interracial Borders, Erica Chito Childs explores the social world of black-white interracial couples and examines the ways that collective attitudes shape private relationships. Drawing on personal accounts, in-depth interviews, focus group responses, and cultural analysis of media sources, she provides compelling evidence that sizable opposition still exists toward black-white unions. Disapproval is merely being expressed in more subtle, color-blind terms. Childs reveals that frequently the same individuals who attest in surveys that they approve of interracial dating will also list various reasons why they and their families wouldn't, shouldn't, and couldn't marry someone of another race. Even college students, who are heralded as racially tolerant and open-minded, do not view interracial couples as acceptable when those partnerships move beyond the point of casual dating. Popular films, Internet images, and pornography also continue to reinforce the idea that sexual relations between blacks and whites are deviant. Well-researched, candidly written, and enriched with personal narratives, Navigating Interracial Boundaries offers important new insights into the still fraught racial hierarchies of contemporary society in the United States. Erica Chito Childs is an assistant professor of sociology at Eastern Connecticut State University.
Social workers are constantly making decisions under pressure. How do policy, law, research and theory influence what they do? This important book provides the answers with a crystal-clear map of the field of social work with children and families. Focused on four major themes - family support work, child protection, adoption and fostering, and residential child care, and reveals in detail all the challenges that social workers face every day. Edited by the highly respected Martin Davies, this authoritative and illuminating book argues that the skill of the social worker can have life-enhancing consequences for some of the most vulnerable people in society. It is an essential investment for students, educators and practitioners alike.
Sex: Vice and Love from Antiquity to Modernity examines the impact that sexual fantasies about the classical world have had on modern Western culture. * Offers a wealth of information on sex in the Greek and Roman world * Correlates the study of classical sexuality with modern Western cultures * Identifies key influential themes in the evolution of erotic discourse from antiquity to modernity * Presents a serious and thought-provoking topic with great accessibility
"In vivid portraits drawn from the top and bottom of the social-class ladder, Hansen shows the profound effect social class has on care. Well observed, beautifully written, this book is a must read." --Arlie Hochschild, author of The Commercialization of Intimate Lives: Notes from Home and Work "Not-So-Nuclear Families explains the often painful choices that parents have to make for their children's--and their own--well-being." --Barbara Schnieder, professor of sociology and human development, director of the Data Research and Development Center, and codirector of the Alfred P. Sloan Center on Parents, Children, and Work at the University of Chicago In recent years, U.S. public policy has focused on strengthening the nuclear family as a primary strategy for improving the lives of America's youth. It is often assumed that this normative type of family is an independent, self-sufficient unit adequate for raising children. But half of all households in the United States with young children have two employed parents. How do working parents provide care and mobilize the help that they need? In Not-So-Nuclear Families, Karen V. Hansen investigates the lives of working parents and the informal networks they construct to help care for their children. She chronicles the conflicts, hardships, and triumphs of four families of various social classes. Each must navigate the ideology that mandates that parents, mothers in particular, rear their own children, in the face of an economic reality that requires that parents rely on the help of others. In vivid family stories, parents detail how they and their network of friends, paid caregivers, and extended kin collectively close the "care gap" for their school-aged children. Hansen not only debunks the myth that families in the United States are independent, isolated, and self-reliant units, she breaks new theoretical ground by asserting that informal networks of care can potentially provide unique and valuable bonds that nuclear families cannot. Karen V. Hansen is an associate professor of sociology and women's studies at Brandeis University and is the coeditor of Families in the U.S.: Kinship and Domestic Politics.
Today, approximately 1.6 million American children live in what social scientists call "grandfamilies"-households in which children are being raised by their grandparents. In You've Always Been There for Me, Rachel Dunifon uses data gathered from grandfamilies in New York to analyze their unique strengths and distinct needs. Though grandfamilies can benefit from the accumulated wisdom of mature adults raising children for a second time, Dunifon notes, such families also face high rates of health problems as well as parenting challenges related to a large generation gap. Grandfamilies are also largely hidden in American society, flying under the radar of social service agencies, policymakers, and family researchers. This book gives family researchers a greater understanding of a unique family form, and also offers service providers, policymakers and the general public important information about the lives of an important group of American families.
An informative, compassionate guide to the motherhood decision
Many women arent sure how to best time motherhood in their lives. Others think they may want a child but arent sure they really want to take on the responsibility. Still others want to be child-free, but they are afraid they will regret the decision later on when its too late. Do I Want to Be a Mom? offers expert information, insights, and tools necessary for each woman to make her own best choice.
Dr. Diana Dell, an expert who is board certified in both obstetrics/gynecology and psychiatry, draws on her expertise to cover the emotional, physical, sexual, social, and financial aspects of this decision. Along with award-winning writer Suzan Erem, she also provides powerful anecdotes from women who speak openly of the fears, joys, regrets, and triumphs of motherhood or being child-free.
This insightful book discusses the origins and theoretical underpinnings of family led decision making and brings together the current research on the efficacy and limitations of family group conferences into a single text.
Con este libro usted tiene la oportunidad de iniciar uno de los recoČrridos mas trascendentales de su vida, que lo llevara a reflexionar profundamente sobre como ser mejor lider, mejor profesionista, mejor padre, mejor ciudadano... en suma, mejor persona. Los 7 habitos son un compendio de la sabiduria de la humanidad presentada por Stephen R. Covey de forma sinergica. Su metodologia, simple y practica, permite enfrentar los desafios planteados por el liderazgo de nuestro tiempo, y conduce a trabajar con entusiasmo y confianza en pro de un proposito y de metas en comun. En palabras del doctor Covey, "la unica ventaja competitiva que perdura... es la que nace de una cultura organizacional de alta confianza, centrada en principios."
There is increasing Government recognition of the importance of early family experiences on long-term individual and family level outcomes and a better understanding of how inter-parental conflict influences children's development is key to helping practitioners and policy makers promote improved outcomes for children. This accessible book reviews recent research showing how children who experience high levels of inter-parental conflict are at serious risk not only in terms of their own well-being, but also in relation to the perpetuation of these behaviours later in life. It examines the differences between 'destructive' and 'constructive' conflict and how they affect children, explores why some children are more adversely affected than others, and features the latest evidence on how conflict impacts on child physiology. Of particular note is the book's focus on the growing literature on conflict interventions that have shown an expansion of evidence within the last decade. A primer for practitioners working with families, policy makers, students and academics, it will show how to improve the tomorrows for children who experience challenging family experiences today.
For seven years in the 1970s, the author lived in a village in northeast China as an ordinary farmer. In 1989, he returned to the village as an anthropologist to begin the unparalleled span of eleven years' fieldwork that has resulted in this book-a comprehensive, vivid, and nuanced account of family change and the transformation of private life in rural China from 1949 to 1999. The author's focus on the personal and the emotional sets this book apart from most studies of the Chinese family. Yan explores private lives to examine areas of family life that have been largely overlooked, such as emotion, desire, intimacy, privacy, conjugality, and individuality. He concludes that the past five decades have witnessed a dual transformation of private life: the rise of the private family, within which the private lives of individual women and men are thriving.
The first in a series of books from foster carer Casey Watson.
We re hungry, his brother cried. We re hungry, Justin. Please find us some food.
Justin was five years old; his brothers two and three. Their mother, a heroin addict, had left them alone again. Later that day, after trying to burn down the family home, Justin was taken into care.
Justin was taken into care at the age of five after deliberately burning down his family home. Six years on, after 20 failed placements, Justin arrives at Casey s home. Casey and her husband Mike are specialist foster carers. They practice a new style of foster care that focuses on modifying the behaviour of profoundly damaged children. They are Justin s last hope, and it quickly becomes clear that they are facing a big challenge.
Try as they might to make him welcome, he seems determined to strip his life of all the comforts they bring him, violently lashing out at schoolmates and family and throwing any affection they offer him back in their faces. After a childhood filled with hurt and rejection, Justin simply doesn t want to know. But, as it soon emerges, this is only the tip of a chilling iceberg.
A visit to Justin s mother on Boxing Day reveals that there are some very dark underlying problems that Justin has never spoken about. As the full picture becomes clearer, and the horrific truth of Justin s early life is revealed, Casey and her family finally start to understand the pain he has suffered "
In this accessible, engaging, and up-to-date course book, Susan L. Brown employs ethnographic vignettes and demographic data to introduce students to twenty-first century perspectives on contemporary families. Appropriate as a primary or secondary text in classes on family and marriage, this book probes momentous shifts in the definition of family, such as the legalization of same-sex marriage and policy debates on welfare reform and work-family issues. Brown also explores the rise in nonmarital childbearing and single-mother families and the decline of "traditional" marriage by delving into the historical roots of family change, current trends of family formation and dissolution, and the implications of family change for the well-being of adults and children. With a lens toward socioeconomic inequality and racial-ethnic variation in family patterns, Families in America illustrates how family diversity is now the norm. The Sociology in the Twenty-First Century series introduces students to a range of sociological issues of broad interest in the United States today, with each volume addressing topics such as family, race, immigration, gender, education, and social inequality. These books-intended for classroom use-will highlight findings from current, rigorous research and demographic data while including stories about people's experiences to illustrate major themes in an accessible manner. Learn more at www.ucpress.edu/go/sociologyinthe21stcentury.
An exhilarating and enchanting meditation on becoming a mother from one of America's most acclaimed writers, and winner of the National Book Award for Fiction, 2012. `She is a winter-spring baby, and all day there is just her, me, snow and the birds outside.' A mother for all seasons, Erdrich tracks the end of her pregnancy into the dazzling light of childbirth and beyond into her baby's infancy, keeping a weather-eye on Nature outside her window and inside her body, gauging its lessons and constraints. She spills over with the intense feeling a baby carries into being as its gift to its mother. But her book is no mystical trip; Erdrich is umbilically attached to the earth, and to common sense. All prospective and seasoned parents will cherish her report from the frontline, for she never lectures, she simply strives to record exactly - in language both supple and ripe. Moving and memorable, neither handbook nor tract, here, for perhaps the first time, is mothering converted into writing without fakery.
How was the law used to control sex in Tudor England? What were the differences between secular and religious practice? This major study reveals that - contrary to what historians have often supposed - in pre-Reformation England both ecclesiastical and secular (especially urban) courts were already highly active in regulating sex. They not only enforced clerical celibacy and sought to combat prostitution but also restrained the pre- and extramarital sexual activities of laypeople more generally. Initially destabilising, the religious and institutional changes of 1530-60 eventually led to important new developments that tightened the regime further. There were striking innovations in the use of shaming punishments in provincial towns and experiments in the practice of public penance in the church courts, while Bridewell transformed the situation in London. Allowing the clergy to marry was a milestone of a different sort. Together these changes contributed to a marked shift in the moral climate by 1600.
After twenty, thirty, or even forty years of marriage, countless vacations together, raising well-adjusted children, and sharing property and finances-what could go wrong? Gray Divorce offers a provocative look at the growing rate of marital splits after the age of 50, showcasing the voices of men and women who are considering, going through, or have undergone one. With empathy and insight, Jocelyn Crowley, who has written widely on family issues, uncovers the reasons for why men and women divorce-and the penalties and benefits that each pay for their choice. From the outside, many may ask why couples in mid-life and readying for retirement choose to make a drastic change in their marital status. Yet nearly 1 out of every 4 divorces is "gray." Crowley sheds light on why divorce occurs-seeing marriage in a different lens, understanding the seismic shift in individual priorities, and the impact of the increase in life expectancy. With a deft eye, she analyzes the experiences of women and men as they go through this life transition-specifically how women are affected economically while men are affected socially. With a realistic yet passionate voice, Crowley shares the personal positive outlooks and the necessary supportive public policies that must take place to best help new divorcees. Engaging and instructive, Gray Divorce is a must-read for anyone interested in contemporary American culture.
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