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This book elucidates the importance of long-term experiments in revealing evidence of soil fertility decline in Africa. An evaluation of experiences from on-going long-term experiments is given in broad detail. The first chapter explains the paradigm shift in soil fertility management then provides justification for long-term experiments before illuminating experiences from long-term experiments in East, West and Southern Africa. The second, sixth, eighth and ninth chapters give an in-depth account of crop management practices and soil fertility interventions in long-term trials within specific agro-ecological zones in West Africa. The rest of the chapters (chapter three, four, five and seven) address crop management, tillage practices and, organic and inorganic fertilizer applications in the context of long-term experiments in specific agro-ecological zones in East Africa.
This text examines topics in nitrogen nutrition and plant growth including nutrition during seed germination and seedling formation, the physiology of nitrogen-fixing, and slow-release nitrogen fertilizers.
The potassium solubilizing microorganisms (KSMs) are a rhizospheric microorganism which solubilizes the insoluble potassium (K) to soluble forms of K for plant growth and yield. K-solubilization is carried out by a large number of saprophytic bacteria (Bacillus mucilaginosus, B. edaphicus, B. circulans, Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans, Paenibacillus spp.) and fungal strains (Aspergillus spp. and Aspergillus terreus). Major amounts of K containing minerals (muscovite, orthoclase, biotite, feldspar, illite, mica) are present in the soil as a fixed form which is not directly taken up by the plant. Nowadays most of the farmers use injudicious application of chemical fertilizers for achieving maximum productivity. However, the KSMs are most important microorganisms for solubilizing fixed form of K in soil system. The KSMs are an indigenous rhizospheric microorganism which show effective interaction between soil-plant systems. The main mechanism of KSMs is acidolysis, chelation, exchange reactions, complexolysis and production of organic acid. According to the literature, currently negligible use of potassium fertilizer as chemical form has been recorded in agriculture for enhancing crop yield. Most of the farmers use only nitrogen and phosphorus and not the K fertilizer due to unawareness that the problem of K deficiency occurs in rhizospheric soils. The K fertilizer is also costly as compared to other chemical fertilizers.
Introduction to Mammalian Reproduction is a welcome contribution
to the fields of gametogenesis, gamete transport, fertilization,
and reproduction technologies. Key topics covered include:
The latest advancements and innovations in regulating the nitrogen levels in your crops Enhancing the Efficiency of Nitrogen Utilization in Plants examines current research to present an overview of inorganic nitrogen uptake and metabolism in plant life and crop production. This comprehensive resource is divided into sections for quick and easy reference, focusing on physiology and adaptive mechanisms, molecular genetics, and applied aspects. The world's leading experts in agronomy, crop science, and plant physiology analyze the most effective methods and management practices to ensure maximum plant growth and production. Enhancing the Efficiency of Nitrogen Utilization in Plants develops links between basic and applied research and practical crop production. This unique book addresses a wide range of topics that relate to nitrogen use efficiency, and to plant and crop responses to applications of nitrogen via fertilizers, including nitrogen acquisition and reduction; crop rotation; molecular approaches, genetics, and markers; balanced fertilization and controlled-release fertilizers; nitrogen decline, supply, and demand; crop breeding; radiation use; nutrient deficiency and toxicity; nitrate induction and signaling; nitrogen transport; and nitrogen use at the leaf and canopy level . Enhancing the Efficiency of Nitrogen Utilization in Plants examines: plant responses to changes in the supply of the two inorganic nitrogen sources of nitrate and ammonium root system control mechanisms of nitrogen uptake nitrate uptake and reduction in higher and lower plants how nitrogen affects biomass production in a canopy nitrogen's effects on radiation interception and radiation use efficiency senescence and photosynthesis the regulation of nitrogen and carbon metabolisms by sugars and nitrogen metabolites integrated nitrogen fertilization the use of legumes for soil improvement root system control mechanisms fertility and crop nutrient demand chemical and biological processes that influence nitrogen transformation or loss the use of simulation models to measure water and nutrient transport in soils and much more Enhancing the Efficiency of Nitrogen Utilization in Plants is an invaluable classroom aid for academics working in plant physiology and agronomy, and an essential professional resource for researchers working in plant and crop production.
This easy household guide tells you everything you need to know about composting, from the different containers that are available, and what to put in them, to how to use your compost and what to do if you want to get more involved in the process. Composting includes an A-Z on how to compost everything from ash to weeds; advice on how to compost in small spaces, information on bins and wormeries and getting more involved in bigger community schemes.
Emphasis in agricultural production has shifted from mere quantity to quality products. Practical experience and scientific investigations have shown that, of the various culture measures, balanced fertilization above all exerts a considerable influence on the quality of agricultural products. Simply adding more of what the crop has already absorbed to capacity is unproductive, expensive, wasteful and damaging to the environment. Therefore, balanced crop nutrition increases crop quality, safeguards natural resources and brings benefit to the farmer. Otherwise rapid population growth and severe urbanization will exhaust our natural resources.
The 14th International Nitrogen Fixation Congress was held in Beijing, China from October 27th through November 1st, 2004. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Congress and represents a compilation of the presentations by scientists from more than 30 countries around the World who came to Beijing to discuss the progress made since the last Congress and to exchange ideas and information. This year marked the 30th anniversary of the first Congress held in Pullman, Washington, USA, in 1974. Since then, this series of Congresses has met five times in North America (three in the United States and once each in Canada and Mexico), once in South America (Brazil), four times in Western Europe (once each in Spain, The Netherlands, Germany and France), once in Eastern Europe (Russia), and once in Australia; and now for the first time in Asia. China was a most appropriate choice because China is a big country with the largest population in the World, about 1. 3 billion people, which is about 22% of the World's population. It is traditionally an agricultural country, even though China has only 7% of the available farming land. This situation explains why agriculture and its productivity are major issues for the Chinese people, its government and the scientists in the field.
Incorporating contributions from microbiologists, molecular
biologists, plant breeders and soil scientists this volume reports
the results and recommendations of an FAO/IAEA meeting of twelve
experts on biological nitrogen fixation. This volume will be
invaluable to scientists working on nitrogen fixation, soil
microbiology, agronomy and crop production as well as farm advisers
and extension specialists.
-reviews the latest thinking on various aspects of biological
nitrogen fixation technology and applications;
"Delineates the unique ability of halophytes to revegetate salt-affected land. Provides easy access to current information concerning the biology, biogeography, ecophysiology, productivity, and utilization of halophytes. Offers a low-cost approach to reclaiming and rehabilitating saline habitats previously regarded as useless."
The book summarizes present scientific knowledge in plant
physiology with regards to plant production. The authors, mainly
professors of plant physiology at agricultural universities in
Czechoslovakia, present the individual fields of plant physiology
with regard to the demands of agricultural practice and education
of students and doctorani at these universities.
Illustrates current fluid fertilizer technology in the US and abroad, including manufacture, handling, storage, distribution, and use in the field demonstrating how fluid fertilizer facilitates more precise delivery of nutrition to crops. The volume provides the means to analyze fluid fertilizer sys
Soil Fertility Evaluation and Control describes the theoretical background for practical applications of scientific work on the subject. The book emphasizes the use of response curves as the basic biological standard for both evaluation and control, and it discusses soil testing and plant analysis as secondary standards. The principal applications covered include fertilizer requirements, fertilizer evaluation, residual effects, fertilizer placement, liming, and economics of fertilization. Environmental aspects of plant nutrients and soil nutrient supplies as they pertain to crop production are also addressed.
Previously, the development of new agrochemicals has begun on the
chemist's bench, screened via bioassays, and brought to the
marketplace following field trials. Since the evolution of
molecular, combinatorial and green chemistry techniques, our
approach to new discoveries in agrochemicals has fundamentally
changed. The availability of biopesticides, transgenic crops,
natural products, pest control agents with innovative modes of
action and structures that allow rapid conversion to nontoxic
metabolites allows us to use these products in a sustainable and
effective manner called "best management strategies." These tools
have issued in a new generation of pest control based on human
safety, environmental stewardship, and resistance management.
Earthworm's vermicompost is a nutritive organic fertiliser rich in NKP, micronutrients, and beneficial soil microbes. They are scientifically proven to be excellent growth promoters and protectors for crop plants. In experiments with corn and wheat crops it displayed excellent growth performances in terms of height of plants, colour and texture of leaves, as well as the appearance of fruiting structures. There is also less incidences of pest and disease attack and reduced demand of water for irrigation. This book discusses and presents data which suggest that the vermicompost of earthworms contributes to an increase in the yield of crops when used as a fertiliser.
The study of soil nitrogen has long been an active field, but it was generally pivoted on agricultural and forestry production, and animal husbandry. With the rapid increase in the use of fertilizer nitrogen, more attention has been paid to the relationship between nitrogen management and environmental quality and human health. In addition, the study of soil nitrogen has become more comprehensive with the development of related sciences. The quantitative study of the processes of nitrogen cycling and their interrelationships has been an important part of this project and has attracted the attention of scientists all over the world. Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients for plant growth and the application of fertilizer nitrogen is playing an important role in agricultural production. The annual consumption of fertilizer nitrogen in the world has reached 70 million tons, and China has an annual consumption of more than 15 million tons and is the largest fertilizer nitrogen consumer in the world. However, the efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen is low and losses are large. It is estimated that nitrogen losses from agriculture in China can be as high as 40-60% of the nitrogen applied. Some of the lost nitrogen enters the atmosphere and contributes to the greenhouse effect and some enters water bodies to pollute the water. Consequently, it is important for scientists all over the world to improve the efficiency of use of fertilizer nitrogen, to promote the biological fixation of nitrogen and to increase the nitrogen-supplying potential of soils.
The limited use of fertilizer by farmers in Africa stands in contrast to the much more extensive use of fertilizer by farmers in other developing regions. This contrast has stimulated considerable discussion about what should be the role of fertilizer in helping countries of Africa achieve their agricultural development goals, and what types of policies and programs can help realize the potential benefits of fertilizer in African agriculture. 'Fertilizer Use in African Agriculture' summarizes the findings of a major study undertaken by the World Bank to identify promising policy options for promoting increased fertilizer use in Africa, with the ultimate goal of boosting agricultural productivity in smallholder farming systems and reducing poverty. The book summarizes lessons learned from past efforts to promote fertilizer in Africa, provides an overview of the current state of knowledge about technical aspects of fertilizer use in Africa, and presents good practice guidelines for promoting sustainable increases in fertilizer use. The good practice guidelines which form the basis of an interactive policymaker's tool kit included on a CD accompanying the book relate not only to the more focused problem of encouraging increased fertilizer use by farmers, but also to the broader challenge of creating the type of enabling environment that is needed to support the emergence of efficient, dynamic, and commercially viable fertilizer marketing systems."
Cultivation of seaweed is gaining interest on a worldwide scale, since seaweed is used as food, fertilizer and a resource for chemical constituents. Approximately 500,000 tons are traded yearly with a value of about 1 billion US dollars. This interactive multimedia CD-ROM is a unique compilation, with detailed species information, an identification guide and an overview of rearing methods and problem solving on the 25 species of improtance for rearing. The interactive Linnaeus II software warrants ease of use. An interactive glossary of terms and an up-to-date literature reference section are included.
Soil Fertility and Fertilizers: An Introduction to Nutrient Management, Eighth Edition, provides a thorough understanding of the biological, chemical, and physical properties affecting soil fertility and plant nutrition. Covering all aspects of nutrient management for profitable crop production, the text pays particular attention to minimizing the environmental impact of soil and fertilizer management. The eighth edition of this proven text has been substantially revised to reflect rapidly advancing knowledge and technologies in both plant nutrition and nutrient management.
In the history of the International Plant Nutrition Colloquium from its first meeting in 1954, this meeting, the 13th Colloquium, is the first to be held in Asia and will be the last in the 20th century. The 20th century has seen huge changes in the number and activities of mankind. Our population has increased from around 1. 7 billion to more than 5. 8 billion and technological innovations have completely altered our way of living. As a consequence of such rapid change, we are facing many problems including changes in our environment of a global scale. But, while food shortage has been a serious concern to mankind throughout our history, serious food shortages in the 20th century have been confined to limited times and areas. As Lester Brown discusses in this volume, farmers have increased food production heroically on demand. We, the plant nutritionists should be proud of our support to the world's farmers which has helped them make their achievement possible. During the 20th century, the science of plant nutrition also has achieved great progress as described by Jack Loneragan; it became established as a discipline firmly based in science, defined the chemical elements supporting plant growth, and has contributed to improvements in plant production and environmental quality, as readers will find in many contributions in this volume.
The Fertilizer Manual, 3rd Edition, is a new, fully updated, comprehensive reference on the technology of fertilizer production. The manual contains engineering flow diagrams and process requirements for all major fertilizer processes including ammonia, urea, phosphates, potassium products and many others. Environmental considerations are addressed clearly. Equally important, the manual includes chapters on fertilizer use, production and distribution economics, raw materials, and the status of the fertilizer industry with demand-supply projections. Professionals involved with any phase of fertilizer production, use, marketing, or distribution will find this book valuable.
This is a joint study involving five organisations from both the public and private sectors. The objective is to explore the future need for fertilizer required to support the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) projections of agricultural commodity production for 2015 and 2030. The paper begins by briefly reviewing attempts to identify and quantify the factors influencing the growth in demand and supply for agricultural commodities. Several studies that estimate long-term fertlizer use are also reviewed, followed by a discussion of the forecasting methods and data. The results and implications conclude the paper. The study projects growth rates of between 0.7 and 1.3 per cent, depending on assumptions about nutrient efficiency over the next 35 years
The efficient use of phosphorus (P) is essential to many agricultural and environmental issues. This bulletin reviews, analyses and synthesizes information on the efficient use of soil and fertilizer P. It presents information on the plant availability of soil and fertilizer P, with an emphasis on soil plant interactions. The focus is on the changing concepts of the behaviour of both soil and fertilizer P and on the need to define and assess their recovery and, thus, P-use efficiency more appropriately.
This technical paper presents an up-to-date overview of the major feed ingredient sources and feed additives commonly used within industrially compounded aquafeeds, including feed ingredient sources commonly used within farm-made aquafeeds, and major fertilizers and manures used in aquaculture for live food production. Information is provided concerning the proximate and essential amino acid composition of common feed ingredient sources, as well as recommended quality criteria and relative nutritional merits and limitations, together with a bibliography of published feeding studies for major feed ingredient sources by cultured species. Major feed ingredient and fertilizer groupings discussed include: animal protein sources, plant protein sources, single cell protein sources, lipid sources, other plant ingredients, feed additives, and fertilizers and manures.
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