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If you?re an agronomist, horticulturalist, plant and soil scientist, breeder, or soil microbiologist, you?ll want to read Nutrient Use in Crop Production to find everything you need to know about judicious nutrient management and maximizing nutrient utilization in the agricultural landscape. In this book, you?ll discover ways to minimize undesirable nutrient losses and techniques for preserving the environment while meeting the challenges of providing the earth?s increasing population with sufficient food, feed, and fiber to sustain life. Your existing knowledge base concerning this vital area of science will expand and grow as you become more open to the new ideas and applications contained in Nutrient Use in Crop Production. Most importantly, you?ll avoid the narrow scope found in most crop nutrition books and take a broader, more globally minded view of how to maximize nutrient use and minimize nutrient losses in the soil of agricultural systems. Specifically, you?ll find these and other areas covered: population growth, food production, and nutrient requirements managing soil fertility decline the role of nitrogen fixation in crop production delivering fertilizers through seed coatings micronutrient fertilizers the role of nutrient-efficient crops in modern agricultureFeeding the world without depleting the world?s viable soil nutrients is a monumental task--but one that can be achieved, as evidenced in the pages of Nutrient Use in Crop Production. You and your circle of students, professionals, and administrators will benefit greatly from this in-depth view of nutrient use in both developed and non-industrialized counties to give you a better sense of how to allow both the world and the world?s crops to grow.
Natural products that have both plant growth regulatory properties and pharmaceutical properties are examined in this book. This is the first and most up-to-date text linking agrochemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry in an easy to read presentation for practitioners in both fields.
Genetic Improvement of Crops was first published in 1980. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.Recent years have seen the emergence of a number of in vitro techniques that hold promise for the genetic alteration of higher organisms by non-traditional means. These new techniques may eventually modify the genetic structure of cash crop plants and, in practical terms, may lead to substantial improvement of crop production and to disease resistance in plants.This volume brings together 10 research reports by scientists actively engaged in developing genetic techniques in plants and other organisms. The first section explores both the potential for application of these techniques and the genetic needs of plant breeders. Other sections deal with genome organization and function; recombinant DNA technology and application; gene transfer; organelle transfer; and plant tissue culture.
Dr. Smil is the world's authority on nitrogenous fertilizer. The industrial synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen has been of greater fundamental importance to the modern world than the invention of the airplane, nuclear energy, space flight, or television. The expansion of the world's population from 1.6 billion people in 1900 to today's six billion would not have been possible without the synthesis of ammonia. In Enriching the Earth, Vaclav Smil begins with a discussion of nitrogen's unique status in the biosphere, its role in crop production, and traditional means of supplying the nutrient. He then looks at various attempts to expand natural nitrogen flows through mineral and synthetic fertilizers. The core of the book is a detailed narrative of the discovery of ammonia synthesis by Fritz Haber-a discovery scientists had sought for over one hundred years-and its commercialization by Carl Bosch and the chemical company BASF. Smil also examines the emergence of the large-scale nitrogen fertilizer industry and analyzes the extent of global dependence on the Haber-Bosch process and its biospheric consequences. Finally, it looks at the role of nitrogen in civilization and, in a sad coda, describes the lives of Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch after the discovery of ammonia synthesis.
The world population is projected to reach nine billion by 2050, and in the coming years, global food demand is expected to increase by 50% or more. Higher crop productivity gains in the future will have to be achieved in developing countries through better natural resources management and crop improvement. After nitrogen, phosphorus (P) has more widespread influence on both natural and agricultural ecosystems than any other essential plant element. It has been estimated that 5.7 billion hectares of land worldwide contain insufficient amounts of available P for sustainable crop production, and P deficiency in crop plants is a widespread problem in various parts of the world. However, it has been estimated that worldwide minable P could last less than 40 years. For sustaining future food supplies, it is vital to enhance plant P use efficiency. To bring the latest knowledge and research advances in efficient management of P for economically viable and environmentally beneficial crop production in sustainable agriculture, Phosphorus Management in Crop Production contains chapters covering functions and diagnostic techniques for P requirements in crop plants, P use efficiency and interactions with other nutrients in crop plants, management of P for optimal crop production and environmental quality, and basic principles and methodology regarding P nutrition in crop plants. The majority of research data included are derived from many years of field, greenhouse, and lab work, hence the information is practical in nature and will have a significant impact on efficient management of P-fertilizers to enhance P use efficiency, improve crop production, promote sustainable agriculture, and reduce P losses through eluviations, leaching, and erosion to minimize environmental degradation. A comprehensive book that combines practical and applied information, Phosphorus Management in Crop Production is an excellent reference for students, professors, agricultural research scientists, food scientists, agricultural extension specialists, private consultants, fertilizer companies, and government agencies that deal with agricultural and environmental issues.
The authors, two of the world's leading seed scientists, provide a thorough, up-to-date and easy-to-use guide to the production, storage, and use of the seeds of all the world's major food, industrial, and commercial crops. An essential reference book for seed producers, agricultural scientists, professionals in food science development as well as plant scientists and plant breeders engaged in research.
The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering presents an in-depth examination of the principles and practice of modern day composting. This comprehensive book covers compost science, engineering design, operation, principles, and practice, stressing a fundamental approach to analysis throughout. Biological, physical, chemical, thermodynamic, and kinetic principles are covered to develop a unified analytical approach to analysis and an understanding of the process. A brief history of the development of composting systems, which leads to descriptions of modern processes, is presented.
By the year 2050, the world's population is expected to reach nine billion. To feed and sustain this projected population, world food production must increase by at least 50 percent on much of the same land that we farm today. To meet this staggering challenge, scientists must develop the technology required to achieve an "evergreen" revolution--one that increases crop productivity without degrading natural resources. With 30 percent new material, the updated and revised third edition of Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops covers all aspects of crop growth and mineral nutrition that contribute to sustainable, high-yield agriculture. Bringing together international scientific knowledge of crop production and the impacts of agriculture on the environment, this book: * Includes two new chapters on remediation of heavy-metal contaminated soils and cover crops * Covers theoretical and practical aspects of mineral nutrition of field crops * Provides recommendations for judicious use of fertilizers, which will reduce cost of crop production and enhance high crop yields without risking environmental pollution * Provides growth patterns for annual crops and forages * Includes a handful of color pictures of nutrient deficiencies for easy diagnostic purposes To make the book as practical as possible, each chapter is supported by experimental results and extensive references. A large number of figures and tables are also included to save readers time when researching. The overall emphasis of this reference is on the soil's ability to sustain high crop yields and a healthy human population.
Nitrate and nitrite are two ions largely diffused in the environment because they take part in the nitrogen cycle. Moreover, a great part of atmospheric nitrogen may be oxidized to nitrite and nitrate by microorganisms in plants, soil or water. The more stable form of oxidized nitrogen is nitrate ion, but, through microbial activity, it can be reduced to nitrite ion which is more chemically reactive. Nitrate and its salts are widely used, especially as inorganic fertilizers, and for many other purposes such as oxidizing agents, explosives, in the chemical industry and as food preservatives. This book discusses the agricultural uses, management practices and environmental effects of nitrogen fertilizers.
Organic farming is a system approach utilizing the natural cycles and biological interactions for crop production and protection. It aims at harmonizing with nature and a method of production without destroying the environment. Vermitechnology is one of the important components of organic farming. The earthworm (verm) is now known to be a good biological element for the recovery of vermifertilizer and vermin- protein for use in agro-ecosystems, aquaculture, poultry etc. Earthworm culture, popularly called vermiculture is being widely practicised in a big commercialized manner. Therefore, it is high time to enter into the vermitechnology as a part of the biotechnology programme. In India, some companies have adopted vermiculture, but by and large the general awareness remains limited, despite the fact that several non-governmental organizations and governmental institutions are trying hard to popularize vermitechnology. This book is an attempt to help those desirous of starting a vermicutlure and vermicompost industry. Based on this rationale, the Vermiculture Research Station in Aligarh, India embarked on an extensive programme of transferring vermitechnology to the farmers back in 2000 under the Lab to Land programme. The farmers were given specialized training through field demonstrations in vermitechnology, organizing special courses and setting-up their own field units in rural areas. It is heartening to note that female farmers have also come forward in this new venture and are now producing quality vermicompost to supplement their income.
This one-stop resource is tailor-made for all those involved in the modern agricultural practices and interested in the industrial production, effectiveness and application of agrochemicals. Based on the latest online edition of "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry" and containing articles never before seen in print, this ready reference meets the need for a detailed survey of the fundamentals, industrial processes, effectiveness and the applications of agrochemicals as well as the environmental and toxicological aspects.
This book presents an overview of all aspects of modern agricultural practices. In each chapter, corresponding practical and theoretical aspects are discussed, and each entry is accompanied by its chemical structure, physical properties, synthesis, agricultural use, trade names, toxicology, and its ecological significance.
Readers benefit from the rigorous and cross-indexed nature of the parent reference, and will find both broad introductory information and details of significance to industrial and academic environments.
Back-to-basics gardening that will benefit the earth and your wallet
Want to use ordinary waste to create an extraordinary garden? Composting lets you turn household food waste, yard clippings, and more into free compost and mulch that's chock-full of nutrients. From building and working with traditional compost bins to starting an indoor worm-composting operation, Composting For Dummies makes these often intimidating projects easy, fun, and accessible for anyone
Digging into compost basics -- get a handle on the benefits of composting and the tools you'll need to get started
Choosing the best method and location -- find the best composting method and location that's right for you, whether it's above ground, in a hole, in a container or bin, or even right in your kitchen
Building your pile -- learn which ingredients can go into your compost pile, what stays out, and how to mix it all up in the right proportions
Stepping beyond traditional composting -- get the lowdown on vermicomposting (letting worms eat your garbage), growing green manures to compost later, and sheet composting in the same spot you plan to plant
Open the book and find:
A step-by-step guide to composting
The right gear and tools for the job
Tips on constructing your own composting containers and bins
Materials you can safely compost (and those to avoid)
Cover crops to improve your soil now and compost later
Recommendations for using your finished compost
What worms contribute to your compost
Troubleshooting advice if your compost pile isn't cooperating
Turn household food waste, yard clippings, and more into nutrient-rich compost
Build and maintain your own compost bin
Use worms to aid in composting, both indoors and out
Give your vegetable and flower gardens a boost of energy
The world population will grow more rapidly during the few coming years. This must be accompanied by a parallel increase in the agricultural production to secure adequate food. Sustainability considerations mandate that alternatives to chemical nitrogen fertilizers must be urgently sought. Biological nitrogen (N2) fixation, a microbiological process which converts atmospheric N2 into a plant-usable form, offers this alternative. Among these renewable sources, N2-fixing legumes offer an economically attractive and ecologically sound means of reducing external inputs and improving internal resources. Environmental factors such as drought, elevated temperature, salinity, soil acidity and rising CO2 are known to dramatically affect the symbiotic process and thus play a part in determining the actual amount of nitrogen fixed by a given legume in the field. Understanding how nodule N2 fixation responds to the environment is crucial for improving legume production and maintaining sustainability in the context of global change. In this thoughtful and provocative new Brief, we provide critical information on how current and projected future changes in the environment will affect legume growth and their symbiotic N2 fixing capabilities. Each section reviews the main drivers of environmental change on the legume performance that include drought, elevated temperature, salinity and rising CO2, and soil acidity. Importantly we discuss the molecular approaches to the analysis of the stress response in legumes and the possible biotechnological strategies to overcome their detrimental effects.
Put Theory into Practice
Scarcity of natural resources, higher costs, higher demand, and concerns about environmental pollution ? under these circumstances, improving food supply worldwide with adequate quantity and quality is fundamental. Based on the author's more than forty years of experience, The Use of Nutrients in Crop Plants builds a bridge between theoretical aspects of mineral nutrition and practical applicability of basic principles of fertilization and use efficiency of essential plant nutrients.
Provides Authoritative and Practical Information
The book explores how to maximize essential nutrients uptake and use efficiency by food crops and how to improve productivity without degrading the environment. It covers nutrients and their cycle in soil-plant systems, functions, and deficiency symptoms. The author includes management strategies that can lead to a reduction in the cost of crop production and environmental degradation. He emphasizes field conditions, crop production, and soil chemistry. Comprehensive coverage of essential nutrients and experimental results are accompanied by tables and figures of updated experimental data that make practical information easily accessible.
A Valuable Tool for Improving Crop Yield
Agricultural science is very dynamic in nature and fertilizer practices change with time due to the release of new cultivars and changing production practices in sustainable crop production systems. The Use of Nutrients in Crop Plants provides in-depth scientific information that is applicable through many methods of crop production. It is a valuable tool for improving crop yields at lower cost and less stress on the environment.
Rhizosphere biology is approaching a century of investigations wherein growth-promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPR) have attracted special attention for their ability to enhance productivity, profitability and sustainability at a time when food security and rural livelihood are a key priority. Bio-inputs - either directly in the form of microbes or their by-products - are gaining tremendous momentum and harnessing the potential of agriculturally important microorganisms could help in providing low-cost and environmentally safe technologies to farmers.One approach to such biologically-based strategies is the use of naturally occurring products such as PGPR. Advances in PGPR Research explores recent developments and global issues in biopesticide research, presented via extended case studies and up-to-date coverage of: * Low input biofertilizers and biofungicides used for sustainable agriculture. * Molecular techniques to enhance efficacy of microbial inputs. * Intellectual property issues in PGPR research. Written by an international team of experts, this book considers new concepts and global issues in biopesticide research and evaluates the implications for sustainable productivity. It is an invaluable resource for researchers in applied agricultural biotechnology, microbiology and soil science, and also for industry personnel in these areas.
This important volume provides new research on the design and application of ecologically safe formulations for protecting cultivated crops against pathogen-causing diseases and weeds-that also provide nitrogen fertilizers at the same time. The authors make a significant contribution to the development and agricultural use of environmentally safe and biodegradable new-generation pesticides with targeted and controlled release of active ingredients. They discuss the problems associated with the use and accumulation of xenobiotics in the biosphere and present highlights of modern trends in the design of new-generation formulations. The authors present their original research results on the properties of herbicides, fungicides, and nitrogen fertilizers deposited in a degradable polymer base and the effectiveness of the use of these formulations in laboratory ecosystems with higher plants infected with fusariosis and weeds. The research provided here provides a new direction for the use of degradable polymers, essential for the creation of ecologically safe agricultural technologies and reducing uncontrolled accumulation and spread of xenobiotics in the biosphere.
The dramatic worldwide increase in agricultural and industrial productivity has created severe environmental problems. Soil and groundwater reservoirs have been polluted with pesticides, xenobiotics and agro-chemicals. The global consensus to reduce inputs of chemical pesticides and agrochemical fertilizers, which are perceived at being hazardous by some consumers, has provided opportunities for the development of novel, benign sustainable crop management strategies.
The future of agricultural depends upon our ability to enhance the productivity without damage to their long-term production potential. One of the strategies is the application of effective microbial products beneficial for both farmers and ecosystems. This kind of approach can ensure both ecological and economic sustainability. Soil microbial populations are immersed in framework of interactions, which are known to affect plant fitness and soil quality.
For betterment of life of human being, improved quality and variety of products are formed due to versatile action of different group of microorganisms, Microbes are able to degrade solid waste material into compost which is a mixture of decayed organic matter, manure etc. Incomplete microbial degradation of organic waste where the microbial process varies aerobic to anaerobic form is stated as compost, if added to soil improves plant growth and development. The biological activities and microbial metabolism in the soil contribute to alter its mixture and fertility. Incorporation of organic remain in the form of compost is known to influence favourably the physio-chemical and biological properties of soil. The beneficial activities bestowed upon plants by compost utilization are multifaceted, hence most promising alternatives for achieving sustainable agricultural production.
An increased awareness on compost has led to their use in agricultural concern. Contents in the present book will comprised various chapters on the role of beneficial bacteria in the composting process. The application is depicted to achieve the attainable productivity besides, in disease management and suppressiveness of organisms of phytopathogenic in nature. Significance of the compost elicits certain responses e.g. soil reclamation, soil fertility, soil health and disease management exhibit due to quality compost amendment in soil. It serves as low cost prospective option for sustainable crop production and protection.
This book reviews the practice of reclaiming treated municipal wastewater for agricultural irrigation and using sewage sludge as a soil amendment and fertilizer in the United States. It describes and evaluates treatment technologies and practices; effects on soils, crop production, and ground water; public health concerns from pathogens and toxic chemicals; existing regulations and guidelines; and some of the economic, liability, and institutional issues. The recommendations and findings are aimed at authorities at the federal, state, and local levels, public utilities, and the food processing industry.
The presented book describes the results of the research of the project titled Phosphorus Renewable Raw Materials A Resource Base for the New Generation of Fertilizers attributed to the National Center for Research and Development of Poland. This book is divided into three chapters that are assigned to different stages of the project undertaken by different R&D institutions. The concept and possible options of valorization of waste biomass, such as bones, fish bones, and ashes originated from the incineration of sludge from a waste-water treatment plant from the tertiary stage of biological treatment as resources of phosphorus were described by the team from Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. As a method of by-products valorization, the solubilization process was proposed. Two strategies were proposed: Ex-situ and in-situ. The in-situ manner resulted with suspension fertilizer with a low concentration of P2O5 while ex-situ gave the possibility to obtain two solid formulations with the high content of P2O5. All of them could be used in agriculture and horticulture as granular fertilizers or as substrates. The different content of P2O5, as well as other nutrients in obtained formulations, were described as an effect of utilization of different raw materials as well as various additional substances such as binders necessary for the stability of final formulations. What is more, the efficiency of obtained formulations was strongly related to the kind of microorganism used as an activator of unavailable phosphorus, which was discussed in details. The technology of production for biofertilizers in pilot-scale was described by the Institute of New Chemical Synthesis in Pulawy with the following issues underlined: Design of installation to produce fertilizers based on renewable raw materials; plant construction and production of the product; and preliminary economic analysis. The University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn described the utilitarian properties of new fertilizer formulations that were evaluated in field tests with special attention to granular and suspension biofertilizer. In that chapter, the major results of the agronomic evaluation of new suspension and granular phosphorus biofertilizers from secondary raw materials (sewage sludge ash, animal bones, and animal blood) were presented. Biofertilizers contained Bacillus megaterium or Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria. New bioproducts were tested in field experiments in reference to traditional commercial phosphorus fertilizers (superphosphate, phosphorite, etc.). The research confirmed that phosphorus biofertilizers from renewable raw materials were similar to commercial fertilizers in terms of their crop-enhancing efficiency and did not reduce yield quality and quantity.
Water, energy, and food are basic requirements for life, and this book presents solutions for obtaining these from sewage wastewater treatment plants. It describes the optimal recovery of value-added products from municipal sewage plants in developing countries, and explains how the plants' operations can become both economical and sustainable. Further, it shows how the clean effluent that is obtained is then suitable for agricultural use in the production of bio-fertilizers, and graywater for irrigation, and how the recovered biogas could be used for energy and heating needs. Practical case studies from three separate sewage plants are presented to illustrate the processes involved.
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