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This volume offers original research on the fire behavior of building components made from concrete, steel, composites, glasses and timber. Its 135 chapters, written by researchers from 26 nations, contain key technical information on how fire affects widely used construction materials in multiple configurations. Attention is placed on new testing and modeling approaches, as well as on structural health monitoring and strategies for protection. The findings in this book will be of benefit to design and fire safety engineers.
Chief Vincent Dunn, a 42-year fire service veteran, has updated his best-selling book which examines the dangers of structural failure caused by fire. This is the second edition of the first textbook written to warn firefighters, company officers, and fire chiefs about exactly how structures collapse when destroyed by fire--and examines the subject of burning building collapse in great detail. More importantly, this book, unlike any other publication, instructs firefighters and fire officers in how to survive burning building collapse.
This book covers fire and extinguishing theory and reliability theory and how to validate any survey within the field of engineering. It's based on a year's study of historical literature, using critical review and document analysis. It covers how data is collected, analyzed, and presented. It discusses reliability theory, calculation, and uncertainty analysis, and after validating proposes a new methodology and approach using general scientific value and examples. Features Includes an in-depth study on relevant sprinkler reliability studies based for the first time on critical review and document analysis Presents a scientific validating analysis of studies based on how a survey should be conducted Critiques the fact that reliability of a sprinkler system as its ability to function as designed, has never been subject to surveys Suggestions for new survey methodology that can be used for the field of engineering, including all active and passive fire protection measures Discusses extinguishing theory, general design of extinguishing systems, different systems and the reliability of them all "Reliability Data on Fire Sprinkler Systems" will be of interest to Reliability Engineers, Systems, Architecture and Engineers, Design, Maintenance, Mechanical and, Civil Engineers, as well as those working in the field of fire protection and building and fire codes.
This textbook is packaged with Navigate 2 Preferred Access that unlocks Navigate TestPrep: Hazardous Materials, a complete eBook, Study Center, homework and Assessment Center, and a dashboard that reports actionable data. Experience Navigate 2 today at www.jblnavigate.com/2. A fire fighter's ability to recognize an incident involving hazardous materials or weapons of mass destruction (WMD) is critical. They must possess the knowledge required to identify the presence of hazardous materials and WMD, and have an understanding of what their role is within the response plan. The second edition of Hazardous Materials Awareness and Operations will provide fire fighters and first responders with these skills and enable them to keep themselves and others safe while mitigating these potentially deadly incidents. Hazardous Materials Awareness and Operations, Second Edition meets and exceeds the requirements for first responders within the 2013 Edition of NFPA 472, Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents. Additionally, the material presented also exceeds the hazardous materials response requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Hazardous Materials Awareness and Operations provides in-depth coverage of: * The properties and effects of hazardous materials and WMDs * How to calculate potential danger and initiate a response plan * Selection, use, advantages, and disadvantages of personal protective equipment * Mass and technical decontamination * Evidence preservation and sampling * Product control * Victim rescue and recovery * Air monitoring and sampling * Illicit laboratory incidents The second edition features: * A new chapter on Fire Smoke designed to teach hazardous materials responders how to prevent, protect, detect, diagnose, and appropriately treat smoke inhalation. * Knowledge and Skills Objectives correlated to the 2013 Edition of NFPA 472, Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents. * Detailed step-by-step skill drills with which include the corresponding NFPA job performance requirement. * Scenario based learning tools including You are the Responder, Responder in Action, and Voices of Experience case studies to encourage critical thinking skills. * Responder Tips and Safety Tips to provide helpful advice from hazardous materials veterans.
Pride and Ownership holds no punches. Chief Rick Lasky takes a hard look at the fire service and finds it short on the only element that makes it effective: passion. Chief Lasky gives an upfront and honest criticism about the need to reignite the love of the job on every level, from chiefs on down. Key Features: * History and traditions of the fire service with overviews of some of the most important fire service leaders, * Detailed explanations of ceremonies for all ocasions from a firefighter's initiation to retirement, * Over 150 photos displaying the rites and ceremonies, * Helpful appendices full of sample documents for fire company use.
Tests were conducted to assess the performance of various residential smoke alarms to kitchen fires and nuisance alarm cooking scenarios. A test structure representing a kitchen, living room and hallway was constructed to conduct the tests. Eight different residential smoke alarms types, two photoelectric models, two ionization models, two dual sensor models, and two multi-sensor, intelligent models were used in this study. The data gathered provided insight into the susceptibility of alarm activation from exposures to typical cooking events and alarm times for actual kitchen fires. The effects on the type of alarm, and its distance from the cooking activity or fire were examined. Combustible materials typically found on a counter top can spread flames to overhead cabinets, and a single empty 0.6 m wide 1.0 m tall cabinet can produce a peak heat release rate nearly sufficient to flashover a small room. A protective metal barrier on the bottom and side facing the range tended to limit the spread of flames to the cabinet and reduce the heat release rate. All smoke alarms responded before hazardous conditions developed. The I1 alarm tended to respond first at a given location. Results show smoke alarms placed at the furthest location may provide less than 120 s of available safe egress time, which suggests a more central alarm location closer to the kitchen for this configuration. Ten cooking activities were examined to determine an alarm s propensity to activate to cooking aerosols. In most cases, the propensity to nuisance alarm decreased as the distance from the cooking source increased. Alarms that rely on sensitive ionization chambers (here I1 and D2) experience more nuisance alarm activations across all cooking activities and locations. All alarms except I1 and D2 experienced about the same nuisance alarm frequency across all cooking activities for locations outside the kitchen.
This report presents the methodology for and results from a series of room-scale fire tests to produce data on the yields of toxic products in both pre-flashover and post-flashover fires. The combustibles examined were: a sofa made of upholstered cushions on a steel frame, particleboard bookcases with a laminated finish, polyvinyl chloride sheet, and household electric cable. They were burned in a room with a long adjacent corridor. The yields of CO2, CO, HCl, HCN, and carbonaceous soot were determined. Other toxicants (e.g., NO2, formaldehyde and acrolein) were not found; concentrations below the detection limits were shown to be of limited toxicological importance relative to the detected toxicants. The toxicant yields from sofa cushion fires in a closed room were similar to those from pre-flashover fires of the same cushions in a room with the door open. The uncertainties in the post-flashover data are smaller due to the higher species concentrations and the more fully established upper layer from which the fire effluent was sampled. The uncertainty values are comparable to those estimated for the fractional effective dose calculations used to determine the time available for escape from a fire. The uncertainty in the yield data from the sofa, bookcase, and cable tests is sufficiently small to determine whether a bench-scale apparatus is producing results that are similar to or different from the real-scale results here. The use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was shown to be a useful tool for obtaining concentration data of toxicants. However, its operation and interpretation is far from routine. The losses of CO, HCN, and HCl as they flowed down the corridor were found to be dependent on the combustible. The downstream to upstream concentration ratios varied from unity for some fuels to a factor of five smaller for others. The CO yield from two of the combustibles was significantly lower than the expected value of 0.2, which should be used in hazard and risk analyses. The accuracy of the results is verified, and a hypothesis is offered for the lower CO yield values.
New technologies and research are redefining the state-of-the-art in building evacuation. The time is right to rethink the entire infrastructure of egress from buildings in light new opportunities to address the economic and life-safety issues. Approximately 40 experts from a variety of disciplinary background assembled in Warrenton, VA from April 1-3, 2008 in order to consider building evacuation, starting with a blank sheet of paper. Structured around the principles of Value-Focused Thinking (a text authored by workshop moderator Ralph Keeney), the participants were encouraged to consider values, objectives, alternatives, and metrics. This process combined the benefits of free-thinking brainstorming with a formalism which encouraged evaluation of the potential for new ideas. By the conclusion of the third day, over 400 ideas had been developed, along with metrics for future evaluation of the ideas.
This report summarizes the measurement results and recommended procedures for responding to building plumbing system contamination incidents and restoring the water system to safe operation. The recommendations are based on analysis of the results of a measurement and modelling research project investigated contamination and decontamination issues related to building plumbing systems.
The objective of this study was to compare the levels of hazard created by room fires in a dormitory building with and without automatic fire sprinklers in the room of fire origin. This report describes a series of experiments where fires were initiated in a dormitory sleeping room. The description of the experimental conditions includes: the geometry and construction of the building, the fuel load in the sleeping rooms, and the location of the instrumentation used to measure gas temperature, oxygen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations and heat flux. Smoke alarm activation and sprinkler activation times are also reported. Five experiments were conducted. In two of the experiments, the door between the sleeping room (room of fire origin) and the corridor was closed. In the other three experiments the door from the sleeping room (room of fire origin) remained open to the corridor. In each case, door closed or door open, one of the experiments was sprinklered. The results from the experiments comparing the sprinklered and non-sprinklered sleeping room are presented. The results from these experiments demonstrate the potential life safety benefits of smoke alarms, compartmentation, and automatic fire sprinkler systems in college dormitories and similar occupancies. These experiments were conducted by NIST in cooperation with the University of Arkansas and the Fayetteville Fire Department.
The purpose of this report is to update calculations, originally performed in 1993, that predict the downwind extent of smoke particulate from hypothetical in situ burns of spilled crude oil in Alaska. The reason for the update is that the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) have changed since 1993. These standards formed the basis for establishing, safe distances for separating potential burning sites from populated areas in Alaska."
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