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Extensive research on the agronomic potential and actual effectiveness of phosphate rocks (PRs) as sources of phosphorus has been carried out in Africa, Asia, Latin America and elsewhere. A wealth of information is available, but it is scattered among meeting proceedings, technical reports and scientific and other publications. This bulletin gives comprehensive coverage of the key topics regarding the utilization of PRs in agriculture, including the latest information on PR research, and provides guidelines for the direct application of PR (DAPR) to the acid soils of the tropics and subtropics. The selected topics include: world PR deposits; characterization of PR sources; evaluation methodologies of PR sources for direct application; analysis of the biophysical and farming factors that affect the agronomic effectiveness of PR sources, together with an analysis of the socio-economic factors that influence the use and adoption of PR technologies as a capital investment to trigger agricultural intensification; development and use of decision-support systems for DAPR; soil P testing for PR application; available technologies for enhancing the agronomic effectiveness of indigenous PR sources; environmental issues; legislation guidelines; and future research areas and priorities.
The objective of this publication is to offer a reference material for extensionists, professors, agronomy students, technicians in general, and for farmers themselves. Through information that is up-to-date and richly illustrated, it strives to facilitate the adoption and diffusion of No-Tillage, the use of green manures, and the practice of crop rotation on small farms. The publication describes the principal species of green manures and, at the same time, informs in detail how to insert green manures into small farm production systems according to soil fertility and major crops. It also analyzes the economic implication of these practices.
The world economy has broadly strengthened over the past three years and is expected to continue this strengthening during 2014-2015. The world cereal production in 2014 is estimated to reach 2 498 000 000 tonnes, or 2.2 percent below that of the record production in 2013. World demand for total fertiliser nutrients is estimated to grow at 1.8 percent per annum from 2014 to 2018. The demand for nitrogen, phosphate, and potash is forecast to grow annually by 1.4, 2.2, and 2.6 percent, respectively, during the period. The global potential nitrogen balance (i.e. the difference between N potentially available for fertilisers and N fertiliser demand) as a percentage of N fertiliser demand is expected to steadily rise and reach 9.5 percent in 2018, that of phosphorous from 6.4 percent of total demand to 8.5 percent and that of potassium from 25 percent of total demand to 33 percent. This report gives all the latest trends and outlook for 2018.
The global agricultural sector today faces the double challenge of feeding a growing population while preserving the underlying natural resources of land, water and air. In the meantime, already a third of the world's soils are degraded. Soil and nutrient management techniques aimed at restoring soil health will therefore be essential to meeting these challenges. Agricultural statistics on nutrient use in agriculture provide a useful tool for countries to measure progress towards achieving these national and global development goals. This report presents the relevant statistics available at FAO to this end, and demonstrates how they can be used for a nutrient input analysis at a national, regional and global level. The data include FAOSTAT chemical and mineral fertilizers statistics integrated with estimates of livestock manure from the FAOSTAT and the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model. This report is intended for use by various audiences, including agriculturalstatistics services or agencies in relevant line ministries, academia, industry and the general public in member countries, and provides country-level reference statistics using internationally-recognized and transparent methodologies.
We are entering a new era in production agronomics. Agricultural scientists the world over call for the development of techniques that simultaneously increase soil carbon storage and reduce agriculture s energy use. In response, site-specific or precision agriculture has become the focus and direction for the three motivating forces that are changing agriculture today: the expanding capacity of personal computers, the molecular biology revolution, and the recent developments in information technology such as the increasing use of geographical information systems (GIS).
Using mathematics, technology, and creativity, GIS Applications in Agriculture, Volume Two: Nutrient Management for Energy Efficiency examines the development of nutrient management practices that help producers improve their profitability and energy efficiency. Throughout the book, chapters demonstrate how complex mathematical and spatial modeling approaches can provide the basis for much of our present and certainly our future management practices.
Highlighting recent successes and the nuts and bolts associated with implementing the proposed techniques, the book covers energy efficiency calculations, techniques for overcoming yield-limiting factors, soil information collection and analysis, and remote sensing for improving management decisions. It describes the development of an economically optimum site-specific corn plant population equation based on an experiment containing many field sites, the estimation of soil productivity and energy efficiency using online data sources, and the assessment and implementation of site-specific carbon and water management systems, analyzing energy efficiency of compost and manures.
Emphasizing the mathematics that will enable producers to make full use of the technological advances made during the 21st century, GIS Applications in Agriculture, Volume Two holds the key to the successful, sustainable, and efficient production of food to feed the ever increasing world population.
The efficient use of phosphorus (P) is essential to many agricultural and environmental issues. This bulletin reviews, analyses and synthesizes information on the efficient use of soil and fertilizer P. It presents information on the plant availability of soil and fertilizer P, with an emphasis on soil plant interactions. The focus is on the changing concepts of the behaviour of both soil and fertilizer P and on the need to define and assess their recovery and, thus, P-use efficiency more appropriately.
This technical paper presents an up-to-date overview of the major feed ingredient sources and feed additives commonly used within industrially compounded aquafeeds, including feed ingredient sources commonly used within farm-made aquafeeds, and major fertilizers and manures used in aquaculture for live food production. Information is provided concerning the proximate and essential amino acid composition of common feed ingredient sources, as well as recommended quality criteria and relative nutritional merits and limitations, together with a bibliography of published feeding studies for major feed ingredient sources by cultured species. Major feed ingredient and fertilizer groupings discussed include: animal protein sources, plant protein sources, single cell protein sources, lipid sources, other plant ingredients, feed additives, and fertilizers and manures.
Previously, the development of new agrochemicals has begun on the
chemist's bench, screened via bioassays, and brought to the
marketplace following field trials. Since the evolution of
molecular, combinatorial and green chemistry techniques, our
approach to new discoveries in agrochemicals has fundamentally
changed. The availability of biopesticides, transgenic crops,
natural products, pest control agents with innovative modes of
action and structures that allow rapid conversion to nontoxic
metabolites allows us to use these products in a sustainable and
effective manner called "best management strategies." These tools
have issued in a new generation of pest control based on human
safety, environmental stewardship, and resistance management.
In his insightful new book, Holy Shit: Managing Manure to Save Mankind, contrary farmer Gene Logsdon provides the inside story of manure-our greatest, yet most misunderstood, natural resource. He begins by lamenting a modern society that not only throws away both animal and human manure-worth billions of dollars in fertilizer value-but that spends a staggering amount of money to do so. This wastefulness makes even less sense as the supply of mined or chemically synthesized fertilizers dwindles and their cost skyrockets. In fact, he argues, if we do not learn how to turn our manures into fertilizer to keep food production in line with increasing population, our civilization, like so many that went before it, will inevitably decline.
With his trademark humor, his years of experience writing about both farming and waste management, and his uncanny eye for the small but important details, Logsdon artfully describes how to manage farm manure, pet manure and human manure to make fertilizer and humus. He covers the field, so to speak, discussing topics like:
How to select the right pitchfork for the job and use it correctly
How to operate a small manure spreader
How to build a barn manure pack with farm animal manure
How to compost cat and dog waste
How to recycle toilet water for irrigation purposes, and
How to get rid ourselves of our irrational paranoia about feces and urine.
Gene Logsdon does not mince words. This fresh, fascinating and entertaining look at an earthy, but absolutely crucial subject, is a small gem and is destined to become a classic of our agricultural literature.
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