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Due to the rapid increase in world population and improving living standards, the global agriculture sector is confronting with challenges for the sustainability of agricultural production and of the environment. Intensive high-yield agriculture is typically dependent on addition of fertilizers (synthetic chemicals, animal manure, etc.). However, non-point nutrient losses from agricultural fields due to fertilization could adversely impact the environment. Increased knowledge on plant nutrient chemistry is required for improving utilization efficiency and minimizing loses from both inorganic and organic nutrient sources. For this purpose, the book is composed of 19 chapters that highlight recent research activities in applied nutrient chemistry geared toward sustainable agriculture and environment. Topics of interest include, but are not limited, to speciation, quantification, and interactions of various plant nutrients and relevant contributories in manure, soil, and plants. This book outlooks emerging researchable issues on alternative utilization and environmental monitoring of manure and other agricultural by products that may stimulate new research ideas and direction in the relevant fields.
Nitrogen is an important agricultural input that is critical for crop production. However, the introduction of large amounts of nitrogen into the environment has a number of undesirable impacts on water, terrestrial, and atmospheric resources. This book explores the use of nitrogen in U.S. agriculture and assesses changes in nutrient management by farmers that may improve nitrogen use efficiency. It also reviews a number of policy approaches for improving nitrogen management and identifies issues affecting their potential performance.
Composting is easy, fun, saves you money, and helps you to grow lovely plants. Whether you live in an apartment with no garden or have a family and garden that generate large amounts of food and garden waste, this book shows you how to compost everything that can be composted at home, work, or school, and in spaces big and small."How to Make and Use Compost" features an A-Z guide that includes a comprehensive list of what you can and can't compost, concepts and techniques, compost systems, and common problems and solutions. It includes how to: Compost your food waste safelyGet the best out of a Dalek-type plastic composterMake your own seed, plant, and cuttings compostCreate liquid feed for your plants with a wormeryMake compost in your flat or on your balconyAvoid problems such as rats and flies.By making your own compost you can feed your plants, increase the fertility of your soil, and help reduce the amount of waste going to landfill at the same time.
In this book, the biosorption process used to produce biological components of fertilisers was examined. For this purpose, the waste biomass obtained from the supercritical fluid extraction of oils from multiple berries seeds was used. It was shown that post-extraction residues of black currant, raspberrys and strawberry seeds constitute a valuable material for agricultural purposes. Detailed characteristics of these materials were presented. Moreover, it was shown that berries seeds are characterised by good biosorption properties. It was possible to increase the content of microelements essential for plants by applying the biosorption process. The utilitarian properties of enriched materials were tested in field experiments. Bioavailability of microelements from enriched post-extraction residues of the berries seeds to plants was assessed and the biofortification of edible parts of plants with micronutrients from the new products was achieved.
The title `Phosphorus in Agriculture: 100 % Zero' is synonymous for make-or-break. And it stands up to the promise. This book sends an important message as it delivers background information, intrinsic hypotheses, validation approaches and legal frameworks, all for balanced phosphorus fertilization in agriculture. This implies firstly that the phosphorus requirement of crop is fully satisfied by applying exclusively fertilizers which contain the nutrient in completely available form. Secondly, environmental demands through eutrophication and hazardous contaminants must not be compromised. The book identifies equally knowledge gaps and deficits in the transformation and implementation of research into practice. Bottom line is that research delivers the tools for a sustainable phosphorus management while legal frameworks are insufficient.
This book describes many important principles of fertilizer management and the environmental pollution problems due to the indiscriminate soil fertilization rate. The long-term impacts of organic or mineral fertilizer use have implications on soil fertility, crop yields, water quality, climatic change, greenhouse gas emissions, etc. Twelve chapters provide the state of the art of some important topics on subsistence agriculture, modern agronomy, and technological improvements which have sharply increased yields from cultivation, with a special emphasis on the sustainable management and environmental impact of commercial and nontraditional fertilizers. Without a doubt, this book is a valuable contribution to the agricultural sciences and it would not have been possible without the invaluable contributions, immeasurable acknowledgements, and recognized expertise from the authors.
For centuries, bird guano has played a pivotal role in the agricultural and economic development of Latin America, East Asia, and Oceania. As their populations ballooned during the Industrial Revolution, North American and European powers came to depend on this unique resource as well, helping them meet their ever-increasing farming needs. This book explores how the production and commodification of guano has shaped the modern Pacific Basin and the world's relationship to the region. Marrying traditional methods of historical analysis with a broad interdisciplinary approach, Gregory T. Cushman casts this once little-known commodity as an engine of Western industrialization, offering new insight into uniquely modern developments such as environmental consciousness and conservation movements; the ascendance of science, technology, and expertise; international relations; and world war.
The innovative 3R "Recycle-Reuse-Reduce" AGROCARBON technology provides recycling of agricultural organic and mineral by-products provides carbon products for soil amendment and restoration of soil natural balance. This book explains how the input feed streams are plant and animal origin carboniferous by-products, such as refuse grain, sawdust, food grade animal bone meal, food processing and/or other agro by-products. The innovative technology is providing surface modified charcoals and minerals for plant availability and post processing the chars by integrated biotechnological means. The process is upgrading by-products to high added-value biological control, plant growth promotion and natural fertilisation combined products for environmentally friendly vegetable cultivation, with carbon sequestration potential. The 3R is a horizontally arranged and indirectly heated low temperature zero emission carbonisation system (operating under vacuum, up to 850 DegreesC+/-50 DegreesC material core temperature) and directly integrated novel agro biotechnological processing units of agrocarbon specific solid state fermentation and formulations. Performance: 1. Food crop mineral deficiency and disturbance stress mitigation in temperate climatic regions by restoration of soil natural balance. 2. Input feed streams: low value organic and/or inorganic by-products; such as refuse grain, sawdust and/or high Phosphorous content animal bone meal, and/or other by products; which can be valorisation transformed by added-value integrated thermal and biotechnological means. 3. The 3R biotechnology integrated industrialised biochar production technology is a modern zero emission solution, in which process all and any output products are recycled and reused, aiming prevention-protection-preservation approaches. 4. The output products are different types of soil biotechnology specific solid carrier composits and adapted microbiological fungus and/or bacteria strain consortiums. Depending on the soil and climate application scenario conditions, different types of soil and climate relevant 3R NPK products can be made. 5. The application objective of the products are the natural balance and functionality restorations of degraded temperate agriculture soils with controlled microbiological activity and precision farming nutrient supply. Further objectives are the promotion of humus building and mineral mobilisation towards plant availability, for sustainable, improved, economical and ecological food crop production in the fields of organic and low input low green house gas farmings, while carbon sequestration is also targeted. 6. The application targets combined effects, such as plant growth promotion, biological control against soil borne plant pathogens and natural NPK fertilisation, especially sequenced mobilised Phosphorus supply and improved nutrient use efficiency. 7. The application sectors are the organic farming and/or low input farming for environmentally friendly vegetable cultivation and other food crop productions. 8. STATUS: "product like" field demonstration plant has been developed, successfully tested, scale up optimisation and comprehensive industrialised engineering design made for 30,000 m3/year input feed stream as of modern US/EU industrial norms and standards. Patented original solution. Available for licensing and technology transfer.
This book is the self-contained fourth volume of a seven-volume comprehensive series on nitrogen fixation. The outstanding aspect of this book is the integration of basic and applied work on biological nitrogen fixation in the fields of agriculture, forestry, and ecology in general. Nowadays, the concept of sustainability, which originated in agriculture and land use, is reaching many other areas of society and industry. Sustainability has a major part to play in the global challenge of continued development of regions, countries, and continents all around the World and biological nitrogen fixation has a key role in this process. This volume begins with chapters specifically addressing crops of major global importance, such as soybeans, rice, and sugar cane. It continues with a second important focus, agroforestry, and describes the use and promise of both legume trees with their rhizobial symbionts and other nitrogen-fixing trees with their actinorhizal colonization. An over-arching theme of all chapters is the interaction of the plants and trees with microbes and this theme allows other aspects of soil microbiology, such as interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the impact of soil-stress factors on biological nitrogen fixation, to be addressed. Furthermore, a link to basic science occurs through the inclusion of chapters describing the biogeochemically important nitrogen cycle and its key relationships among nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and denitrification. The volume then provides an up-to-date view of the production of microbial inocula, especially those for legume crops. No other available work provides the up-to-date and in-depth coverage of this volume, whichis intended to serve as an indispensable reference work for academic, government, and industrial scientists working in the applied areas of agronomy, plant breeding, plant nutrition, ecology, and forestry as well as those in the basic science areas of plant physiology, soil microbiology, and related environmental disciplines. This volume will be an invaluable tool for students entering this challenging area of research and will provide science administrators with ready access to vital relevant information.
Don't flush it down the loo ! Save your pee and fertilize your garden! Because it is not recycled, our urine is wasted and pollutes the water system. Yet it could provide 50%-100% of the nutrients needed to grow our food. Use your pee to make a liquid manure: recycle, save water and energy, and prevent pollution, all at the same time! In the 19th century you could sell your urine for a penny a bucket or 1.5 pennies if you were a redhead. Early Romans used urine as mouthwash. In some cultures, urine is used to clean wounds and as a health tonic. Urine can be used in curing leather, and as a tattoo pigment. Discover the delights of the urine-diverting composting toilet, the activists' urinal, and the urinal for women; find out about customs and rituals connected with urine, the science and technology of its use, and profiles of liquid gold at work all over the world in farms and gardens. Take to the fresh air when nature calls and fertilize your garden for free with Carol Steinfeld's entertaining and fact-filled book!
Presenting the state of the art of tissue culture and in vitro propagation of vegetable and tuber crops, medicinal and aromatic plants, fibre and oilseed crops, and grasses, this book complements the previous two volumes on High-Tech and Micropropagation, which concentrated on special techniques (Vol.17) and trees and bushes of commercial value (Vol.18). The specific plants covered here include asparagus, lettuce, horse radish, cucumber, potato, cassava, sweet potato, artichoke, yams, cardamom, fennel, celery, thyme, leek, mentha, turmeric, lavender, agave, yucca, cotton, jute, sunflower, ryegrass, zoysiagrass, and various species of "Aconitum," "Artemisia," "Camelia," "Centaurium," "Digitalis," "Dioscorea," "Glehnia," "Levisticum," "Parthenium," and "Pinella." The book is of use to advanced students, teachers and research workers in the field of pharmacy, horticulture, plant breeding and plant biotechnology in general, and also to individuals interested in industrial micropropagation.
On the occasion of its twenty-fifth anniversary, in 1985, the Netherlands Society for Grassland and Fodder Crops (NVWV) agreed to organize an International Symposium on a topic related to intensive grass and fodder production systems. The theme selected was "Animal manure on grassland and fodder crops: Fertilizer or waste?" This Symposium was organized under the auspices of the European Grassland Federation and held at the International Agricultural Centre in Wageningen from 31 August to 3 September 1987. The problems connected with the disposal of animal waste have received much attention in recent years, especially in regions with intensive animal of animal manure per hectare agricul husbandry. Whereas the production tural land increased strongly, the need for it decreased because of the introduction of cheap inorganic fertilizers which are easier to handle and have a more reliable effect on crop growth. As a consequence, many farmers dispose of animal manure as cheaply as possible, whilst avoiding damage to grassland and crops and paying little attention to effective use of the plants nutrients contained in the manure. Present practices of manure handling and application often lead to environmental problems. The rise in awareness of these problems renewed interest in possibilities to improve the utilization of nutrients from animal manure in crop production. Research on this topic has been stimulated in many countries during the last decade and the aim of this Symposium was to review and assess present-day knowledge."
Ammonia emissions from farming are causing environmental problems on local and regional scales in Europe and elsewhere. These emissions also reduce the efficiency of manure as a fertilizer in crop production. This thesis presents a body of research and development on technologies to reduce ammonia emissions from stored animal slurry, field-applied slurry, and mineral fertilizers. The processes involved in the release of ammonia from slurry, the transport of ammonium and pH changes in surface layers of stored slurry, and slurry and fertilizers applied to the surface of bare soils are described. Techniques and management practices that reduce ammonia emission are presented and evaluated. The book provides a better understanding of the relationships between ammonia emissions and the most important underlying processes. This information can be used to develop technologies, models, and decision support for better management of animal manure, leading to a minimal negative impact on the environment and a strong positive impact on plant production. The book makes a contribution to research using basic science to develop applied technological solutions. It also proposes areas for future research that can enable efficient use of manure and reduce environmental pollution. Thesis.
This book elucidates the importance of long-term experiments in revealing evidence of soil fertility decline in Africa. An evaluation of experiences from on-going long-term experiments is given in broad detail. The first chapter explains the paradigm shift in soil fertility management then provides justification for long-term experiments before illuminating experiences from long-term experiments in East, West and Southern Africa. The second, sixth, eighth and ninth chapters give an in-depth account of crop management practices and soil fertility interventions in long-term trials within specific agro-ecological zones in West Africa. The rest of the chapters (chapter three, four, five and seven) address crop management, tillage practices and, organic and inorganic fertilizer applications in the context of long-term experiments in specific agro-ecological zones in East Africa.
Aimed mainly at a professional audience, this book is intended to provide a user-friendly handbook on biochar. It de-mystifies the scientific, engineering and managerial issues surrounding biochar and makes the whole topic more understandable and approachable to potential users. These include policy makers, landowners and farmers, landuse, agricultural and environmental consultants, industry and lobby groups and NGOs.
The chapters review state-of-the-art knowledge in a non-technical way of biochar production, soil science, agriculture, environmental impacts, economics, the law and regulation and climate change policy. They explain the facets of biochar through the use of explanatory boxes, info-graphics and concise summaries of key concepts and understanding. The authors also present research findings from the first coordinated European biochar field trial, representing the largest biochar field trial globally, including the effects of several biochars (made from typical European feedstocks) on soil properties, soil functioning and crop growth and the costs and benefits of producing and using biochar. They evaluate whether the claimed climate change benefits of biochar are really justified compared to other choices on how we use our limited resources. They provide hands-on practical information and knowledge on how to combine biochar with other soil amendments (such as manure and composts) and with agronomic good practice, how to ensure that it is safe and effective and how to select the most appropriate biochar for different agronomic circumstances.
The book then summarises the key information for those who need to be aware of biochar from a policy perspective at local, national, EU and international levels.
Discusses New Advancements to Improve Existing Simulations of Plant Nitrogen Written by research pioneers and leading scientists in the area of agricultural systems, Quantifying and Understanding Plant Nitrogen Uptake for Systems Modeling comprehensively covers plant N uptake in agricultural system models, especially for building soil-plant system models. The text illustrates how to minimize the transportation of nitrogen fertilizers in crop production to surface and ground waters, as even moderate errors in uptake estimations lead to a dramatic increase in the amount of nitrogen leached into groundwater. It also highlights the knowledge gaps preventing correct simulation of this process and explains what to look for when using a system model and interpreting simulation results. Applies to a Variety of Crops, Including Oilseed, Wheat, Potatoes, and Maize Addressing quantification and synthesis in the context of system modeling, this text introduces cutting-edge and original information regarding N uptake not previously offered by other research texts in the field. This, in turn, benefits scientists, professors, system modelers, and model users in interpreting modeling results for enhancing nitrogen management and developing decision support tools. This volume documents, with complex, detailed models, plant N uptake based on absorption kinetics of transporters across the root cell membranes, mass flow, and diffusion to the root surface of single or composite roots. It also provides simpler models used in N uptake simulations at the field and watershed scales. Discusses All Areas of the Complex Process In addition to the important processes of nitrogen translocation, remobilization, and grain protein formation, the book documents various philosophies, mechanisms, and scales in simulating plant N uptake in agricultural system models, while providing an extensive review of the uptake of dissolved organic nitrogen by plants in ecosystems. .
Biochar is the carbon-rich product which occurs when biomass (such as wood, manure or crop residues) is heated in a closed container with little or no available air. It can be used to improve agriculture and the environment in several ways, and its persistence in soil and nutrient-retention properties make it an ideal soil amendment to increase crop yields. In addition to this, biochar sequestration, in combination with sustainable biomass production, can be carbon-negative and therefore used to actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, with potentially major implications for mitigation of climate change. Biochar production can also be combined with bioenergy production through the use of the gases that are given off in the pyrolysis process. The first edition of this book, published in 2009, was the definitive work reviewing the expanding research literature on this topic. Since then, the rate of research activity has increased at least ten-fold, and biochar products are now commercially available as soil amendments. This second edition includes not only substantially updated chapters, but also additional chapters: on environmental risk assessment; on new uses of biochar in composting and potting mixes; a new and controversial field of studying the effects of biochar on soil carbon cycles; on traditional use with very recent discoveries that biochar was used not only in the Amazon but also in Africa and Asia; on changes in water availability and soil water dynamics; and on sustainability and certification. The book therefore continues to represent the most comprehensive compilation of current knowledge on all aspects of biochar.
Animal manure can be used as a fertiliser, and it can improve soil quality. Manure can also be used as a feedstock for energy production. The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 directed the U.S. Department of Agriculture to evaluate the role of animal manure as a source of fertiliser, and its other uses. About 5 percent of all U.S. cropland is currently fertilised with livestock manure, and corn accounts for over half the acreage to which manure is applied. Expanded environmental through nutrient management plans will likely lead to wider use of manure on cropland, at higher production costs, but with only modest impacts on production costs, commodity demand or farm structure. This book assesses current patterns of use of manure as fertiliser and evaluates the likely impacts of emerging environmental regulations on manure use. This book also assesses current efforts to use manure for energy production and evaluates the impact of bioenergy investments on manure's use as fertiliser. This book consists of public documents which have been located, gathered, combined, reformatted, and enhanced with a subject index, selectively edited and bound to provide easy access.
Manure is organic matter used as organic fertiliser in agriculture. Manure contributes to the fertility of the soil by adding organic matter and nutrients, such as nitrogen that is trapped by bacteria in the soil. As the interest in organic farming and renewable energy production continues to grow, manure is playing an important role in the production of bioenergy, food, and other agricultural products. This book discusses varied topics on the management, uses and environmental impacts of manure, such as: the bioremediational technique of adding nitrite-oxidising bacteria for reducing N2O emission during swine manure composting; improving performance and manure management in the French pig sector; manure management in Africa; phosphorous forms in animal manure and the impact on soil P status; and others.
Phosphorus is an essential plant nutrient, but global population growth has dramatically reduced the availability of phosphorus fertilizer resources. Despite this scarcity, there remain numerous problems associated with the excessive and inappropriate use of phosphorus leading to non-point source pollution and eutrophication of natural waters. Identifying appropriate systems for managing soil phosphorus and reducing the risks of eutrophication are needed to minimize the environmental risks. This book focuses on the availability and recycling of phosphorus; regulatory and policy issues of sustainable phosphorus use; and water quality management in agroecosystems pertaining to phosphorus. Sections are dedicated to global phosphorus reserves; cycling and pathways of phosphorus; phosphorus in agriculture; human dimensions and policy intervention; and research and development priorities. Phosphorus is a finite but crucial resource and is an essential element to all life. Sub-optimal availability and nutrient imbalance in the root zone can adversely impact plant growth, and the quality of food and feed grown on these soils. However, the proven reserves of phosphorus can hardly be adequate for a few centuries only. Yet, its misuse and mismanagement has caused severe problems of eutrophication of water and pollution of the environment. Thus, judicious management of soil phosphorus is essential. This volume is specifically devoted to availability and recycling of phosphorus, regulatory/policy issues of sustainable use of phosphorus, and management in agroecosystems in the context of maximizing the use efficiency and minimizing the environmental risks of water quality.
This book presents a game changing technology of lower energy-intensive urea production of urea which is used as fertilizer. The technology, from a resource to a knowledge-intensive based industry, investigates a new synthesis approach employing electromagnetic induction and nano-catalyst at lower energy consumption. This clean and green method for a sustainable future might change the landscape of future chemical processes. It is made possible due to the enhancement in nanotechnology where quantum mechanical understanding is called into play. New reactor designs are elaborated on and discussed explicitly. Hematite and nickel oxide nanocatalysts are proposed for the green urea synthesis process, in the presence of static and oscillating magnetic fields. Strategies to increase single to triplet conversion rate are given for better understanding of the improved urea rate. The focus is deliberately on scrutinizing the greenhouse gas effect on the urea yield, in this case CO2 flow rate. Coating techniques for slow release strategies are provided to reduce the volatilization of ammonia and leaching effect, hence offering a complete solution of Green Technology. Agriculture 4.0 that creates the new patterns and precision monitoring of crop rotation and livestock utilization will be able to pave the way for better crop yield. Development of advanced technology in agriculture is important for the implementation of Agriculture 4.0 and currently an inevitable trend of the socioeconomic development in the context of broader international integration for the sustainable future. The author would like to acknowledge Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) for the grant worth RM 12 million to accomplish Green and Economical Urea project and to have full understanding on Green Technology in Urea. This book is a collaborative effort by her colleagues, Ku Zilati, Khanif, Shahrina, Zainovia, Azizah, Zakaria, and who have carried out the research over the past five years which started in 2011. Their unconditional commitment had brought us together and we completed the project with success. I wish to also thank Dr Menaka Ganeson and all my PhD students, Dr. Saima, Dr. Bilal, Mr. Zia and Mr. Irfan for their commitment to assist me to complete the book. Last but not least, thank you very much to Professor Mike Payne (Cambridge University) and Professor Koziol (Cranfield University) for the comments.
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