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This book presents a comprehensive and balanced overview of soil
amendments and their effect on the environment. It encompasses both
positive and negative aspects of chemical fertilizers that supply
nitrogen, phosphorous, sulfur, lime, micronutrients, and trace
metals. Pros and cons are discussed with respect to the optimal and
the most environmentally sound use of soil amendments, and guidance
is provided on how to minimize the environmental effects of
amendments. Natural fertilizers, including manure, sludge, fly ash,
phosphogypsum, and byproduct gypsum are also discussed. Alternative
agronomic practices and biotechnology that ameliorate or minimize
potential adverse effects of fertilizer use are examined in
In the 1980s and 1990s, green manure/cover crop (GMCC) systems became a popular agricultural technology in research and development efforts for smallholder tropical and subtropical farmers. However, few syntheses of these experiences have been conducted. This volume of case studies contributes to bridging this gap by reviewing field-level experiences with these systems. Twelve case studies are included. Eleven of them describe experiences from Latin America (4 cases), Africa (6 cases) and Asia (1 case) and the twelfth case reports on the development of a GMCC systems database. Two concluding chapters, `Learning from the Case Studies' and `Future Perspectives', build upon the cases. The systems described are diverse. Some systems have been spontaneously adopted by farmers, while others have been introduced to the farmers through diffusion efforts. Some of the cases reviewed describe small, localized efforts while others report on large-scale, well-known ones, such as the combination of GMCCs and conservation tillage in Santa Catarina, Brazil, the maize-Mucuna system in northern Honduras, and the improved fallow systems in Eastern Zambia. Most experiences include both development and research aspects and to the extent possible the cases integrate these two. Discussion of the strengths and shortcomings of the systems and efforts is frank, and the goal is to learn from these experiences to benefit future efforts. It is expected that both researchers and development practitioners and students of tropical farming systems and soil management will find this volume of case studies useful.
This volume follows up a seminal meeting, presenting reports on progress made with recommendations made there. The text reports on the development of pilot projects and on the organization of an international organization. All this will serve as the foundation for future efforts to develop the common utilisation of cash crop halophytes.
Proceedings of an International Symposium
Discusses the applications of classical QSAR and molecular modelling analysis to the discovery of new agrochemicals. Examines hydrophobicity parameters derived from various partitioning systems. Includes chapters focusing on the use of three-dimensional QSAR analyses such as CoMFA and DISCO. Presents information on the use of QSAR to study transport and toxicology of agrochemicals.
Food production remains the highest agricultural priority, subject to the constraint that it be done in harmony with nature, or at least with minimum environmental pollution. The amount of fertilizer applied can be controlled using modern application techniques, including soil and crop management, guaranteeing higher economic profit and lower environmental cost. It is in such a context that the present book addresses the efficient and rational use of mineral and organic fertilizers while preserving environmental quality. The book discusses the impact on surface and groundwaters, soils and crops, and experience of nitrate leaching, denitrification, ammonia volatilization, heavy metal pollution, agricultural and urban waste management, and international and national legislation. Audience: Agronomists, environmentalists, soil and food chemists, ecologists, policy makers, and managers in the fertilizer industry concerned with the trend of public opinion.
This book is a comprehensive and updated review of fundamental studies on inhibition of soil urease activity and of applied studies on improving efficiency of urea fertilizers by inhibition of soil urease activity. The general literature on these topics covers 65 years and the patent literature comprises a period of nearly 40 years. The potential of food production to meet the growing needs related to population increase is largely conditioned by the efficiency of agricultural fertilizers. Urea has gradually become the most important nitrogen fertilizer in world agriculture. However, its efficiency is in general reduced due to excessive activity of a soil enzyme, urease. One way to increase efficiency of urea fertilizers is the inhibition of soil urease activity. In the last four decades, multilateral investigations have been carried out in a series of countries to identify and test unpolluting and inexpensive chemical compounds to be used as inhibitors of soil urease activity. These investigations are reviewed, including those described in the patent literature.
The book is addressed to a broad audience, including experts and students in agronomy, forestry, plant physiology, soil science (especially soil biology and biochemistry), and other environmental sciences, as well as in organic and inorganic chemistry.
Sustainability of agricultural systems is a major global concern
due to population growth and a number of environmental factors.
This book addresses the key to the development of sustainable
agriculture-management of soil fertility. Combining data from
temperate and tropical regions, it presents a complete picture of
how various soils can best be managed under widely different
This work highlights the physical chemistry of surfactant solutions, detailing a fundamental method of selecting surfactants for agrochemical formulations and delineating how surfactants enhance the biological efficacy of agrochemicals. The unique properties of surfactants that have a major influence on the performance of an agrochemical are summarized.;The book is intended for physical, surface and colloid chemists; biochemists; microbiologists; agronomists; research and development personnel in the pesticide and fertilizer industries; and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students taking chemistry and chemical engineering courses.;College and university bookstores may order five or more copies at a special price which is available on request from Marcel Dekker Inc.
This Fertilizer Manual was prepared by the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) as a joint project with the United Nations Industrial Development Organi- zation (UNIDO). It is designed to replace the UN Fertilizer Manual published in 1967 and intended to be a reference source on fertilizer production technology and economics and fertilizer industry planning for developing countries. The aim of the new manual is to describe in clear, simple language all major fertilizer processes, their requirements, advan- tages and disadvantages and to show illustrative examples of economic evaluations. The manual is organized in five parts. Part I deals with the history of fertilizers, world outlook, the role of fertilizers in agriculture, and raw materials and includes a glossary of fertilizer-related terms. Part II covers the production and transportation of ammonia and all important nitrogen fertilizers-liquids and solids. Part III deals with the characteristics of phosphate rock, production of sulfuric and phosphoric acid, and all important phosphate fertilizers, including nitrophosphates and ammonium phosphates. Part IV deals with potash fertilizers-ore mining and refining and chemical manufac- ture; compound fertilizers; secondary and micronutrients; controlled-release fertilizers; and physical properties of fertilizers. Part V includes chapters on planning a fertilizer industry, pollution control, the economics of production of major fertilizer products anJ intermediates, and problems facing the world fertilizer industry.
This unique research-based book explores the development of the fertiliser industry in Ireland, an important sector of Irish industrial history that has so far been somewhat neglected in the literature. The exploration includes detailed analyses of changes in the raw materials used by the industry, the quantity and range of products made and imported, the process technology employed, the organisation and structure of the industry and the roles played by certain key individuals. The development of the industry is considered in a series of five time periods. The first of these looks at the antecedents of the industry prior to its birth in the middle of the nineteenth century. There follows an essential digression to show that scientific progress in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was a prerequisite for the emergence of a fertiliser industry. The genesis and development of the industry is then considered in four time periods spanning 1840 to 1990. Throughout the book both demand
Composting is increasingly used as a recycling technology for organic wastes. Knowledge on the composition and activities of compost microbial communities has so far been based on traditional methods. New molecular and physiological tools now offer new insights into the "black box" of decaying material. An unforeseen diversity of microorganisms are involved in composting, opening up an enormous potential for future process and product improvements. In this book, the views of scientists, engineers and end-users on compost production, process optimisation, standardisation and product application are presented.
Due to the rapid increase in world population and improving living standards, the global agriculture sector is confronting with challenges for the sustainability of agricultural production and of the environment. Intensive high-yield agriculture is typically dependent on addition of fertilizers (synthetic chemicals, animal manure, etc.). However, non-point nutrient losses from agricultural fields due to fertilization could adversely impact the environment. Increased knowledge on plant nutrient chemistry is required for improving utilization efficiency and minimizing loses from both inorganic and organic nutrient sources. For this purpose, the book is composed of 19 chapters that highlight recent research activities in applied nutrient chemistry geared toward sustainable agriculture and environment. Topics of interest include, but are not limited, to speciation, quantification, and interactions of various plant nutrients and relevant contributories in manure, soil, and plants. This book outlooks emerging researchable issues on alternative utilization and environmental monitoring of manure and other agricultural by products that may stimulate new research ideas and direction in the relevant fields.
The mission of the International Fertilizer Development Center is to increase food production through the improvement of fertilizers and fertilizer practices for the developing countries with special emphasis on tropical and subtropical agriculture. The principal aim is to ensure that fertilizer technology is not a limiting factor to food production in those regions. Although the full extent to which deficiency of micronutrients hampers food production is yet un- known, there is ample evidence that problem areas exist and more will be identified as crop production is intensified and marginal lands are exploited. Therefore, it seems fully appropriate at this time that IFDC, as an international organization, take a leadership role in developing micronutrient fertilizer technology appropriate for the tropics and subtropics. The gravity of micronutrient deficiency as a limiting factor to crop pro- duction varies from crop to crop and from soil to soil. The effects may range from slight yield reductions to complete crop failure. While the economic impact of omitting micronutrients in seriously affected areas (e.g., Zn in Brazilian Cerrado) is convincing, it is difficult to estimate the yearly loss in crop production due to unsuspected micronutrient deficiency. Active soil and crop testing programs in regions with advanced agricultural systems are aimed at recognizing micronutrients as a limiting plant nutrient in time to allow corrective measures and prevent yield loss. Successful micronutrient monitoring systems are generally limited to developed economies or to developing economies producing export cash crops.
The present investigation was carried out in the period 1977-1981 at the Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition of the Agricultural University Wageningen, Netherlands. This university supplied the major financial sup- port through a research grant, with additional financial support rendered by the Dutch Nitrogen Fertilizer Industry and Unilever Research, Netherlands. This support is gratefully acknowledged. In the present form this report is the author's doctoral dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Agricul- tural University. The author hereby wishes to thank prof. dr. ir. A. van Diest for his criti- cal reading and correction of the English text, and drjr. J. H. G. Slangen for his valuable advices during the investigations and in the course of the preparation of this report. The au thor also acknowledges the valuable support received from several Agricultural Research Institutes and University Depart- ments which made facilities and manpower available to conduct the ex- periments and to transform the results obtained into the present report. Contents Preface / v Abstract / 1 List of ab breviations / 2 Introduction / 3 2 Literature / 6 2. 1 Nitrogen transformations in soil / 7 2. 2 Nitrate uptake / 7 Nitrate reduction in plants / 7 2. 3 2. 4 Nitrate contents in plants / 8 2. 5 Cultural measures / 9 2. 5. 1 Nitrogen dressing / 9 2. 5. 1. 1 Nitrogen amount / 9 2. 5 . 1.
This volume provides a current look at how development of intensive live- stock production, particularly hogs, has affected human health with respect to zoonotic diseases primarily transmitted by food but also by water, air and oc- cupational activity. While information presented focuses on the development of increasing livestock production in Canada, examples are given and compar- isons are made with other countries (Denmark, Taiwan, the Netherlands and the United States) where the levels of livestock production are much more intense and where the industry is more mature. Canada is also searching for solutions to enable handling the growing volume of its livestock waste properly. Lessons learned from the experience of those who have gone before are invaluable and are drawn together in this volume to serve as useful guidance for others in plot- ting the courses of action possible to avoid serious environmental setbacks and negative human health effects through foodborne illness. A significant portion of the text is devoted to a discussion of enteric illness in humans caused by zoonotic pathogens. The second chapter deals with sur- vival of pathogens (which cause foodborne illness) in manure environments. An evaluation of the human health hazard likely to occur from the use of ma- nure as fertilizer is important because of the recent trend toward an increase in foodborne illness from the consumption of minimally processed fruits and vegetables that may have been fertilized with animal-derived organic materials.
Human excreta is a valuable fertilizer for improving soil quality and crop productivity, with a potential to replace or complement the mineral fertilizers. The main challenges related to human excreta regarding agricultural applications are microbial contamination risks, loss of nutrients, and odor issues. Fertilization by lacto-fermented faeces supplemented by biochar has benefits such as improved soil bulk density, nitrate and potassium concentrations as well as the yield and yield components of corn, compared to untreated, simple stored faeces, urine, cattle manure, and unfertilized controls. Even though the mineral fertilizer produced corn with significantly higher height and leaf length, it did not add significantly higher yields than lacto-fermented faeces supplemented by biochar. A faeces treatment process by combined lacto-fermentation with thermophilic composting and biochar supplementation had better reduction of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens, and higher germination of radish and growth of tomatoes than combined lacto-fermentation with vermicomposting. Urine lacto-fermentation contributed to a pH reduction below 4, a decrease in the ammonium concentration and odor strength, as well as an increase in the germination rates compared to untreated stored urine. The results of this study provide important information that can set the basis for scaling up a sustainable technology for the treatment of source separated human excreta while improving its potential for resource recovery.
Nitrogen Economy in Tropical Soils presents an authoritative and comprehensive state-of-the-art review on soil/plant nitrogen inter-relationships, with special reference to tropical soils and crops in aerobic and anaerobic environments. Use of isotopically labelled nitrogen in experimentation, especially in tropical environments, and recently developed analytical techniques for soil and plant materials are presented. An important aspect is the emphasis placed on the impact of the tropical environment on nitrogen transformations in the soil environment. This book should be an excellent source of information for senior undergraduate and graduate students with interest in soil/plant nitrogen inter-relationships, and for all levels of research workers in these fields.
These papers include two lectures which address the role of Plant Nutrition in the sustainability of agro-ecosystems and the production of enough high quality food to feed the growing world population. Recent advances in Plant Nutrition are reviewed in the 11 papers presented in each of the Symposia devoted to: genetics and molecular biology of Plant Nutrition, nutrient functions, the role of the apoplast in mineral nutrition, plant quality and plant health, salinity and plant-soil-water relations, mineral element toxicity and resistance nutrient acquisition, soil organisms/plant interactions, fertiliser use in relation to optimum yield and environment, nutrient dynamics in natural and agro-ecosystems, and plant nutrition and sustainable development. Current knowledge and research emphasis in these areas of the subject is well illustrated and the reader is provided with a comprehensive view of the state of Plant Nutrition research.
The use of organic residues as a means of maintaining and increasing soil fertility is of long-standing. This tradition has been somewhat neglected since the introduc- tion of mineral fertilizers at low cost. More and more farmers and scientists are now showing renewed interest in the proper and effective use of org~tnic residues, composts and other recycled organic additives. The role and function of organic amendments in modern agricultural systems have become topics of major interest in the scientific and agricultural communities. Research work on residue disposal has provided new concepts on the interaction between organic components and soils as well as new handling technologies (e. g. pelletizing of organic residues). The trend to conserve energy has led scientists to study the minimal tillage system, to find ways of replacing conventional inorganic fertilizers with natural organic prod- ucts or microbial preparations, and to develop new composting methods. The drive to achieve higher yields in commercial greenhouse farming has led to a search for optimum substrates as growth media and for improved management techniques. This has led to the introduction of organic substitutes for peat, nota- bly those originating from agricultural wastes. Another important aspect is the current interest in organic farming, where use of synthetic chemicals is avoided or prohibited. An increasing percentage of the population in highly developed countries is willing to pay premium prices for food produced on soils where inorganic fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals have not been used.
The soil is the medium through which pollutants originating from human activities, both in agriculture and industry, move from the land surfaces to groundwater. Polluting substances are subject to complex physical, chemical and biological transformations during their movement through the soil. Their displacement depends on the transport properties of the water-air-soil system and on the molecular properties of the pollutants. Prediction of soil pollution and restoration of polluted soils requires an under- standing of the processes controlling the fate of pollutants in the soil medium and of the dynamics of the contaminants in the un- saturated zone. Our book was conceived* as a basic overview of the processes governing the behavior of pollutants as affected by soil constituents and environmental factors. It was written for the use of specialists working on soil and unsaturated zone pollution and restoration, as well as for graduate students starting research in this field. Since many specialists working on soil restoration lack a back- ground in soil science or a knowledge of the properties of soil pollutants, we have included this information which forms the first part of the book. In the second part, we discuss the partitioning of pollutants between the aqueous, solid and gaseous phase of the soil medium. The retention, transformation and transport of pollutants in the soils form the third section.
This book elucidates the importance of long-term experiments in revealing evidence of soil fertility decline in Africa. An evaluation of experiences from on-going long-term experiments is given in broad detail. The first chapter explains the paradigm shift in soil fertility management then provides justification for long-term experiments before illuminating experiences from long-term experiments in East, West and Southern Africa. The second, sixth, eighth and ninth chapters give an in-depth account of crop management practices and soil fertility interventions in long-term trials within specific agro-ecological zones in West Africa. The rest of the chapters (chapter three, four, five and seven) address crop management, tillage practices and, organic and inorganic fertilizer applications in the context of long-term experiments in specific agro-ecological zones in East Africa.
This text examines topics in nitrogen nutrition and plant growth including nutrition during seed germination and seedling formation, the physiology of nitrogen-fixing, and slow-release nitrogen fertilizers.
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